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Chandigarh Tourism Policy

Tourism Policy


Final Report





March 2003

Submitted by

India Tourism Development Corporation
TLC Marketing Pvt. Ltd.

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India Private Limited

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Contents for the 20 Year perspective Tourism Master Plan

1. Executive Summary 1

2. The approach

a. Guidelines for developing 20 year perspective Master Plans as issued by

the Department of Tourism, Government of India

b. Background of Consortium partners
ii. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
iii. TLC Marketing Pvt Ltd
c. Approach
d. Approach to Environmental Impact Assessment
3. Background on the State 21

a. History

b. Physical features, Flora and Fauna

c. Current infrastructure

i. Access – Road, Rail, Air

ii. Water & Sewage

iii. Power – Electricity

iv. Industrial Estates – list of major corporates

d. Demographics versus other Northern States District Profiles

e. Chandigarh Headquartered Corporate Houses

4. Current Tourism scenario in the State 38

a. Current Chandigarh Tourism Policy

b. Inventory of Accommodation

c. Current Tourism Statistics


20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

i. By city

ii. Comparative with other Indian States – employment, project spends
d. Taxes on Tourism activities

e. Fairs & Festivals

f. Roles of relevant bodies

i. State Tourism Development

ii. Urban Development & Town Planning

iii. Industrial Development

g. Tourism activities of contiguous States

5. Assessment of Tourism Attractions of the State 65

a. How other “City States” have developed tourism

b. Inventory of attractions

i. Versus criteria

ii. By type of tourist and linkages

c. Current State Tourism Policy versus National Tourism Policy

d. Potential markets and market segments for the State

e. Shortlisted projects

f. Approach to Environmental Impact Assessments

6. Marketing State Tourism. Case studies of Kerala, Rajasthan and Uttaranchal 79

7. Implementation of shortlisted projects 90

a. Setting up a system for coordination of Departments

b. Assessing the economic impact of tourism


20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

c. Setting up Police outposts

d. Setting up a system for accreditisation of shops and transporters

e. Creating a Tourist/ Cultural Centre

f. Promoting traditional cuisine

g. Horse race track & Club

h. Amusement park

i. Linking the sightseeing

j. Conference Centre

k. Adventure Tourism and Wildlife Tourism

8. Attracting the Private Sector investments in Tourism
9. Summary Tables 147
a. Prioritisation of projects

b. Job creation

c. Funding of projects

d. Visitor numbers
e. Economic impact



This 20 year perspective Tourism Master Plan for Chandigarh attempts to identify short, medium and long term tourism projects for the Union Territory of Chandigarh using the National Tourism Policy as a guideline.

However, all existing and planned projects of Chandigarh Tourism have also been addressed. In these cases, thoughts that complement/ supplement the current thinking have also been listed.

We have examined the success of several other “City States” and how they have positioned themselves. Very few, like the Vatican, have the benefit of historical attractions. Some like the Bahamas, Bermuda and Mauritius have natural attractions like beaches. Some traditional trading centers like Hong Kong, Singapore and Dubai have developed as financial hubs. In nearly all cases, however, city states have developed man made attractions with an emphasis on world class recreation and leisure.
Gambling – Macau, Monaco & Sun City

Horse Racing in Hong Kong & Dubai

Sporting events – Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai, Monaco and Sun City Entertainment events – in all the above, Seychelles etc.
Interestingly, most do not rely on immediate neighbouring countries as source markets.

Several suggested projects do not have any precedent in India. As such, projections of usage and hence revenues are difficult to make. However, these projects have been endorsed by knowledgeable individuals in the Travel & Tourism industry based on their personal experiences.

The Plan makes some observations on current practice. Several specific actions and projects have been recommended. These have been divided into those projects to develop and sustain tourism infrastructure and those that generate visitors.

These are summarized in the following pages. In all cases, the involvement of the private sector has been examined.

The Plan shortlists the following projects

Basic Tourism Infrastructure Projects

1. Setting up a system of coordination between Departments through a “Mission approach” on the lines of Rajasthan’s Rajiv Gandhi Mission on Tourism Development
a. Coordination between Chandigarh Tourism/ Chandigarh Hotels/ Town Planning/ PWD (B&R)/ PHD/ Police/ Trade Associations/ NHAI/ Indian Railways
b. The Mission should have a mission statement, a manageable number of objectives and specific activity milestones for effective review.

2. Assessing the Economic Impact of Tourism in Chandigarh. Tourism will not get the attention it deserves unless it can demonstrate the economic and social benefits it generates.
a. We have suggested annual surveys and the use of multipliers to measure the impact of tourism investments and of tourist spendings

3. Tourism Police outposts. Safety and security are a major concern of travelers.

a. We have suggested Tourism Police outposts be set up in the proposed “Tourist Centres” in Chandigarh. The list of locations can be expanded over the Plan period.

4. Accreditisation of Shops and transporters. These are two areas where most tourists feel most insecure in terms of being cheated.
a. For shops, we have suggested accreditising shops that have price tagged items and a reasonable return/ refund policy. Shops will carry a Chandigarh Tourism plaque and be advertised in an official map.
For Taxis/ auto rickshaws. Must be metered and carry tariff cards. These will be identified with a plaque

5. Cultural/ Tourism Information Centre. This should showcase Chandigarh and be a cross between Dilli Haat and The National Crafts Museum. This center should provide information and reservation capabilities for potential tourists to Chandigarh and neighbouring States. These will provide employment to artisans/ performing artists
a. We recommend arts/ crafts, State cuisine and performing arts be showcased

b. We recommend some permanent stalls backed by open spaces for stall for celebrating State festivals
c. Incorporated into “Recreation & Leisure Centres” in Kishangarh

6. Promoting Traditional Cuisines. Chandigarh has eight neighbouring States each with a rich cultural tradition. We propose that food and cultural festivals be held on a regular basis. We further propose that the existing facility of Kalagram, which has held successful festivals in the past, be utilised.

7. Horse Race Track & Club. There is no good Horse Race track in North India. North India is also home to about 10 stud farms. Hotels in cities like Pune and Bangalore have their week end occupancies boosted by punters from major metros. The Race Club can have other facilities to attract a permanent membership.

8. Amusement park. The Rock Garden/ Sukhna Lake/ Golf Course area is already one hub of tourist activity. An area for an amusement park, for a Sports Complex and a Tourist Health Resort have already been ear-marked in the Chandigarh Master Plan. We propose the Amusement Park be marketed to families traveling Delhi- Shimla with young children to encourage an overnight break.

9. Linking the sightseeing. The distance between the Rock Garden and the area identified for the Amusement park is a long walk but a short auto-rickshaw ride. We propose a vintage narrow gauge railway be set up to link all the points in this Recreation & Entertainment area.

10. Conference Center to attract Business Travellers. Chandigarh Tourism has already identified a plot in Sector 31 next to the CII Regional HQ. We believe that this can cement Chandigarh as the commercial center of North India.

11. Developing the City Centre – Sector 17 – as a social and cultural hub. There is already a trend in this direction. We recommend a partnership between the Sector 17 shop owners and Chandigarh Tourism to develop a calendar of events. We also recommend a relaxation in Excise rules in terms of bar licence costs and hours of operation.

12. Adventure Tourism & Wildlife Tourism. We do not recommend any additional activity in this area other than the ongoing levels.

13. Attracting the Private Sector. We have recommended a package of incentives to attract the Private Sector to invest in tourism related projects in Chandigarh. In all visitor generating projects we have recommended roles for the private sector

As a “City State”, Chandigarh does not have the scope – or the space - to develop new projects over a 20 year time span. There is no particular need either in terms of funds or manpower to spread the suggested projects.

Guidelines of Dept. of Tourism for 20 year Perspective Tourism Master Plans

1. Year wise phasing of investments required having regard to resources available

2. Plan should indicate short term & long term plans, targets and ground realities.

3. Plan should indicate all activities by agency with timeframes

4. Assess the existing tourism scenario in the state/UT with respect to existing traffic levels and inventory of
- Natural resources

- Heritage & other socio-cultural assets

- Quantitative/ demographic factors

- Services & infrastructure available

5. Plan should review the status of existing development/ investment for the development of tourism in the region
6. List and evaluate existing potential tourist destinations and centers and categorise them on the basis of
- inventory of attractions

- infrastructure available

- degree of popularity

- volume of traffic flow

7. Plan should analyse and categorise existing destinations and centers as

- stand alone

- part of a circuit

- niche attractions for special interests

8. Plan should assess the existing infrastructure levels at identified destinations/ centers in terms of
- quality of roads/ transportation facilities

- civic amenities

- en route transit facilities

- boarding and lodging facilities

9. Plan should assess traffic flow for assessment of infrastructure requirements based on

- Past growth

- Suggested links and integration

- Future expected developments

- Likely investments from State

- Investment climate/ incentive for private sector

10. Plan should attempt indicative cost configuration of likely investment on infrastructure under different heads and prioritise investment needs over 20 years
11. Plan should identify existing as well as new tourism projects including

- expansion/ augmentation,

- upgradation of services/ facilities

- Destinations & centers

12. Plan should undertake product conceptualization cum feasibility for identified projects covering
- locational evaluation

- schematic product planning

- quantification of individual product parameters

- assessment of investment levels

- project viability

13. Action plan for implementation of identified projects along with development of infrastructure in conformity with
- State/ Central policy objectives & guidelines

- National development and funding agencies

- WTO’s Bali declaration

14. Project wise potential for employment generation including for women

15. Projection of domestic and foreign tourist arrivals for each proposed tourist place

16. Prioritise schemes based on employment potential and tourist arrivals

17. Prepare inventory of existing accommodation including paying guest and proposed needs split by various providers including various State Govt depts
18. Each project to be scutinised and finalized with a view to suggesting State Tourism projects to foreign funding agencies
19. Explore sources of funding such as FIs, TFCI.

- Suggest incentives for private sector

20. Suggest institutional machinery in the State to oversee/ supervise the development of Tourism infrastructure
21. Build in facilities for performance of local artistes, cultural troupes

22. Cultural complexes to be suggested with the financial help of the State Dept of culture

23. Handicraft shops to be suggested. These can be run by women

24. Include development of potential health resorts.

25. Plan should have an Executive summary

26. Plan should include attractive packages/ schemes to attract private sector investments
27. Environmental issues shouls be dealt with in sufficient detail and EIA made in respect of new projects
28. Plans should include

- carrying capacities

- instruments of spatial and land use planning

- instruments for architectural controls

- strategy for local community participation & protection of cultural identity

- Awareness programmes for local

29. Measures for mitigating adverse environmental impact and rehabilitation

30. Strategy for privatisation of State and State Tourism Corp owned tourism related properties

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan


We believe that 20-year Tourism Master Plans require detailed knowledge in several domains. To address this need we have formed a consortium of experts. The consortium comprises of

India Tourism Development Corporation – ITDC – Consultancy Division with relevant past experience in Master Plans, Technical Consultancy and project execution.
TLC Marketing Pvt.Ltd, a marketing consultancy empanelled by The World Tourism Organisation (WTO), Madrid for various aspects of Tourism Development. TLC Marketing will ensure a balanced tourism plan that is marketable to both developers and the Tourist industry
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, an international firm of Chartered Accountants and consultants with a wide range of experience in perspective planning in various industries. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu also have access to their global expertise in the area of Tourism Master Planning.


India Tourism Development Corporation

ITDC was established in 1966 with the objective of developing tourism infrastructure and promoting India as a tourism destination. ITDC has a Consultancy Division which has completed many projects. ITDC has the capability of conducting Techno-Economic feasibility studies, providing Engineering and Technical Services, Mangement Consultancy and Advisory services, consultancy for Adventure Tourism.

Assignments already completed by ITDC include

Feasibility Reports for hotel projects in Baroda, Calicut, Cochin, Kanpur, Kohlapur, Lucknow, Nagpur, Nainital, Pine, Rishikesh, Varanasi, Raipur, New Delhi, Calcutta, Bangalore and Agartala

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan

Tourism Master Plans for Assam, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry, Sikkim, Punjab and Tripura.
Technical consultancy for multiple hotels, youth hostels, forest lodges and restaurants
Special projects for Rail Yatri Niwas, Indian Railways Catering, College of Combat, Institute of Water Sports at Goa.
Project consultancy/ Execution – 28 hotels, the IITTM in Gwalior.

TLC Marketing Pvt Ltd.

The Directors of TLC Marketing have been involved with Tourism Development for almost 30 years and have had exposure to Tourism Planning in Egypt, Mexico and India. This has been mainly from the project developer’s aspect and are familiar with the requirements of the parties that invest in Tourism Development. They are also familiar with all aspects of tourism including resorts, cruises, timeshare, charters, conferences etc. Some relevant projects undertaken by the directors of TLC Marketing include

Study for the India Convention Promotion Bureau on promoting conferences of various sizes to India
Assignment with The Planning Commission for Tourism Development Plans for Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh. This included the development of a “tourist train” concept

Review of Hotel classification norms covering Heritage and Resort hotels for the Govt. of India, Department of Tourism
Feasibility studies for business and leisure hotels at over 40 destinations all India. Entry strategy for a hotel company into India looking at mid level hotels. This involves studying business destinations across India
Strategy for a chain of Ayurvedic Spas, initially in the North of India Entry strategy into Timeshare for both mid-market and Luxury Resorts Launch of an Outbound Adventure Tour Operator

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India Private Limited

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu believes that for achieving a client’s business objectives, a variety of knowledge and skills are required. Our national coverage and international experience allows access to professionals in the industry and other areas of specialisations. Our clients include government bodies, non-government organisations, public sector organisations, private companies and international agencies.

Brief details of some of our assignments in the hospitality, tourism and entertainment sectors is set out below:

International assignments in hospitality and the tourism sector are detailed below:

• Privatisation of Hungary Hotels, which comprises some 45 hotels and over 250 restaurants, in association with the Swiss Bank Corporation and Cazenove & Co. Our UK offices worked with our Budapest office on this extensive assignment.
• Business valuation of Astir Hotel Company. We assisted the National Bank of Greece on the proposed sales as part of the Government’s privatisation programme.

• Advised the public enterprises reform and divestiture secretariat of the Ministry of Finance, Government of Uganda, on the divestiture of Government owned hotels.

• Valuation of four state-owned hotels in Morocco prior to their intended privatisation and sale for the Government of Morocco. In conjunction with the Deloitte & Touche Corporate Finance Group, investment memoranda were subsequently prepared to assist in the privatisation process.

Indian assignments in Hospitality and Tourism Sector

• Strategic advice to Quality Inns Private Limited.

• Business plan for a holiday resort based in Kerala. This is under implementation.

• Advisory services provided to an international chain of hotels

• Business advisory services for Resort Condominiums International

• Business advisory services for Singapore based company, for setting up operations in India in the area of serviced apartments and estate development.

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan

• Business valuation and due diligence review for Landbase India Limited,

• Business advisory services for The Radisson Hotel.

• Entry strategy, valuation, negotiations and joint venture identification for Keystone and Venkys.

• Trade survey for travel agents and tour operators for a large multinational company.

• Review of project parameters and returns compiled for the airport expansion planned for Chennai by the Airports Authority of India.

• Economic Feasibility study for setting up a permanent Trade Fair Venue, Madras International Exposition Limited, under the aegis of Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO).

Privatisation/ Disinvestment experience

• Bharat Heavy Plates & Vessels Ltd., Visakhapatnam

• RBL Limited, Calcutta

• Tractors Corporation Limited

• Bharat Goldmines Limited

• Lamps Division of HMT Limited

• Paradeep Phosphates Limited

Ongoing disinvestments assignments include

• IDCOL Cement Limited

• The Fertiliser and Chemicals Travancore Limited

• Instrumentation Limited

• Braithewaite & Co. Limited

• Bharat Heavy Plate limited

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan


Our approach is as follows

1. Review existing Tourism Policy

a. This is reviewed in conjunction with stated National Tourism Policy as State Tourism activities should be in synch with National Policy
b. Thisis also reviewed in terms of “Best Practice” of other Indian States and some Internationally successful players.
2. Validate Proposed projects

a. Plans still to be implemented were reviewed to validate their broad feasibility
3. Suggest new Tourism Products

a. This is done with costs, revenues, timelines and responsibilities.

b. A broad Economic Impact assessment is made for each suggested product for both primary and secondary effects.


Our objective is to develop 20-year Perspective Tourism Master Plans that encourage sustainable tourism by achieving a balance between the growth of tourism on one hand and the impact on natural, heritage and cultural resources on the other.


The Critical Criteria would be that the Plan should be viable. In other words, it should be attractive and marketable to all agencies involved – The traveler, the Travel industry, State and Government agencies, Financial Institutions, Tourism project developers and last but not least to the local population.

The Plan will

Clearly indicate short term and long term projects and targets

Identify agencies involved and the actions required to be taken by each

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan

Ensure that each action will have a time frame and an indicative cost

Ensure each project will also indicate possible developers and possible sources of funding. Financial structuring arrangements, where relevant will also be indicated. Endeavour to involve the private sector in the development of the plans. This will ensure a buy-in to the finished product.
Be based on secondary data – published data, supplied by the State and information obtained in discussions with informed individuals.




Identify existing and

- attractions
- Infrastructure
- Access
- Environmental impact
- Human factors





Tourist products

around each





Identify each

element, the
sources of

incentives etc



Shortlist projects, prioritise over 20 years.

- Tourist projections
- Employment and other economic benefits

Identifying the attractions – the reasons for visiting.

1. The first step would be to make an inventory of all possible visitor attractions both current and potential. These would be studied under

a. Long stay – natural and activity resorts such as hill/ beach/ health & fitness/ sports/ wildlife/ shopping and other activities

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan

b. Short Stay destination – Business visitors, conferences, weekend stays, pilgrimage
c. Short stay itinerary – where the attraction is part of an itinerary and dependent on other links
2. Each attraction will be assessed for “Carrying capacity” using absolute numbers as well as indices such as Tourists/, Tourists/ 1000 population. This assessment will use international benchmarks and Best Practices.
3. The Environmental sensitivities will be addressed by a strategy to measure the impact on

a. Air quality

b. Water and water bodies

c. Nature, both flora and fauna

d. And on the attraction itself.

4. Based on the above, an assessment of the present and future needs of infrastructural services will be undertaken to cover
a. Water

b. Electricity

c. Sewage and waste disposal

d. Communications

5. Based on the potential markets for visiting the attraction, an assessment of the present and future requirements for access will be identified by
a. Road

b. Rail

c. Air

d. Water transport

6. There are Human Factors that will also be addressed. These will cover

a. Employment

b. Inflationary impact

c. Cultural impact

d. Alienation of locals/ Displacement

20 year Perspective

Tourism Master Plan

Identifying and Conceptualising Specific Tourism Products

Having assessed the attractions available and the broad feasibility of each, the Plan will e develop a balanced Tourist product around each attraction. The Tourist product consists of the following

1. The attraction – the reason for the visit

2. Accommodation – requirements at each level

a. Propose incentives for balanced development

3. Recreational facilities – to supplement the attraction. Eg. a hill resort could have rock climbing, paragliding, river & lake fishing, golf, entertainment and shopping

4. Local transportation

a. Airport/ station transfers, shuttles, city sightseeing, public transportation

5. Information

a. Signage, guides, brochures, photo ops

6. Wayside amenities

a. Rest stops, service stations

7. Safety & Security

a. Accreditisation of shops etc

b. Tourism police

Detailed Analysis and Final Recommendations

After identifying the Tourism Products to be developed, the Plan will prioritise them over the 20-year perspective, each project will be analysed to detail
The key agencies/ organizations involved in developing the product The investment required
Identify possible investors and sources of funds and the processes to access these Possible incentives for the development
Identify environmentally threatened places and buildings for restoration.

Projection of tourist numbers – domestic and international

Employment potential – occupations and income levels

Other economic, social and cultural benefits

Suggestions on marketing the products

Environmental Impact Assessment Studies

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies are complex exercises. They are also dependent on the specific projects. For example, projects next to water bodies would require a much deeper assessment of impact on water than other projects that would confine the study to the impact on ground water resources.

In the Technical Bid for this project, the Consortium had clearly stated that we are not competent to undertake EIA and would not include them in the final report. However, we are listing out the essential aspects of EIAs. Each attribute must be monitored on a regular basis. Frequency of monitoring may vary from daily for some air samples to annually for soil characteristics.

EIAs are best undertaken by specialist organizations like TERI, TARA etc.

Attribute Parameters

Ambient air quality SPM, RPM, SO2, NO2, CO, CO2, HC etc. Usually 24
hour samples twice a week.

Meteorology Surface wind speed and direction, temperatures, relative
humidity, rainfall

Water quality Physical, Chemical and bacteriological parameters of
surface and ground water

Ecology Existing flora and fauna. For environmentally sensitive
projects, inventory and state of health

Noise levels Noise levels in DB(A)

Light Lighting levels and impact on fauna, insects

Soil Characteristics Parameters relating to agriculture and afforestation

Land use Trends in land use change for different categories

Socio Economic aspects Socio-economic characteristics, labour force
characteristics, population statistics and existing
amenities, current inflation

Geology and mining Geological history, minerals

Hydrology Drainage area and pattern, nature of streams, acquifier
characteristics of the area

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


India attained Independence in 1947; but in the process the territory of British India was partitioned to form India and Pakistan. The large and prosperous Province of Punjab, was divided and Lahore, its capital, fell within the borders of Pakistan, leaving Indian Punjab without a capital. Those who had been compelled to migrate to India keenly felt the loss of Lahore, a city much loved by its inhabitants. Though there was a temporary secretariat at Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, the political leadership decided on the construction of a modern and accessible capital.

In March 1948, the Government of Punjab in consultation with the Government of India approved a 114.59 sq. km tract of land at the foot of the Shivalik Hills in Ropar district as the site of the new capital. The city was named after the Mother Goddess Chandi, (Chandi - Goddess of Power + garh - fortress). The temple of the Goddess is on Chandigarh-Kalka Road. The temple is known by the name of Chandi Mandir.

Prior to the construction of Chandigarh, the present site was a typical rural tract, with a rainfed subsistence agricultural economy. It was dotted with 24 village settlements, surrounded by cultivated land parcelled into consolidated irregular, small fields.

Each settlement had a number of mango groves remnants of which are still visible in parts of the city. There were banyan or pipal trees within the settlements or near village ponds. The majority of houses were kutcha or partially pucca.

Among the physical features, the choes, with their broad, shallow, and dry sandy beds, constituted an important element of landscape. These represented undulations in an otherwise level topography. Hills and mountains provided a panoramic background.

The new city was needed not only to serve as a capital but also to resettle thousands of refugees who had been uprooted from West Punjab. India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru enthusiastically supported the project and took sustained interest in its

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

execution. When he visited the project on April 2, 1952, he declared: “Let this be a new town symbolic of the freedom of India, unfettered by the traditions of the past, an expression of the nation’s faith in the future.... The new capital of Punjab will be
christened as Chandigarh-a name symbolic of the valiant spirit of the Punjabis. Chandigarh is rightly associated with the name of Goddess Chandi — Shakti, or power.”

The responsibility for the design was given to the French architect Le Corbusier or the Crow. With the help of his cousin Pierre Jeanneret, and that of the English couple Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew (alongwith a number of Indian architects prominent amongst them Chief planner Narinder S. Lamba & Chief Engineer J.C. Verma) Chandigarh, the present capital, came into existence at the foothills of the Shivaliks.

Profile of People

It was built in 1953 and serves as the capital of two states, i.e. Punjab and Haryana. It is administered by the Central Government and is hence classified as an Union Territory. Since 1986 there has been much talk about officially handling it to Punjab on the basis of demography. The issue however continues to be a matter of discussion with many political disputes.

Chandigarh had to be a city of migrants as it was built on the land acquired and cleared of existing settlements. One of its objectives was to rehabilitate persons displaced from Pakistan in 1947. Early settlers in the city were government officials transferred from Shimla, the temporary capital of Punjab after partition and displaced persons from Pakistan in search of a new home.

According to 1991 census data, around two-third of the city's population were migrants, the remaining one-third were locally born. About one-third of the migrants hail from Punjab, Uttar Pradesh comes next, having contributed one-fifth of them. Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi are other important contributors of migrants. The city has

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

attracted migrants from distant states, such as Bihar, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Maharashtra. The number of migrants from Nepal is also considerable.

Over one-half of migrants to Chandigarh came from other urban places; the rest had a rural base. An urban origin was more typical of migrants from nearby states, such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and Jammu and Kashmir. Migrants from relatively distant states, such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Tamil Nadu, mostly had a rural origin.

According 1991 census the Pakistan-born displaced persons reduced to about 4% of all in-migrants. In the early sixties, they accounted for nearly 40% of the total population.



Chandigarh is located in the Northern part of India and bound by two states, Chandigarh has Punjab to its north and west and Haryana to its south and east. Chandigarh lies at 30o 44'N latitude, 76o 53"E longitude.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Chandigarh Map

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


Road Transportation

The Union Territory of Chandigarh is well served with by an excellent network of roads.

The National Highway 21 ( Ambala – Simla) and 22 ( Chandigarh – Manali) link

Chandigarh to rest of the country

Buses of seven State Road Corporations connect Chandigarh with many cities and towns of neighboring states. The important cities that are connected by buses with Chandigarh are Delhi, Dehradoon, Simla, Manali, Jammu and major Towns of Punjab and Haryana.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

National Highway Development Project – Golden Quadrilateral & North South East West Corridors

Note: Red Line: North South East West Corridors

Blue Line: Golden Quadrilateral

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Chandigarh Rail Network :

Rail Transportation

Chandigarh is well connected on the rail network. The main railway routes passing through Haryana are: Kalka-Delhi, Chandigarh-Delhi, Kalka-Amritsar, Kalka-Jodhpur,Kalka-Hawrah,Amritsar-Hawrah, Kalka- Sir Ganganagar (Rajasthan).

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Chandigarh Air Network:

Air Transportation

Chandigarh Airport is 12 kms. from City Centre, Indian Airlines and Jet Airways connect Chandigarh with Delhi, Leh and Amritsar. Jet has daily flights Delhi – Chandigarh – Delhi. Indian Airlines has a weekly flight Leh – Chandigarh – Leh.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Physical Features

The geographical area of the U.T. Chandigarh is 114 sq. km. and another 25.42 sq. km. of the hilly area, which has now been declared as 'Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary' was acquired for soil conservation works. Chandigarh lies at 280 feet above sea level, with an average altitude of 362m (m.s.l.). The location of Chandigarh is unique as it lies in the foot hill region and is also adjacent to the plains of north India. As such it contains the vegetation of the foot hills and the north Indian plains.Chandigarh has 27 villages in its jurisdiction and two satellite towns, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, conveniently shortened to SAS Nagar, now Mohali, in the Punjab territory and Panchkula in the Haryana territory.


Four seasons are noticeable as (i) the rainy season (late-June to mid-September); (ii) the post monsoon or transition season (mid September to mid-November); (iii) the winter of cold season (mid November to mid-March) and (iv) summer or hot season (mid-March to Mid-June). Southwest monsoons commence in late June and usually continue up to mid-September when there are high intensity showers and the weather is hot and humid.

May and June are the hottest months of the year with mean daily maximum temperature being about 40oC and mean daily minimum temperature being about 25oC.January is the coldest month with a mean maximum being around 24oC and a mean minimum being around 1.8oC.


In the small and large water bodies there are about a dozen types of fishes, of which Mahseer , Thail and Rohu are more well known. The common frog is Rana tigrina (Indian Tiger Frog) but the other ones are Indian Rice Frog and Indian Burrowing Frog.

Two types of tortoise are found. Three four types of lizards are found in buildings, lawns, hedges, etc. and one of these attracts the attention by its brilliant vermilion colour during mating season. Snakes are of quite a many types as Russels Viper, Cobra, Blind Snake, Indian Python, Sand Cobra, Rat Snake etc.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Chandigarh has numerous types and the permanent population of birds, which may consist of over 100 different kinds. There are also migratory birds visiting during winter from as far off a region as Siberia. It is estimated that about 100 to 200 types of birds primarily visit Sukhna Lake. The number of migratory birds varies from year to year.

The common mammals are Grey Musk, Shrew Monkey, Langur, Flying Fox, Tickellis Bat, Stripped Squirrel, Indian Rat, Common Rat, House Mouse, Porcupine, Indian Hare, Common Mongoose, Stripped Hyena, Jackal, Indian Fox, Nilgai, Blackbuck and Chital.


The flora of Chandigarh area is in fact very rich, existence of 860 species of flowering plants in Chandigarh and its neighborhood. This excludes the ornamentals species whose number is anybody's guess because amongst the residents of Chandigarh and neighboring areas garden culture and love for ornamental herbs and shrubs is fast growing.

Chandigarh region is home to number of plant species with Medicinal importance. Areas like Shivalik Reserve Forests, Sukhna Catchment area, Rock Garden, Rose Garden, adjoining villages, are among the various places where different kinds of Medicinal plants and few to endangered species of the same can be found.

The most fascinating feature of the City's landscaping is perhaps the Tree Plantation along avenues, open spaces, green belts and around building complexes. The total forest cover in Chandigarh is 32.42 sq. km., which forms 23.5% of the total area. The green spaces like Parks, Gardens, Green belts, Leisure valley and Road avenues etc. are in addition to the forest cover of 23.5 %. Thus the green cover in the city is more than 33 % with 26 types of flowering trees and 33 types of evergreen trees in Chandigarh.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


Unit Year Haryana Himachal Jammu & Madhya Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Delhi Chandi All India
Pradesh Kashmir Pardesh Pradesh garh

Sq.Km. 1982 44212 55673 222236 443446 50362 342239 294411 1483 114 3287263
Share in India Percent 1982 1.34 1.69 6.76 13.49 1.53 10.41 8.96 0.05 0 100
Population Million 1991 16.46 5.17 7.72 66.18 20.28 44 139.11 9.42 0.64 846.3
Share in India Percent 1991 1.94 0.61 0.91 7.82 2.4 5.2 16.44 1.11 0.08 100
Population Density Per 1991 372 93.0 76.0 149.0 403.0 129.0 473.0 6352.0 5632.0 274.0
Avg Annual Growth in Percent 1981-91 2.42 1.89 2.54 2.38 1.89 2.5 2.27 4.15 3.54 2.14
Population (1981-91)

Population (Projection) Million 2001 20.1 6.8 10.1 81.2 23.8 54.5 174.3 14.4 0.8 1012.4
Urban Population (Projection) Million 2001 27.5 - - 26.9 31.9 25.4 22.7 - - 28.8
Sex Ratio Females/ 1991 865 976 923 931 882 910 879 827 790 927

Urbanisation Ratio Percent 1991 24.6 8.7 25.5 23.2 29.5 23.0 19.8 90.0 89.7 27.0
Urban Density Per 1991 5309 2114 3132 6054 4997 2238 4364 14313 8433 4092
Death Rate Per '000 1996 8.1 8 - 11.1 7.5 8.9 10.2 6.05 4.1 9
Live Birth Rate Per '000 1996 28.2 23 - 32.4 23.5 32.3 34 24.6 16.9 27.5
Work Participation Rate Percent 1991 31 42.83 NA 42.82 30.88 38.87 32.20 31.64 34.94 37.46
Male Percent 1991 48.51 50.64 NA 52.26 54.22 49.30 49.68 51.72 54.34 51.55
Female Percent 1911 10.76 34.81 NA 32.68 4.40 27.40 12.32 7.36 10.39 22.25

Source: PHD Chambers of Commerce.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


Unit Year Haryana Himachal Jammu & Madhya Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Delhi All India
Pradesh Kashmir Pardesh Pradesh
Net State Domestic Product
(NSDP) at Factor Cost*:
- At current prices Rs. Million 1998-89 383990 49310 58120 610187.8 342900 **586500 1527260 365040 8755940
- At 1980-81 prices Rs. Million 1997-98 75450 $14,190 #17540 147480 101420 @116480 273650 *75740 323820
- At 1993-94 prices Rs. Million 1998-99 254090 NA NA NA NA **379720 971390 251650 NA
NSDP Growth 1980-81 prices Percent 1997-98 1.1 NA NA 3.1 2 @0.4 2.2 3.3 87.3
Gross State Domestric Product Rs. Million 1997-98 374270 65040 72930 708320 503580 678050 1299770 445100 NA
Per Capita Income at 1993-94 Rs. 1998-99 13084 8864 6658 7350 15504 7694 5890 19091 9739
Prices* 2.00
Sectoral Shares:
- Agriculture Percent 1997-98 39 27.6 43 41.4 44 **34.2 37 1 31
- Industry Percent 1997-98 21 32.3 8 26.3 15 **24.088 20 83 28
- Services Percent 1997-98 40 40.1 49 32.3 41 **41.72 43 16 41
Sectoral Growth Rates:
- Agriculture Percent 1995-96 -6 9 4 -2 0 -6 2 -40 -1
- Forestry & Logging Percent 1995-96 7 10 5 -12 1 2 -25 - -1
- Fishing Percent 1995-96 16 10 14 15 8 -12 6 3 5
- Mining & Quarrying Percent 1995-96 1 14 10 5 16 -18 1 -58 7
- Manufacturing Percent 1995-96 9 13 3 11 10 6 4 13 14
Per Capita Consumption Rs. 1995 5127 4347 7080 3442 5750 4503 3852 NA NA

* Note: Owing 10 differences in source material used, figures for different States are not strictly comparable.
$: 1995-96 #: 1996-97 @: 1998-99 **: 1999-2000

Source: PHD Chambers of Commerce.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


Haryana Himachal Jammu & Madhya Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Delhi
Pradesh Kashmir Pardesh Pradesh Chandigarh

With effect from Jul-00 Jan-99 Mar-93 Mar-00 Nov.99 Feb-00 Jan-96
UNSKILLED 1914.86 1530 NA 825 1796.5 1560 1920 2419 1350
SEMI UNSKILLED A 1964.86 1695 NA 928 1941.55 928 2220 2585 1495
SKILLED A 2039.86 1950 NA 1032 2104.55 1032 2660 2843 1657
SKILLED B 2064.86 NA NA NA 1983.45 NA NA NA NA


Recognised Educational Institutions in Northern Region (1998 - 99)

State University Professional Colleges for High Middle / Sr.Basic Primary/Jr.
* Education general Education School/Jr. School Basic
College School

HARYANA 5.00 45.00 169.00 3785.00 1788.00 10269.00
HIMACHAL PRADESH 3.00 6.00 557.00 1525.00 1189.00 7732.00
JAMMU & KASHMIR 3.00 12.00 38.00 1351.00 3104.00 10483.00
MADHYA PRADESH 17.00 70.00 413.00 8341.00 21108.00 86858.00
PUNJAB 5.00 64.00 193.00 3325.00 2527.00 12633.00
RAJASTHAN 10.00 70.00 267.00 5633.00 14807.00 35077.00
UTTAR PRADESH 28.00 174.00 676.00 8339.00 20675.00 94476.00
DELHI 11.00 24.00 64.00 1459.00 601.00 2676.00
CHANDIGARH 2.00 7.00 12.00 107.00 34.00 48.00
NORTHERN REGION 84.00 472.00 2389.00 33865.00 65833.00 260252.00
% TO ALL INDIA 35.44 22.17 31.88 30.12 34.62 41.52
INDIA 237.00 2129.00 7494.00 112438.00 190166.00 626737.00

* Includes Deemed Universities and Institutes off National Importance

Source: PHD Chambers of Commerce.

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


Items Unit Period
1990-91 1998-99 1999-2K 2000 - 01
1 2 3 4 5 6

No. of Water Works Nos. NA 5 5 5

No. of Metered Connection Nos. 74892 82184 84294 120000

No. of Un-metered Nos. 9360 23464 23656 20241


(A) Domestic Kiloliters 67933 5227262 5334897 5943761

(B) Commercial / Industrial Kiloliters 7992 1833205 1881295 4940444

Per Capita Consumption Kiloliters 97 70 67 95

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


Items Unit Period
1990-91 1998-99 1999-2K 2000 - 01
1 2 3 4 5 6

Electricity Consumed Lakh KWH 5240.80 8401.89 8491.04 8715.36
Per capita Consumption KWH 816 988 964 955
Agricultural Consumption Lakh KWH 12.71 25.58 26.59 23.02
Industrial Consumption Lakh KWH 2005.16 1792.34 1865.46 1916.35

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh


2001 - CENSUS (P)

Population Total Rural Urban
Population as per 2001 Persons 900914 92118 808796
Males 508224 56837 451387

Females 392690 35281 357409
Decennial Population Growth Absolute 258899 25932 232967
1991 - 2001 %age +40.33 +39.18 +40.46

Density of Population Sex PerSq.Kms 7903 2658 10194
Ratio No.of females per 1000 773 621 792

Population of 0-6 years*

(I) Absolute 109293 14007 95286
Persons Males
59238 7562 51676
Females 50055 6445 43610
(II) Percentage of Total 12.13 15.21 11.78
Population Persons Males
11.66 13.30 11.45

Females 12.75 18.27 12.20
Literacy : (I) Absolute 647208 59547 587661
Persons Males
384563 40178 344385
Females 262645 19369 243276
(II) Literacy Rate 81.76 76.23 82.36
Persons Males
85.65 81.54 86.16
Females 76.65 67.17 77.53

* 6 years means completed 6 years as on 01.03.2001

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Chandigarh Corporates

Name of the Organisation State
Amrit Banaspati Co. Ltd. Chandigarh
Bank of Punjab Limited Chandigarh
Bhushan Industires Limited Chandigarh
Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd Chandigarh
Chandigarh Distillers & Bottlers Ltd. Chandigarh
Chandigarh Industrial & Tourism Development Corporation Chandigarh
Control & Switch Gear Company Ltd. Chandigarh
Dhillon Kool Drinks & Beverages Chandigarh
Golden Laminates Limited Chandigarh
Gorz-Beckert Asia Ltd Chandigarh
Guru Nanak Paper Mills Ltd. Chandigarh
IPF - Vikram India Ltd. Chandigarh
Indian Acrylics Limited Chandigarh
Indo - Swift Limited Chandigarh
Industrial Cables India Limited Chandigarh
JC Coach Builders Limited Chandigarh
Kamla Dials & Devices Ltd. Chandigarh
Khandelia Oil & General Limited Chandigarh
Metro Expoters Limited Chandigarh
Modern Steel Limited Chandigarh
Mohan Meaken Limited Mohangram (Chandigarh)
Munak Chemicals Limited Chandigarh
PCP International Ltd. Chandigarh
Punjab Alkalies & Chemicals Ltd Chandigarh
Punjab Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd Chandigarh
Punjab State Civil Supplies Corpn. Ltd Chandigarh
The Punjab State Co-oop Milk Producer's Federations Ltd Chandigarh
Rana Polycot Limited Chandigarh
Shivalik Agro Poly Product Limited Chandigarh
Singhania & Co. Chandigarh
Surya Medicare Limited Chandigarh
Variendera Agro Chemicals Limited Chandigarh
Winsome Textiles Industries Ltd Chandigarh


2001 - CENSUS (P)

Population Total Rural Urban
Population as per 2001 900914 92118 808796
Census Persons Males 508224 56837 451387
Females 392690 35281 357409
Decennial Population 258899 25932 232967
Growth 1991 - 2001 Absolute %age +40.33 +39.18 +40.46
Density of Population PerSq.Kms 7903 2658 10194
Sex Ratio No.of females 773 621 792
per 1000 Males

Population of 0-6 years*
(I) Absolute 109293 14007 95286
Persons Males 59238 7562 51676
Females 50055 6445 43610
(II) Percentage of 12.13 15.21 11.78
Total Population Persons Males 11.66 13.30 11.45
Females 12.75 18.27 12.20
Literacy : (I) Absolute 647208 59547 587661
Persons Males 384563 40178 344385
Females 262645 19369 243276
(II) Literacy Rate 81.76 76.23 82.36
Persons Males 85.65 81.54 86.16
Females 76.65 67.17 77.53

* 6 years means completed 6 years as on 01.03.2001

Name of the Organisation State
Amrit Banaspati Co. Ltd. Chandigarh
Bank of Punjab Limited Chandigarh
Bhushan Industires Limited Chandigarh
Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd Chandigarh
Chandigarh Distillers & Bottlers Ltd. Chandigarh
Chandigarh Industrial & Tourism Development Corporation Chandigarh
Control & Switch Gear Company Ltd. Chandigarh
Dhillon Kool Drinks & Beverages Chandigarh
Golden Laminates Limited Chandigarh
Gorz-Beckert Asia Ltd Chandigarh
Guru Nanak Paper Mills Ltd. Chandigarh
IPF - Vikram India Ltd. Chandigarh
Indian Acrylics Limited Chandigarh
Indo - Swift Limited Chandigarh
Industrial Cables India Limited Chandigarh
JC Coach Builders Limited Chandigarh
Kamla Dials & Devices Ltd. Chandigarh
Khandelia Oil & General Limited Chandigarh
Metro Expoters Limited Chandigarh
Modern Steel Limited Chandigarh
Mohan Meaken Limited Mohangram (Chandigarh)
Munak Chemicals Limited Chandigarh
PCP International Ltd. Chandigarh
Punjab Alkalies & Chemicals Ltd Chandigarh
Punjab Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd Chandigarh
Punjab State Civil Supplies Corpn. Ltd Chandigarh
The Punjab State Co-oop Milk Producer's Federations Ltd Chandigarh
Rana Polycot Limited Chandigarh
Shivalik Agro Poly Product Limited Chandigarh
Singhania & Co. Chandigarh
Surya Medicare Limited Chandigarh
Variendera Agro Chemicals Limited Chandigarh
Winsome Textiles Industries Ltd Chandigarh

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

Chandigarh Tourism Policy

Chandigarh Tourism has declared the following vision

“ Tourism as a major industry in Chandigarh is to be developed by Providing leadership, organizational and strategic direction,
Improving the quality of tourism products,

Developing places of tourist interest,

Providing necessary facilities for all categories of tourist and

Marketing Chandigarh’s Tourism products internationally and domestically

So as to provide employment and economic, environmental, social and cultural benefits to the citizens of the city beautiful – Chandigarh”

In the new economic scenario, Chandigarh Tourism has recognized the need to involve the private sector in the development of tourism infrastructure in conjunction with the Government. The following activities are included in the ‘Tourism Industry’

Accommodation facilities

Restaurants and fast food facilities

Transportation facilities

Tourist entertainment


With this background, the objectives have developed as

1. Employment generation. Tourism generates both direct and indirect employment

2. Attract private investment

3. Preserve heritage and tradition. As Chandigarh is a new city, the traditions are related with gardens and festivals
4. Preserve the environment

20 year Perspective Tourism

Master Plan for Chandigarh

5. Diversification of the Tourism product into adventure sports, entertainment, leisure etc.
6. To provide adequate publicity both domestic and international

7. Create accommodation facilities – renovate and upgrade existing facilities

8. Develop human resources for Hospitality and Tourism.

The following strategic projects have been suggested to implement these objectives

1. Develop Chandigarh as a convention city – attract the MICE segment

2. Eco- tourism wildlife park around the Sukhna