Mizoram Tourism Policy

CONTENTS

List of figures
4
List of tables 5
Acknowledgements 6
Prologue 7
Executive Summary 8
Perspective Plan 33
1. Introduction 33

Background of Tourism Development
Global Tourism Trends
Tourism Policy in India
Objectives of Tourism Development in India
Environmental and Ecological Parameters
Tourism Development in the Northeast
Tourism Development in Mizoram
Objectives of the Study
Methodology
2. Mizoram 43

Introduction
Geography
People and Culture
Natural Environment and Ecology
Socio-economics
Evolution

3. Tourism in Mizoram 52

Tourism Status
Tourism Potential
People’s outlook towards Tourism
Government’s outlook towards Tourism
Present Budget and Economics of Tourism Development
Sustainability

4. Basic Tourism infrastructure in Mizoram 57

Communication Network
Telecommunication Network
Information Technology
Entry Permit Offices
Tourism Department
Network of Information Centres
Accommodation Facilities
Restaurants
Basic Services

5. Positive and Negative Factors 63
Northeast Region
Mizoram State

6. Proposed Tourism Policy 65

General Recommendations for the Northeast Region
General Recommendations for Mizoram State
General Recommendations for the Existing / Proposed Projects
Specific Unique Projects for Mizoram
Specific Unique Tourism Circuits for Mizoram

7. Tourism Trends and Implications 98

Tourism Research and Documentation
Past & Existing Tourism Trends
Future Tourism Implications
Evaluation & Future of Tourism

8. Financial Implications and Funding Avenues 103

Financial Implications
Privatisation Strategy
Governmental Funding Avenues
Institutional Funding Avenues

9. Tourism Economics, Cost - Benefit Analysis &
Employment Generation 117

Tourism Economics
Role of Tourism in National Socio-economic Development
Present Economics of Mizoram Tourism
Future Economics of Mizoram Tourism
Cost – Benefit Analysis – Tourism in Mizoram
Employment Generation From Tourism Development in Mizoram

10. Community & Women’s Participation 131
11. Proposed Strategy & Action Plan 135
12. Proposed Phased Development 138
13. Block Estimate & Feasibility 141
14. Conclusion 144
Appendices 145
a. Guidelines for preparation of Perspective Plan 146
b. Questionnaire 149
c. Format for interviews 154
d. General information 160
e. Tourist accommodation 162
f. Proposed tourist amenities & prioritised projects (1999-2000) 163
g. Projects proposed for 2001-2002 164
h. Projects sanctioned during 2001-2002 165
i. Ongoing projects under CSS 166
j. Staff remuneration scales & facilities provided 168
k. Tourist data for 1999-2000 to 2001-2002 169
l. Projection of tourists for 2002-2003 170
m. Proposed schemes for prioritisation under CSS for 2001-2002 171
n. Latest provisional population figures of district HQ 172
o. Tourist arrival statistics 173
p. Road distance from Aizawl 174
q. Caves in Mizoram 175
r. Annual maintenance expenditure 176
s. Hydro electric projects in Mizoram 177
t. Norms of the Ministry of Environment and Forests 178
u. General Guidelines for the Up-gradation of existing infrastructure 185
v. General Guidelines for the Development of new infrastructure 191
w. List of Voluntary Organisations in Mizoram 195
x. Checklist for Transport Facilities 196
y. Environment Impact Questions 205
z. Assessment for Barrier Free Infrastructure 213
aa. International Tourist Arrivals – World wise 223
bb. International Tourist Receipts – World wise 224
cc. Domestic & Foreign Tourist Visits to India – Region wise 225
dd. Distribution of approved hotels and rooms in Northeast India 226
ee. Sources of Information 227
ff. National Wildlife Action Plan on Tourism 228
gg. Central Govt. Ministries for Tourism Development collaboration 229
hh. Institutional Funding Agencies for Tourism Development 231
References 233
Map of North East India

LIST OF FIGURES



1. Map of NE region 39

2. Map of Mizoram 41

3. Children of Mizoram 46

4. Natural Beauty of Mizoram 47

5. Orchids of Mizoram 49

6. Jhoom Cultivation of Mizoram 50

7. Evolving Mizos 51

8. Tourist Lodge, Lunglei 59

9. Rih Dil Lake, Mynmar 85

10. Vantawng Waterfall 90

11. Cityscapes – Aizawl 93

12. Mizo women 133

LIST OF TABLES
1. Region wise distribution of Arrivals/Receipts in the World 34
2. World Top Tourism Earners 35
3. Estimated Domestic & Foreign Tourist Visits to NE & Mizoram 52
4. Mizoram State Budget for Tourism Development 54
5. Maintenance Expenditure of Mizoram Tourism 54
6. Projects sanctioned during 1998 – 2001 55
7. Allocation to Northeast Region under the 9th Plan 55
8. Trends & Projection of Tourist Arrivals in Mizoram 99
9. Existing status & Projected needs of Accommodation 100
10. General Evaluation of Tourism Destinations in Mizoram 102
11. State Govt.’s outlay (general) for 10th Five Year Plan 103
12. State Govt.’s outlay (category wise) for 10th Five Year Plan 104
13. Mizoram State Budget for Tourism Development 120
14. Maintenance Expenditure of Mizoram Tourism 120
15. Average per capita per day Tourist Expenditure 127
16. Direct Economic Benefits 127
17. Indirect Economic Benefits 128
18. Cost Benefit Analysis 129
19. Generation of Direct Employment 130
20. Ratio of Male / Female in the Tourism Staff 133
21. Block Estimate 141

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


1. Staff of the Department of Tourism (MR), Govt. Of India

2. Staff of the Department of Tourism, Mizoram

3. Various interviewees

4. Various respondents to the questionnaire

5. Various tourists, tour organizers, travel agents

6. Staff of various libraries

7. Consultants & staff of ‘The Designers’

8. Various government officials, State of Mizoram

9. People of Mizoram

PROLOGUE


Northeast region has been a fascination for us since our earlier encounters with the Sikkim Himalayas and the great Brahmputra of Assam, during the last two decades. Our professional projects in these regions gave us opportunities to explore this region of wonderful natural beauty, unique treasure of diverse flora and fauna and ethnic culture of very warm people.

However visiting Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura under the assignment of the Department of Tourism, Govt. of India, opened up unimaginable insights for us. It gave us an opportunity to understand the Northeast more closely. Each state has its own charm and its unique identity of varied landscapes and people. We were able to feel and understand innumerable problems of the people otherwise hidden behind their ever-smiling faces.

The explorations in Mizoram have been a delightful experience. This is the land of lush green hills gently floating in misty white clouds. Its beautiful people exude happiness, hospitality and selfless service. The first sight of Aizawl city, the capital of Mizoram, through a narrow pass on the national highway, and also its most enchanting nightscapes have made everlasting impressions on our minds. Equally memorable are the experiences at the sacred lake Rih Dil in Myanmar, just across the border and also a night cruise through the river Khawthlangtuipui up to the Bangladesh border. The enthusiasm of the Director, Joint Director and the other officials of the Tourism Department, Mizoram and also the local people during these field trips was commendable. We had never imagined of the awe inspiring cultural transition, rather revolution amongst the Mizo society, till we visited Mizoram.
However, as we interacted with them more closely, particularly in the remote villages, the traditional selfless warmth was revealed to us.

We dedicate this study report to the PEOPLE OF MIZORAM.

We are extremely grateful to the Department of Tourism, Government of India for giving us this invaluable opportunity to understand the Northeast. We faced a lot of hurdles during this endeavour. The short time frame coincided with the torrential monsoon. The communication was difficult. Adverse climate, landslides, frequent cancellations of flights etc. regularly disrupted our travel plans. Accessibility to the remote regions was almost impossible. Over and above all this, we also had a brush with encounters of insurgency. In spite of these obstacles, we have tried our best efforts to evolve a strategy for the sustainable tourism development in the region. We are hopeful that these efforts would attract more tourists to the Northeast to bring in socio-economic revolution in the region in the coming years. We strongly feel that entire country must contribute intellectually, politically and financially for the total rejuvenation of this neglected region.


ULHAS RANE
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

20 YEARS PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE STATE OF MIZORAM

1. INTRODUCTION:

Tourism has become one of the most flourishing industries in the world. Today, it is the second largest and fastest growing industry, next only to the petroleum industry. Worldwide, tourism is emerging as one of the biggest employers compared to any other economic sector. It offers opportunities for economic, cultural and political exchanges, generates employment, foreign exchange and raises living standards. It facilitates social integration and international understanding.

The vast potential and the need for rapid development was recognised only in the Seventh Plan, subsequent to which tourism was accorded the status of an Industry, thereby encouraging private investments in this sector.

The national action plan for tourism (1992), defines the objectives of tourism development in India and the primary strategy for its development:

a. It is a unifying and a nation-building force, through fostering greater national and international understanding, particularly amongst the youth of the country.
b. It serves to preserve and enrich India’s cultural heritage.
c. It brings socio-economic benefits.

The strategy for achieving these objectives has been outlined as:

a. Improvement of tourist infrastructure
b. Developing areas on a selective basis for integrated growth, along with the marketing of destinations on the basis of a ‘Special Tourism Area’ concept.
c. Restructuring and strengthening of institutions for development of human resources.
d. Evolving a suitable policy for increasing foreign tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings.

Environmental Parameters: Any development has to consider its possible adverse impacts on the surrounding environment and the conservation of various ecological elements must be considered as a priority obligation.
Tourism development projects generally tend to be within ecologically

sensitive regions such as hills, seashores, lakes, rivers, national parks/sanctuaries, and heritage sites. Insensitive and haphazard planning for tourism development can ruin these regions of natural heritage. The tourism development plan for a region must carry out environmental impact assessment and work out sustainable management strategies.

In the case of Mizoram, which lies in the ecologically sensitive region of the northeast India, the priority consideration for tourism development should be environmental and ecological conservation. The region also has very rich ethnic tribal culture and the whole tourism development plan should be sensitive to all the heritage parameters.

Considering the unique and environmentally fragile region of northeast India in general, and Mizoram in particular, it is almost imperative that the tourism planning of the region should evolve around the concept of Eco-tourism.

Tourism development in Northeast India & Mizoram: It is unfortunate that due to socio-political and geographical reasons, the entire Northeast has remained neglected and backward from the development point of view. In spite of very high literacy rate in the region (around 80%), progress and benefits have not reached the Northeast even today. The concept of Tourism development is very recent in this region and is in its infancy. A few states like Sikkim and Assam have taken a few strides in developing tourism, with emphasis on eco-tourism, wildlife tourism, cultural tourism and adventure tourism. The other states have also commenced their efforts during the last decade.

However, the tourism development of the Northeast region needs to be targeted via a regional approach rather than an individual state approach. The basic needs for tourism development of the region are efficient infrastructure, good connectivity between the states and peace in the region. The entry permit formality required for a few states for both domestic and international tourists is a major deterrent to the region’s tourism attractiveness.

Objectives of the Study: The Department of Tourism, Govt. of India commissioned this study in order to prepare a 20-year perspective plan for the sustainable development of tourism in various Indian states with the following major objectives:

a. Prepare a 20-year perspective plan for developing sustainable tourism in the state, providing a phased programme while considering the available resources
b. Indicate short-term and long-term plans, targets and ground realities
c. Indicate all activities to be undertaken by different agencies with a definite time frame to achieve these activities
d. Assess the existing tourism scenario in the state with respect to natural resources, heritage and other socio-cultural assets, quantitative and demographic factors such as population, employment, occupation, income levels, services and infrastructure.

2. TOURISM IN MIZORAM:

Mizoram, a mountainous region that became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987, is sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and the south and Bangladesh and Tripura in the west with its northern frontiers touching Assam and Manipur. Mizoram hills are steep and run north – south and are separated by rivers, which flow in between creating deep gorges. The Mizo community is changing fast and adopting western culture. Many of the present customs are mixtures of their old tradition and western style of life.
Mizoram has the highest literacy rate (95%) in the country and people are peaceful and hospitable.

The young state of Mizoram is economically weak and is entirely dependent on its agriculture. Inefficient infrastructure and poor connectivity are the major deterrents for tourists. The entry permit formality for both domestic and international tourists is another hurdle for tourists. However, the State Department of Tourism has developed satisfactory tourist facilities, within a short span of its activity. The state has excellent potential for tourism development with emphasis on eco-tourism and adventure tourism. However the success of its tourism highly depends on the infrastructure development of the entire Northeast region.

Agriculture is the major occupation of the people of Mizoram. Shifting cultivation (Jhumming) is pre-dominantly practiced in Mizoram, which has degraded the natural forests of Mizoram to a very large extent. Presently, efforts are on to wean away the farmers from the destructive practice of Jhumming and to adopt new and sustainable agricultural practices.

The state situated in the transitional region of tropical and temperate environment is also bestowed with hills having steep slopes, deep valleys, rivers, natural lakes, plains etc. thus creating varied ecosystems in a relatively small region.

The forests of Mizoram could be broadly classified as: North – Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest
South – Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest
East – Subtropical Pine Forest (mixed with broad leaved species)

However, for a state like Mizoram, which is blessed with natural resources, any attempt of socio-economic development has to be considered with utmost concern for the natural environment. And considering this factor alone agriculture and tourism could be the best alternatives for the bright future of Mizoram.

The status of tourism is reflected in the following statistical data of tourist visits in the northeast and Mizoram:

ESTIMATED DOMESTIC & FOREIGN TOURIST VISITS (1998 –2000)

1998 1999 2000 Prop. to the total (%)
Location Dom. For. Dom. For. Dom. For. Dom. For.
Northeast Region (7states except Sikkim) 529784 2909 567284 3570 1489112 11788 0.7 0.2
Mizoram 23998 126 27139 216 28221 235 0.0 0.0


Mizoram has tremendous and quite unique tourism potential. This could be tapped mainly through the concept of eco-tourism. Nature / wildlife tourism, adventure tourism, cultural / heritage tourism, leisure tourism, international border tourism could be some special tourist packages.

The state government declared its Industrial Policy in March 1993, wherein tourism has been declared as an industry. Many incentives and financial assistance are being proposed for creation of tourist infrastructure through private participation. However there have been no responses till now.

The Department of Tourism, Govt. of India, under the ministry of Tourism and Culture has been providing liberal financial and technical support for the tourism development in the state based on the projects received from the states.
In the present scenario, the state government’s outlook towards tourism development is of total dependence on central assistance. Considering the external adverse factors of complex nature, which are beyond the control of the state government, it is unlikely that the tourism development in the state can be self-sustaining in the near future.

However looking at the bright tourism potential, enthusiasm of the state government, peaceful ambience and the expected rise in tourist arrivals and receipts, it looks quite possible to make tourism in the state sustainable in a decade. It will require futuristic vision, conscious and planned efforts at all levels and a disciplined action plan and implementation strategy. In the meanwhile, sympathetic approach of the central government will be required to stabilise the socio-political situation in the northeast followed by overall infrastructure development in the region.

3. POSITIVE & NEGATIVE FACTORS:


NORTHEAST REGION (8 states – Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur & Nagaland):
General Negative Factors of NE Region:

Insurgency, Isolated/Neglected & Backward region, Difficult / rugged terrain, Intermittently adverse climatic conditions, particularly in monsoon, Earthquake prone region, Inappropriate Time Zone, Poor communication infrastructure / connectivity to mainland and also within the NE states, Poor development infrastructure: power, roads, industry, transportation, Lack of higher / Professional education & research facilities, Jhum cultivation causing degradation of natural resources, Lack of exposure to the outside world, Lack of professionalism in attitude and management, Lack of discipline, Lack of emergency medical facilities, Loss of ethnic culture especially in the hilly region

General Positive Factors of NE Region:

Wonderful Natural Beauty of Mountains and Rivers, Unique and endemic flora and fauna, Large percentage of land under forest cover, Low population density,
Clean and unpolluted Environment, Closeness to five international boundaries – Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Peaceful cultural relationship with international communities of Myanmar and Bangladesh, Diversity of very charming ethnic cultures, Diversity of folk art forms particularly music and dances, Peaceful intermingling of diverse communities, faiths and cultures
Hospitality and warmth of people, Mysticism of the region creating awe and curiosity, Great potential for Eco-tourism and Adventure tourism, Unexplored region for tourism development


MIZORAM STATE:

General Negative Factors of Mizoram:

Degradation of forests / wildlife, Entry formalities i.e. ILP / RAP, Poor Connectivity to the other northeast states and mainland, Poor infrastructure of road / rail / air, Loss of ethnic culture, Poor Water and Power supply, Health Hazard – mosquitoes, excessive smoking and chewing of Pan / tobacco / gutka etc., Over population / concentration in Aizawl city, Limitation in availability of decent vegetarian food

General Positive Factors of Mizoram:

The land of wonderful scenic natural beauty, Exciting topography of hill ranges and deep valleys, Pleasant and moderate climate throughout the year,

Unique geographical location within the transition zone of tropical and temperate ecosystems, Tropic of Cancer passes through the heart of Mizoram, Closeness to the international boundaries of Myanmar and Bangladesh, The most peaceful state of the country, Very high literacy rate, Warm, peace loving, sociable, happy and selfless people, Unique hill architecture and Rainwater harvesting methods, Very low crime rate, Beggar free ambience even in the urban areas, Clean and pollution free environment, Organic agriculture and horticulture, Fast changing society with a mix of modernity and tradition, receptive to new ideas


4. TOURISM POLICY FOR MIZORAM

The broad approach for the tourism development in the Northeast should be regional (incorporating Indian states and neighbouring countries) rather than local. Individual states in the Northeast do have their own specific identity, which should reflect in their detailed local proposals.

The Tourism Development in the Northeast region will depend on integrated approach, involving various government departments, private entrepreneurs, voluntary organisations and local community. This approach will also help in evolving local people’s perception towards tourism development as a strong tool for socio-economic upliftment, with self-dependence and without environmental destruction of the region.

The Tourism Policy for the entire Northeast Region should be based on the concept of Eco-tourism with very wide parameters. The eco-tourism should not just mean nature tourism, but also should consider environmental / heritage conservation and education as a core feature.

The strategy is four fold:

• Regional (NE) infrastructure development
• General infrastructure development in the state
• Development of existing / proposed tourism projects
• Development of new unique and specific Tourism Projects and Tourism Circuits

We recommend the strategy of stabilisation for the next five years. That will include:

• Complete all incomplete / under construction works of the approved projects
• Obtain approval for the projects in the pipeline awaiting sanction from the Department of Tourism, New Delhi; commence and complete those works as soon as possible
• Do not apply for any more new, infrastructure projects
• Carry out total up-gradation of the entire infrastructure to bring it to excellent standards

• All efforts should be concentrated to identify and develop new and unique tourist spots and tourist circuits with very minimum basic amenities
• Simultaneously, additional efforts should be focussed on effective publicity and marketing through innovative and professional approach
.
SPECIFIC UNIQUE TOURISM PROJECTS FOR MIZORAM:

• Zokhawthar / Tiau River / Rih Dil Lake (Myanmar border) Region, International Collaborative Project
• Tlabung / Khawthlang Tuipui River Region at Bangladesh border, a Composite Project
• Eco-tourism, Wildlife & Adventure Tourism Projects
• Cultural Tourism through integration at the International / Interstate Tri-Junctions
• Handicraft / Agriculture Centre at Thenzawl
• Defence Tourism
• Water Tourism
• Rural Tourism
• Geography / Astronomy Centre at the Tropic of Cancer
• Urban Tourism
• Regional Nature Parks: Ecological Park – Lawngtlai, Botanical Park / Orchid Sanctuary – Lunglei, Zoological Park – Aizawl
• Heritage Tourism: Historical Caves, Historical site at Rengdil (Mamit district), Lunglei: 1st church in Mizoram
• Tourism Festivals: Christmas & New Year, Festivals in collaboration with Star Hotels

SPECIFIC UNIQUE TOURISM CIRCUITS FOR MIZORAM:

Tourism Circuits is a very popular concept in the tourism sector today. The development of such circuits and organising tours on these circuits becomes economical for both tourists and tourism departments.

• Heritage circuit: (Caves, Lunglie Church, Rengdil, Ethnic Villages under Rural Tourism, Handicraft Centre)
• Wildlife circuit: (All sanctuaries & National Parks)
• International Border Circuit: (Myanmar border circuit, Bangladesh border circuit)
• Interstate Circuit: (Mizoram – Tripura (via Jampui hills, Mizoram – Manipur circuit)
• River Tourism Circuit: (Perennial Rivers – Kolodyne, Tlawng, Tuirial, Khawthlangtuipui)

5. TOURISM ECONOMICS IN MIZORAM

The general indication of past trends and future projections for 20 years is as under:

Trends & Projections of Tourist Arrivals at the major Tourist Destinations:


Destination Past Trends Future Projections (Annual-average)
1999 2000 2001 2002-
2006 2007-
2011 2012-
2016 2017-
2021
Zokhawthar/Rih Dil Lake 819 1915 10000 15000 25000 50000
Tlabung/Khawthlan g Tuipui River Region 1683 2944 3000 5000 10000 20000
Dampa Tiger Reserve
Phawngpui (Blue
Mountain) National Park 227 493 3000 5000 10000 20000
Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary
International Tri- junctions 2000 3000 5000 10000
Interstate Tri- junctions 1000 2000 4000 8000
Handicraft Centre at Thenzawl 1000 2000 4000 7000 10000
Defence Tourism 1000 2000 4000 8000
Rural Tourism 2000 4000 7000 12000
Astronomy Centre 2000 5000
Urban Tourism- Aizawl 11036 19923 20000 30000 60000 120000
Regional Parks at Lawngtlai/Lunglei/
Aizawl 1889 3647 7000 12000 20000 35000
Heritage Tourism/Circuit 1000 2000 3000 5000
Wildlife Circuit 2000 4000 8000 15000
International Border Circuit 3000 5000 10000 20000
River Tourism Circuit 1000 1500 2500 4000
TOTAL FOR MIZORAM 25372 26881 29413 33000-
48000 52000-
77000 88000-
155000 180000-
315000



Note: The numbers here are the total of domestic & foreign tourists, foreigners being approx. less than 1% of the total tourists. The percentage of foreign tourists could increase only with very special efforts. The past trends show approximate annual increase of 10%. This rate will continue for the first ten years, after which it may

increase to 15%-20%. Since the destination wise details of past trends are not available, assumptions are made based on the availability of rooms/beds and 40% occupancy.


It is our assessment that the present and ongoing projects should provide these minimum facilities to give preliminary impetus for tourism attraction in Mizoram. The development of innovative tourism destinations combined with appropriate marketing and publicity strategy should attract steady tourist inflow to Mizoram.

General Evaluation of Tourist Destinations in Mizoram:

(Note: The evaluation is graded on 1 to 10 scale from poor – fair – best, based on the existing status)

Destination Attracti ons Popula rity Infrastructure Volume of Traffic Flow Overall Average
Zokhawthar/Rih Dil Lake 8 6 5 5 6.00
Tlabung/Khawthlang Tuipui River Region 8 6 4 5 5.75
Dampa Tiger Reserve 5 4 3 3 3.75
Phawngpui (Blue Mountain National
Park) 8 5 4 5 5.50
Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary 5 3 3 2 3.25
International Tri-
junctions 8 8 4 4 6.00
Interstate Tri-junctions 6 6 4 3 4.50
Handicraft Centre at Thenzawl 8 7 5 5 6.25
Defence Tourism 8 8 3 3 5.50
Rural Tourism 8 6 4 3 5.25
Astronomy Centre 6 5 3 2 4.00
Urban Tourism-Aizawl 8 8 7 6 7.25
Regional Parks at
Lawngtlai/Lunglei/Aiza wl 8 8 6 5 6.75
Heritage Tourism/Circuit 5 5 3 3 4.00
Wildlife Circuit 8 8 4 3 5.75
International Border Circuit 8 8 5 5 6.50
River Tourism Circuit 6 5 4 3 4.50
Overall Average for Mizoram 7.12 6.24 4.18 3.82 5.33

We feel that future picture is quite optimistic. Even considering the limitations of the last two parameters (due to the existing status), the average rating worked out for all major destinations varies between 3.25 and 7.25, whereas overall average for Mizoram works out approx. 5.33 (i.e. Fair).

This provides us confidence to state that once the recommendations of the perspective plan are implemented, the future of Mizoram Tourism will be very bright.

State Government’s Proposed Outlay (Category wise) for the 10th Five-Year Plan for Tourism (Rs. In Lakhs):


S.
No. Category 2002-
2003 2003-
2004 2004-
2005 2005-
2006 2006
2007 Total for 10th Plan
1 Infrastructure Development 44.00 209.45
2 Product Development
3 Entrepreneurship Development
4 Enhanced Facilitation
5 Human Resource Development 6.00 20.15
6 Research & Computerisation
7 Promotion & Marketing 9.00 60.00
8 Environmental &
Cultural Conservation
9 Provision for Incentives
10 Monitoring & Evaluation
11 Strengthening of Organisation
12 Staff Salaries 131.00 755.40
13 TOTAL 190.00 1045.00

• Privatisation Strategy:

The role of the Tourism Department should be to develop the tourism potential in the state by creating infrastructure and developing tourist spots. It should get out of the implementation process as early as possible. The privatisation of various facilities with different strategies makes the projects sustainable in the long run. However, in the present nascent stage, it may not be possible for the department to attract private entrepreneurs who could take risk and invest funds since the tourism market is unpredictable. The Tourism Department will have to prepare its own strategy of sustainability through economic / participatory / collaborative projects for the next ten years. At the same time efforts must be continued to involve the private participation in the creation of infrastructure, through attractive incentives and benefits. A few popular tourist spots could be offered on a BOT basis as an experiment.

• Action Plan for Privatisation:

a) Fiscal evaluation of the existing infrastructure on a realistic / business-
like manner, according to various categories.
b) Auction / offer Tourist Lodges to private entrepreneurs / authentic NGOs/ reputed charitable institutions on an appropriate terms and conditions.
c) Offer restaurants to reputed charitable institutions, particularly Women’s Organisations for management on lucrative terms and conditions
d) Offer service oriented infrastructure like booking counters, information booths, STD booths etc. to the deprived sector (educated unemployed, handicapped, women, students etc) in an individual / organisational capacity. This offer could be charitable/subsidised.
e) Offer incentives to the existing staff to form co-operatives to run / manage existing Tourist Lodges, Restaurants etc. on reasonable terms and conditions.
f) Offer new infrastructure development to Village Councils, NGOs, private entrepreneurs etc. on a turnkey basis (BOT i.e. built, operate, transfer), if necessary, even on long term basis.
g) Offer development of smaller infrastructure like wayside amenities, public toilets, tourist transport etc. to existing local entrepreneurs on lucrative terms and conditions.
h) Offer financial incentives like interest free loans, soft loans, tax concessions, low lease rent etc. to encourage private participation in the tourism industry
i) Offer remote area concessions and incentives to private entrepreneurs for the development of tourism destinations and infrastructure in remote regions. These could include free land, partial subsidy for development etc.
j) Give wide publicity to the schemes being offered for privatisation. Keep the terms of offer lucrative like low/refundable deposits, quick decisions on proposals etc.

k) Protect long-term government interest by legally safeguarding the terms of offers and agreements. The terms should also ensure long- term maintenance of infrastructure and quality service.
l) The Department should work out effective strategy to regularly monitor the privatised properties and ensure the quality of service.

• Governmental Funding Avenues:

The Tourism Department must try various funding avenues in the process towards making activities economically feasible and sustainable. The state / central governments may provide limited assistance for the initial gestation period. However, a definite strategy has to be worked out for the long-term maintenance of such facilities. Other funding avenues should be tapped.
Various government departments and organisations provide specialised funding for specific projects related to their activities and tourism sector being a versatile sector could tap these resources.

• Institutional Funding Avenues:

There are many national and international organisations / universities which are interested in long term ecological research and appropriate development in the regions like Northeast. The tourist infrastructure could be also used for such complementary activities and made sustainable.

The Institutional Funding Agencies may be classified under the following categories:

National Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) International NGOs
International Government Agencies
Inter Governmental Organisations (IGOs)

• Modalities of Funding:

The above-mentioned funding agencies have their own norms and modalities for funding. Most of them have their own specific interests in the areas to provide funding e.g. environment, forests, water, infrastructure, heritage, education, tourism, rural development, women’s empowerment etc. Generally all funding agencies have their own formats of application for the funding.
They also have time frames and schedules. Most of the funding agencies prefer to collaborate with the Government Departments, however they also like to involve NGOs and also look for people’s participation. International Funding Applications need to be routed through the Ministry of External Affairs and also the Central Government Ministries related to the Projects.

The international funding agencies have different approaches. Some provide funding in a form of Grant and also technical know-how / human resources etc. These are collaborative projects, bilateral or multilateral. The ODA and European Union provide funding in this manner. These are generally long

term projects (5 to 10 years) and the funding agencies regularly monitor the progress of the project through their own consultants / specialised institutions. These agencies generally provide 100% funding on the cost estimates worked out jointly, however they ensure the commitment of the grantee to look after, maintain and continue the project in future. The agreements / MOUs ensure these clauses for the commitment. These agencies also ensure the participation of the grantee in the form of existing infrastructure including human resources, land etc. at the beginning of the project.


The Mizoram Tourism could attempt to get such funding for following specific projects:

1. Rih Dil Lake Project as an International Collaborative, Heritage and Cultural Integration Project
2. Handicraft & Agriculture Centre at Thenzawl as a Rural Development & Women’s Empowerment Project
3. Cultural Tourism Centres at International / National tri-junctions as Cultural Integration Project
4. Geography / Astronomy Centre at the Tropic of Cancer as an Educational Project
5. Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) National Park as an Eco-tourism / Eco-development / Adventure tourism Project

There are other funding agencies, which are basically financial institutions like Asian Development Bank (ADB), Overseas Economic Corporate Fund (OECF), now JBIC, International Monetary fund (IMF) etc. These agencies provide soft loans for mostly development projects. They have their own parameters to decide about the eligibility components. Such funding is generally provided to the Government Departments and there are standard norms of sureties for repayments etc. They also insist for proportionate investment / participation from the recipient. For example, the JBIC provides financial assistance in a form of soft loan up to maximum 85% of the total project costs. The eligible components for JBIC are Land Cost, Infrastructure Development Cost, Compensation / Rehabilitation cost, Duties & Taxes, Interest during the implementation of the project etc. These loans are provided to the State Government Departments on the approval of the Ministry of External Affairs. Most of the times, 30% of the approved amount as provided as Grant and 70% as Loan. This type of funding is very useful for tourism development projects, wherein the State Governments do not have financial resources to develop the basic tourism infrastructure and at the same time, once such an infrastructure is created they can start generating revenue on a regular basis. However, the state government will need to provide the seed money to the extent of 15% of the project cost

The Mizoram Tourism could attempt to get such funding for following specific projects:

1. Urban Tourism i.e. development of Aizawl and Lunglei
2. Regional Parks at Aizawl, Lunglei and Lawngtlai
3. Development of Tourism Infrastructure i.e. roads & services at the tourist destinations, signage etc.
4. Computerisation of tourism services, Publicity infrastructure, Capacity Building etc.
5. Cultural Centres in other parts of the country



• Tourism Economics:

In 2001, T & T in India will generate Rs. 1,564 billion in economic activity (total demand), making India the 22nd largest tourism market in the world. The contribution of the T & T Economy to GDP is impressive in dollar terms. The potential contribution of tourism to India’s GDP as seen today is at 5.3% as compared to the world average of 10.7%, and India ranks 140th in the
world when tourism’s contribution to GDP is measured.

In terms of employment, India’s T & T Economy accounts for 25 million jobs (World Rank 2). This translates to a share of 6% of all employment, giving India a rank of 140. The Department of Tourism’s estimates of T & T Industry jobs are 4.2 million. Similarly, despite employment of 12.3 million and a world rank of 2, the T & T Industry in India contributes 2.9% of total employment as compared to a world average of 3.1% and ranks 111th in terms of percentage contribution to total employment.

Tourism can play an important, pioneering and effective role in achieving the growth targets set out for the nation. The primary objective of tourism development in India is to accelerate economic growth significantly, so as to meet a series of socio-economic imperative that are unique to India.

6. BLOCK ESTIMATE & FEASIBILITY

The Block Estimate is worked out to give overall idea of the financial involvement of this Perspective Plan. The estimate does not include recurring costs.

S.No. Item Approx. Qty. Rate Amount (In Lakhs)
I BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE
1 Up-gradation of Infrastructure: Average built up area per T. Lodge – 800 Sq. M. X 15 Nos. 12000 Sq. M. 2500 300
2 Up-gradation, Construction of roads (2 lane) up to the tourists destinations / infrastructure 50.00 Kms 4000000 2000
3 Up-gradation / maintenance of Vehicles – 5 Jeeps & 2 buses 10 years 1000000 100
4 New vehicles – Jeeps, Mini buses & maintenance 10 Nos 1000000 100
5 Landscape & Environment
Design 50 Sites 600000 300
2800
II PUBLICITY / MARKETING
6 Signage & Hoardings 200 Nos 50000 100
7 Publicity, Literature etc. 20 years 1000000 200
8 Computerisation & Information Technology 20 years 2000000 400
9 Information Counters 20 Nos 500000 100
10 Programmes, Activities 20 years 500000 100
900
III HUMAN RESOURCE / RESEARCH
11 Documentation & Research of Cultural Heritage 3 years Lump sum 100
12 Capacity Building, Staff Training 20 years 2000000 400
500
IV TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE
13 Cultural Centres in Metro cities 5 Nos 10000000 500
14 New Wayside Toilets / Amenities 20 Nos 1000000 200
15 New Tourist Lodges 15 Nos 10000000 1500
2200


V PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
16 Urban Tourism 2 Cities 100000000 2000
17 International Coll. Projects 2 Nos 100000000 2000
18 Tourism Festivals – 2 nos 20 years 1000000 200
19 New Large Projects 15 Nos 50000000 7500
20 Tourism Circuits 4 Nos 10000000 400
12100
21 Total 18500
22 Unforeseen 10 % 1850
23 Contingencies 5 % 925
24 Inflation 10 % 1850
25 Administrative Expenses 10 % 1850
26 Consultancy Fees 10 % 1850
27 GRAND TOTAL 26825
SAY APPROX. 27000

THE BLOCK ESTIMATE: RS. TWO HUNDRED SEVENTY CRORES ONLY FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT:
The Block Estimate shows the total Perspective Plan Outlay for 20 years is approximately around Rs. 270 Crores only.

After looking at the item heads and also the strategic approach following points need specific mention:

1. The items 1 to 5 covering the Basic Infrastructure amount to Rs.28.00 Crores, which is approx. 10.37 % of the total cost

2. The items 6 to 10 covering the Publicity and Marketing amount to Rs. 9.00 Crores, which is approx. 3.33 % of the total cost

3. The items 11 & 12 covering Human Resource Development & Research amount to Rs. 5 Crores, which is approx. 1.85 % of the total cost

4. The items 13 to 15 covering Tourism Infrastructure, some of which is in the pipeline and awaiting approval amount to Rs. 22 Crores, which is approx.
8.15 % of the total cost

5. The items 16 to 20 covering new innovative Tourism Product Development amounts to Rs. 121 Crores which is approx. 44.81 % of the total cost

6. The items 25 & 26 covering Administrative and Consultancy expenses amount to Rs. 37.00 Crores, which is approx. 13.7 % of the total cost

The major item in this Plan is the new innovative Product Development projects, which takes about 44.81 % of the total outlay. Considering the strategy already mentioned in the earlier chapters for these projects, it is clear that these projects will be collaborative projects, likely to be sponsored by various other departments and funding agencies. The Mizoram Tourism will have to invest its time and preliminary expenses for the preparation of the detailed proposals, which will be about 20 % of the cost of these projects i.e. 8.96 % of the total cost. This could be manageable within the resources provided by the state and also assistance provided by the central government.

The Publicity & Marketing activities take about 3.33 % of the total cost which is also manageable within the resources of the state government complemented with other sponsorships.

The costs of Basic Infrastructure including up-gradation of existing infrastructure, creating new service infrastructure and new projects (already in the pipeline and awaiting approval), which is about 10.37 % of the total cost amounting to approx. Rs. 28.00 Crores over the period of 20 years could be within the budgetary provision of the Ministry of Tourism, GOI. Under the present allocation, the special provision for the 8 states of Northeast region is Rs. 14.80 Crores i.e approx. Rs. 1.85 Crores per state.

Cost Benefit Analysis of the Perspective Plan for Mizoram Tourism

Year Direct Benefits Indirect Benefits Total Cost Investment Net
Incremental Benefits
1 2 3 4 5 6
2002-03 45.72 52.87 98.59 25.00 73.59
2003-04 52.81 59.92 112.73 25.00 87.73
2004-05 60.99 70.53 131.52 32.00 99.52
2005-06 70.43 81.45 151.88 32.00 119.88
2006-07 81.36 94.09 175.45 16.00 159.45
2007-08 93.99 108.69 202.68 16.00 186.68
2008-09 108.53 125.51 234.04 11.50 222.54
2009-10 125.35 144.97 270.32 11.50 258.82
2010-11 144.80 167.46 312.26 11.00 301.26
2011-12 167.26 193.43 360.69 11.00 349.69
2012-13 201.95 233.55 435.50 10.75 424.75
2013-14 243.86 282.02 525.88 10.75 515.13
2014-15 294.45 340.53 634.98 10.25 624.73
2015-16 355.51 411.14 766.65 10.25 756.40
2016-17 429.32 496.50 925.82 7.75 918.07
2017-18 518.40 599.51 1117.91 7.75 1110.16
2018-19 625.98 723.94 1349.92 7.75 1342.17
2019-20 755.82 874.09 1629.91 7.75 1622.16
2020-21 912.62 1055.43 1968.05 6.50 1961.55
2021-22 1102.06 1274.51 2376.57 6.50 2370.07

Thus the proposal of the Perspective Plan as worked out looks economically feasible. It is also envisaged that there will be average 10 % annual increase in the tourist traffic due to these overall efforts. It may boost further more after 5 / 10 years. The overall increase by 100 % in the next 10 years will itself make the Mizoram Tourism a profit-making department. At present level also, they have almost managed to cover the recurring costs.

We feel that the Perspective Plan will not only be economically feasible but also will make the Tourism Development in Mizoram very sustainable.


7. PROPOSED PHASED DEVELOPMENT

The Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development of the State of Mizoram is envisioned for the next 20 years. Such a large and broad visionary plan requires to be phased out in a systematic manner for its realistic detailed planning and implementation. The biennial phased development is proposed starting from the approval of the Perspective Plan. General guidelines for such a Phased Development is discussed hereunder:

1. Year 1 & 2: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 10.00, Publicity – 3.00, Human Resource – 3.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 4.00, Product Development – 20.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus
Total – Rs. 50.00 Crores

2. Year 3 & 4: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 10.00, Publicity
– 3.00, Human Resource – 1.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 10.00, Product Development – 30.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 64.00 Crores

3. Year 5 & 6: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 5.00, Publicity – 1.00, Human Resource – 1.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 5.00, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus
Total – Rs. 32.00 Crores

4. Year 7 & 8: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 1.00, Publicity – 1.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 1.00, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 23.00 Crores

5. Year 9 & 10: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Publicity – 0.50, Tourism Infrastructure – 1.00, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 22.00 Crores

6. Year 11 & 12 Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Publicity – 0.50, Tourism Infrastructure –0.50, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 21.50 Crores

7. Year 13 & 14: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus
Total – Rs. 20.50 Crores

8. Year 15 & 16: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 5.00 thus
Total – Rs. 15.50 Crores

9. Year 17 & 18: Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Product Development – 5.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus
Total – Rs. 15.50 Crores

10. Year 19 & 20: Approx. Investment: Product Development – 6.00, Misc. –
7.00 thus Total – Rs. 13.00 Crores


NOTE: The planning process will continue throughout since the projects will be further phased out according to the budget availability. Up-gradation process will continue for the first five years. The other activity-based projects will continue throughout.

8. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION & EMPLOYMENT GENERATION:

In the absence of economic infrastructure and other manufacturing agencies, agriculture continues to be the main occupation of about 90 % of people in Mizoram. The 1961 census revealed the poor economic condition of Mizoram while it was one of the districts of Assam. It contributed only 1.5 % of the state’s income. The total income of Mizoram district was estimated at Rs.
5.36 crores of which 77 % came from agriculture, 1% from mining and manufacturing, 5.6 % from commerce, transport etc., 13 % from Public services and the balance from the other services. The per capita income stood at Rs. 206/- at that time.

The costs and benefits for Mizoram Tourism could be projected as the following:

Hotel Rooms: Over the next 20 years (2002 to 2021) the expected number of tourists in Mizoram ranges between 33,000 and 2,70,000 and the subsequent need of rooms ranges between 500 and 3000. Thus the investments will range from Rs. 50 Crores in 2002 and Rs. 300 Crores in 2021. Most of this investment will be in private sector.

Employment generation: Direct – 2 persons per room, Indirect – 4 persons per room. Thus 500 to 3000 rooms will generate direct employment for 1000 to 6000 persons and indirect employment for 2000 to 12,000 persons making the total employment for 3000 to 18,000 persons over the next 20 years

Air Transport: As per the requirements of Mizoram, the need for 33,000 tourists in 2001 to 2,70,000 in 2021 will be 1 to 3 aircrafts. These could also

be shared with the adjoining Northeast states. Thus the investment will range from Rs. 500 Crores in 2002 to Rs.1500 Crores in 2021.

Employment Generation: Average 450 persons per aircraft. Thus 450 to 1350 persons may be employed between 2002 and 2021.

Other Transport (Railway & Road): The majority of the tourists will depend on these transport system. Intra state transport will be also through these means. The needs for the number of tourists from 33,000 to 2,70,000 over the next 20 years will be approximately 1 % per day. Thus approximate requirements will be 6 buses (2/3 passengers) and 25 jeeps/taxis (1/3 passengers) in 2002, increasing to 50 buses and 200 jeeps/taxis in 2021. The
investment will range from Rs. 300 lakhs (2002) to Rs. 2500 lakhs (2021)

Employment Generation: Average 6 persons per bus and 3 persons per jeep/taxi. Thus approximately 100 to 900 persons may get employment in this sector between 2002 and 2021. This employment will be mostly for local people.

The requirements of investment in the development of rail linkage and subsequent employment generation cannot be predicted at this stage, however it will be a considerably economical venture.

Foreign Exchange: At present the number of foreign tourists to Mizoram is very negligible (approx. 1 %). With more emphasis on tourism development and conscious efforts to attract foreign tourists this may improve to 5 % over the next 20 years. Thus foreign exchange earning will be to the tune of Rs. 1 Crore (visitor spending) and Rs. 0.4 Crores (aviation) in 2002, which may increase to Rs. 4 Crores (visitor spending) and Rs. 1 Crore (aviation) in 2021.

The overall costing of the Tourism Development in Mizoram under this 20- year perspective plan has been worked out as a Block Estimate. The total outlay of the Perspective Plan over the next 20 years (2002 – 2021), amounts to Rs. 270 Crores, i.e. approximately Rs. 13.5 Crores per year. The Perspective Plan proposal envisages about 30 % investment from the Government (Central and State) Sector and 70 % investment from the private sector. The Projects will be self-supporting, thus taking care of the recurring costs and future maintenance and up-gradation costs. The growth rate will be low in the preliminary years (up to 5 years), however depending on the initiative and other socio-economic conditions in the Northeast region, the growth rate could increase substantially and the state will accrue all the benefits.

• The total outlay of the Perspective Plan over the next 20 years (2002 – 2021), amounts to Rs. 270 Crores, i.e. approximately Rs. 13.5 Crores per year.
• It has been estimated that in tourism sector, the investment of Rs. 10 lakhs creates about 58 jobs. Thus Mizoram Tourism has potential to create approx. 7830 jobs every year, on the implementation of the Perspective Plan.
• In addition to the job/employment generation directly in the tourism sector, tourism development also creates opportunities for self-employment in the service sector, e.g. booking counters, information counters, STD booths, cyber centres, tourist guides, tourism transport, taxi service, courier service etc.
• There will be tremendous opportunity in the secondary employment sector, which provides bulk services to tourism industry, e.g. construction industry, farming and food production, furnishing and equipment suppliers, professionals and consultants etc.

Generation of Direct Employment on Implementation of the Perspective Plan for Mizoram:

Year Additional Tourist Inflow Direct Employment (15 tourists for 1 employment)
2002-03 33000 2200
2003-04 36300 2420
2004-05 39930 2662
2005-06 43923 2928
2006-07 48315 3221
2007-08 53147 3543
2008-09 58462 3897
2009-10 64308 4287
2010-11 70738 4715
2011-12 77812 5187
2012-13 89484 5965
2013-14 102906 6860
2014-15 118342 7889
2015-16 136094 9072
2016-17 156508 10433
2017-18 179984 11998
2018-19 206981 13798
2019-20 238029 15868
2020-21 273733 18248
2021-22 314793 20986

The present status of the economy of Mizoram is dismal. The basic economy is agriculture-based, which is seasonal and unpredictable. The other sector that provides employment opportunities is the Government Service Sector, which also has stagnated. The state does not have the potential for industrial development to provide large employment opportunities. Even business opportunities are limited due to the geographical isolation of the state from the country and also due to the socio-economic problems of the region.
Mizoram has tremendous natural resources and they need to be conserved for its overall enhancement in the long term. Considering all these factors, Tourism Development based on strong emphasis of Eco-tourism will be the best opportunity for the socio-economical upliftment of the state of Mizoram. The success of Tourism Development in the state like Mizoram particularly, will hinge on local participation. Mizoram already has a strong sector of Voluntary Organisations. The women and youth in Mizoram are also very active, outgoing and full of enthusiasm. This potential can be tapped for multiple purposes. It will achieve employment generation in the otherwise deprived section of the society, will allow the government activity of tourism development to grow like an efficient business and at the same time will bring in the feeling of ownership amongst the local people.

Women’s Participation:

The community participation through JTMP should be also complemented with another concerted effort to ensure the participation of Women in Tourism Development and Management. It is commendable that women in Mizoram are industrious, outgoing, full of enthusiasm and already in the forefront in many sectors. However, special opportunities must be created for their active involvement in the tourism sector. This is not necessarily to help them but also to help the tourism sector since it is in need of have human resources with aptitudes for service and hospitality. The women should be encouraged, with due incentives to take major responsibilities to run some of the activities of the tourism department. Even here, they should be treated like equal business partners. The scope and terms of reference have to be worked out jointly and carefully.

The participatory projects, both JTMP and WTP, have the potential to create enthusiasm amongst a large sector of Mizo society. This would reduce the burden of the tourism department substantially and in turn will create tremendous enhancement in the tourism business.

9. PROPOSED STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN:


STRATEGY:

• Formation of Tourism Council at the State Government level to oversee the implementation and progress of the Perspective Plan for Tourism Development.
• Formation of Steering Committee at the Secretariat level to work out the detailed project development plan and to delegate its implementation.
• Formation of the Co-ordinating Committee at the Tourism Department level to obtain all the approvals from the central and state government and work out detailed implementation plan and supervise the project work
• Appointment of Professional Consultants to prepare the Master Plans and the Detailed Feasibility Reports (DFR) for specific projects
• Appointment of Professional Consultants to work out detailed Project Plans and Estimates for various projects according to the DFR
• Appointment of Agencies to implement the Projects according to the detailed project plans, guidelines and specifications
• Regular supervision, monitoring, reporting and documentation of the progress of various project
• Quarterly assessment of the Projects
• Completion reports of the Projects
• Appointment of Agencies to manage the completed Tourism Projects
• Implementation of the Phased Development
• Regular supervision, monitoring, reporting and documentation
• Annual Fiscal Assessment of the Project Work
• Annual Fiscal and Technical Audit of the Project Work
• Annual Overall Assessment

ACTION PLAN:

• Technical approval of the Perspective Plan for Tourism Development
• Organisation of a Seminar (3/5 days, in Mizoram) for the detailed presentation of the Perspective Plan followed by discussion, brainstorming and strategic action to launch the Tourism Development Project.
• Formation of all the advisory, controlling, supervising, co-ordinating and implementing committees should take place within 3 months of the approval.
• The committees will finalise the prioritisation of the projects for the first five years and initiate further action for the implementation of those projects. This decision should be taken within 6 months of the approval.

• The appointments of Professional Consultants for the individual projects, which have been prioritised by the committees. This process should be completed within 6 months of the approval so that the Consultants commence the work of preparation of the Master Plan and the DFR in the 7th month
• The Consultants complete and submit the Master Plan and the DFR of the respective Tourism Projects within 12 months of the approval.
• The Committees will approve the Master Plan and the DFR of various projects and initiate further action to make financial provision for the implementation and also to appoint the Consultants to prepare the detailed Project Plans and Estimates. This action will be taken within 15 months of the approval.
• The Working Groups will be given the responsibility of certain projects within the Perspective Plan, which could be implemented in- house by the Tourism Department. The implementation action on such projects will commence within 6 months of the approval.
• The Consultants will complete and submit the detailed Project Plans and Estimates within 18 months of approval. The Committees will assess and initiate these projects for implementation within 24 months of approval.
• The Agencies will be appointed for the implementation of the projects. The Project works will commence immediately and shall be completed within 36 months of the approval.
• The Committees will continue regular monitoring and assessment in consultation with the Professional Consultants.
• The routine work and activities of the Tourism Department will continue through the Working Groups of the Tourism Department.
• The Committees will carry out annual Fiscal and Technical audit of the Project Work in progress.
• The further progress of the Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development will continue with the similar strategy according to the phase wise development plan.

The Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development of the State of Mizoram is envisioned for the next 20 years. Such a large and broad visionary plan requires to be phased out in a systematic manner for its realistic detailed planning and implementation.

10. CONCLUSION:

The proposed Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development in Mizoram takes into consideration all facts and recommends new and innovative complementary concepts without too much of financial liabilities. Mizoram Tourism will get a tremendous boost due to these innovative large projects, which have varied character and could attract tourists from varied avenues. It is also possible to attract tourists to Mizoram at multiple times because of these diverse activities and attractions.

Mizoram state, like the others in the Northeast Region, has to deal with various difficulties, infrastructure hurdles and socio-political problems. These are beyond the control of one single state. It will take sometime to resolve these issues, when tourism in the region will start growing. The Perspective Plan envisages this and attempts to make the Tourism Department act like a catalyst to augment the tourism potential of the state. Over the years, tourism will be a community activity in Mizoram with Mizoram Tourism taking a role of the initiator and facilitator.

20 YEARS PERSPECTIVE PLAN
FOR
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE STATE OF MIZORAM

CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION
1. BACKGROUND OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

Man started travelling long distances after the invention of the wheel, about ten thousand years ago. Later on he created carts and also used animals to pull them. This provided speed and comfort to his travels. Some men travelled long distances for different reasons. About 2500 years ago, Goutam Buddha travelled to share the Truth that he had discovered, with the people of the world. His disciples travelled all over the world to spread the message of Buddhism. Alexander the Great, who was born in Greece, travelled eastwards up to India with a mission to conquer the world. About a thousand years ago, Adi Shankaracharya travelled from Kerala to all parts of India to spread the message of Hinduism. In this process, he set up four dhams in four directions of India, which have become sacred places for the people of India to visit every year. A lot of people in India have been travelling every year on pilgrimage tours to the Himalayas and to the sacred rivers of Ganga and Yamuna. Columbus and Vasco-da- Gama travelled in search of new land.
There had been human migrations in history in the quest of fertile land and better opportunities. The Aryans who lived in Central Asia moved to Europe and India for environmental, social, political and economical reasons.
However some people travelled in search of knowledge due to tremendous curiosity. They maintained travel accounts, which became historical records. Chinese travellers, Fa-hien and Hieun Tsang, who visited ancient India, provided a lot of information on ancient India through their travelogues. This was travel, but not Tourism as we see it today.

The concept of Modern Tourism is not more that 50 / 60 years old. The world has become small due to the inventions brought out by the science and technology. Travel and communication has become very easy and convenient. The industrialization has also made our life easy. People do not have to work as hard as they did about a hundred years ago. They have leisure time to rest. They get holidays from work. Employers not only encourage their employees to take holiday, but also subsidies their travel.
This has resulted in a travel boom all over the world. It has been estimated in 1997, that around 500 crores people travel for holidays every year and about 65 crores out of them travel internationally. This travelling to various destinations for pleasure and business cum holiday, by spending your own

money is Modern Tourism. This tourism brings prosperity in the areas visited by people. It also brings people of the world closer to each other.

2. GLOBAL TOURISM TRENDS

Tourism has become one of the most flourishing industries in the world. Today, it is the second largest and fastest growing industry, next only to petroleum industry. Worldwide, tourism is emerging as one of the biggest employers than in any other economic sector. It offers opportunities for economic, cultural and political exchanges, generates employment, foreign exchange and raises living standards. It facilitates social integration and international understanding.

International tourism has grown steadily since 1950, as also tourism expenditure. The revenue from international tourism means a lot to the host country as it is contributed by foreign visitors in foreign exchange. This becomes very useful for the host country for its economic and infrastructure development. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) estimates that international tourist arrivals will exceed 160 crores by the year 2020. Tourism has become so important and competitive that about 150 countries have set up National Tourist Organisations to attract foreign tourists to their countries and also to encourage their own people to travel within their own country.

The following tables will provide a global picture (1996) of the region / country wise distribution of world tourism (Source: WTO):


Table 1: REGION WISE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVALS / RECEIPTS (1995 & 1996):


Region Tourist arrivals (Thousands) % Change Tourist receipts (US $ Million) % Change
1995 1996 96/95 95/94 1995 1996 96/95 95/94
Africa 19,045 19,593 2.9 2.7 6,980 7,621 7.6 7.2
America 110,768 115,572 4.3 4.1 100,225 106,330 6.1 5.4
East
Asia/ Pacific 83,189 89,774 7.9 7.9 72,738 82,207 13.0 16.9
Europe 335,378 347,329 3.6 2.1 202,507 214,673 6.0 15.5
Middle
East 13,703 15,121 10.3 13.2 7,185 8,243 14.7 32.2
South Asia 4,301 4,475 4.0 9.0 3,643 3,948 8.4 14.6
World 566,384 591,864 4.5 3.6 393,278 423,022 7.6 13.1

Table 2: WORLD TOP 20 TOURISM EARNERS (1996)


Rank Country International tourism receipts (US $ Million) % Change 96/95 Market Share
% of World Total
1 United States 64,373 5.29 15.22
2 Spain 28,428 12.17 6.72
3 France 28,211 2.59 6.68
4 Italy 27,349 - 0.37 6.47
5 United Kingdom 20,415 6.70 4.83
6 Austria 15,095 3.26 3.57
7 Germany 13,168 2.79 3.11
8 Hong Kong 11,200 16.62 2.65
9 China 10,500 20.23 2.48
10 Switzerland 9,892 4.58 2.34
11 Singapore 9,410 14.59 2.22
12 Canada 8,727 8.92 2.06
13 Thailand 8,600 12.21 2.03
14 Australia 8,264 16.39 1.95
15 Poland 7,000 9.38 1.65
16 Mexico 6,898 11.91 1.63
17 Turkey 6,536 31.85 1.55
18 Korea Rep. 6,315 13.19 1.49
19 Belgium 5,893 3.04 1.39
20 Netherlands 5,877 2.00 1.33
TOTAL (1-20) 302,181 7.39 71.43
WORLD TOTAL 423,022 7.56 100.00


3. TOURISM POLICY IN INDIA

Economic planning in India has followed the system of five-year plans. Tourism found no mention in the first five-year plan. In the subsequent five- year plans, tourism was included along with the transport sector and emphasis was towards publicity, planning and assistance to states. It is only after 1958, after Tourism development council was established that greater synergy was obtained between various tourism providers, the State Governments, the national carrier, and the travel industry. The economic importance of tourism was formally recognized in the fourth plan with emphasis towards international tourism and creation of tourist infrastructure. In the subsequent policies the focus was towards creation of infrastructure for tourist accommodation. The first attempt to formulate a ‘National Tourism Policy’ was in the year 1982 when a paper on tourism policy was presented before

the parliament, which set long-term direction and purpose to tourism development and promotion in India.

The vast potential and the need for rapid development was recognized only in the seventh plan, subsequent to which tourism was accorded the status of an Industry, thereby encouraging private investments in this sector. In subsequent plans the primary responsibility of tourism development was with the private sector with the State and Central Government only providing essential infrastructure in specified tourism areas. The national action plan for tourism (1992), defines the objectives of tourism development in India and the primary strategy for development.


4. OBJECTIVES OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

The statement on tourism policy, presented to Parliament in 1982, provides the philosophical underpinnings for the promotion of tourism in India as:

d. It is a unifying and a nation-building force, through fostering greater national and international understanding, particularly amongst the youth of the country.
e. It serves to preserve and enrich India’s cultural heritage.
f. It brings socio-economic benefits.


The policy document defines the specific objectives of tourism development in India as:

a. To substantially improve facilities for domestic tourists.
b. To accord high priority to the development of international tourism, in view of the importance of foreign exchange earning and economic contribution.
c. In the recognition of historical and archaeological monuments being the largest element in attracting international tourists to India, to promote cultural tourism. This will be achieved by providing tourist facilities at major centres of cultural interest, in coordination with other agencies including State Governments.
d. Tourism development should be a common endeavour of all agencies, so that the combined effort achieves comprehensive and integrated development, enabling tourism to make a positive and effective contribution to the economic growth of the country. In this effort, the Central Government will have primary responsibility in promoting international tourism, while playing a coordinating role supplementing the state effort wherever necessary.
e. To promote tourism so as to bring sizable socio-economic benefits to those regions of the country which are rich in tourism potential.
f. To promote regional tourism from the South Asian region.
g. To adopt a selective approach to determine investment priorities, by adopting a travel circuit concept that will enable intensive development of

selected destinations, it will encourage diversification of attractions and will open up backward areas, which hold many tourist attractions.
h. To make tourism the vehicle for involving the youth of the country in national integration.
i. To create tourism facilities for the lower middle class and the poorer sections of society.
j. To adopt a marketing strategy that will broaden the tourist base in existing markets, explore new tourist markets, particularly regions where tourist traffic to India has been growing and to promote inter-regional travel. Amongst other regions, the policy document noted the vast Buddhist population in the Far East and the potential in making India a Buddhist destination.
k. To preserve India’s cultural and natural heritage, by educating people in appreciating their heritage.
l. To give the Indian people a sense of unity and identity and a sense of belonging and pride, a broadening of their intellectual, emotional and cultural horizons, and to create a better understanding of the land, people and culture of India amongst international tourists.

Since the presentation of this policy document to Parliament in 1982, the objectives of the Ministry of Tourism have been further refined in the national action plan for tourism 1992, within the overall framework of the policy document. The objectives have been defined as:

a. Socio economic development of regions
b. Increasing employment opportunities to double by the end of the century
c. Developing and promoting domestic tourism
d. Preservation and enrichment of national heritage and environment, including support to arts and crafts
e. Development of international tourism and optimisation of foreign exchange earnings to reach Rs. 100 billion from the present Rs. 24 billion
f. Diversification of the tourism product to incorporate leisure, adventure, convention tourism, while retaining the traditional image of cultural tourism
g. Increase India’s share of world tourist to 1% from the present 0.4%

Over the years, the tourism policy has been evolving; the revenue growth from tourism has been increasing. The foreign exchange earnings from tourism went up from Rs. 320 crores in 1975 to Rs. 11000 crores in 1997 at current prices (Report on Service Industries – Dr. Muthia). Tourism today is among the largest earner of foreign exchange in India.

The strategy for achieving these objectives has been outlined as:

a. Improvement of tourist infrastructure
b. Developing areas on a selective basis for integrated growth, along with the marketing of destinations on the basis of a ‘Special
tourism area’ concept.
c. Restructuring and strengthening of institutions for development of human resources.
d. Evolving a suitable policy for increasing foreign tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings.


5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

Any development has to consider its possible adverse impacts on the surrounding environment and the conservation of various ecological elements must be considered as a priority obligation. The tourism development projects generally tend to be within the ecologically sensitive regions like hills, seashores, lakes, rivers, national parks / sanctuaries, heritage sites. Insensitive and haphazard planning for tourism development can ruin these regions of natural heritage. The tourism development plan for a region must carry out environmental impact assessment and work out the sustainable management strategy.

In the case of Mizoram, which lies in the ecologically sensitive region of the northeast India, the priority consideration for tourism development should be environmental and ecological conservation. The region also has very rich ethnic tribal culture and the whole tourism development plan should be sensitive to all the heritage parameters.

Considering the unique and environmentally fragile region of the northeast India in general, and Mizoram in particular, it is almost imperative that the tourism planning of the region should evolve around the concept of Eco- tourism.


6. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHEAST

From ancient times, India’s Northeast region has been the meeting place of many communities, faiths and cultures. It is a place of magical beauty and bewildering diversity. There are more than 166 ethnic tribes speaking many languages. Some groups have migrated over the centuries from places as far as Southeast Asia. They retain their cultural traditions but are beginning to adapt to contemporary lifestyles. Its jungles used to be dense. Today, the region is considered as one of the unique and fragile Biodiversity Hotspots in the world. The region’s flora and fauna is unique. The terrain is mountainous and rugged. The rivers are mighty. Northeast is unique in lushness of its landscape, the range of communities and geographical and ecological diversity. The region creates enchanting and romantic atmosphere in all the

seasons. The Northeast region includes eight states of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland. The region has interesting international borders with Myanmar, China, Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh.
It is unfortunate that due to socio-political and geographical reasons, entire Northeast has remained neglected and backward from the development. In spite of very high literacy rate in the region (around 80%), the progress and benefits have not reached the Northeast even today. The concept of Tourism development is very recent in this region and is in its infancy. A few states like Sikkim and Assam have taken a few strides in developing tourism, with emphasis on eco-tourism, wildlife tourism, cultural tourism and adventure tourism. The other states have also commenced their efforts during the last decade.

Fig. 1: Map of Northeast Region


However, the tourism development of the Northeast region needs to be targeted as a regional approach rather than individual state approach. The basic needs for tourism development of the region are efficient infrastructure, good connectivity between the states and peace in the region. The entry permit formality required for a few states for the both domestic and international tourists is a major deterrent for the region’s tourist attraction.
The region has tremendous and diverse potential for tourism development, which could attract international and domestic tourists. Concerted and sincere efforts are required from the Central Government to unify these eight states for the infrastructure development and the achievement of peace in the region.


7. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN MIZORAM

Mizoram, a mountainous region that became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987, is sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and the south and Bangladesh and Tripura in the west with its northern frontiers touching Assam and Manipur states. An amalgam of the former north and south Lushai hill districts, Mizoram literally means ‘Land of the Highlanders’. The Mizos belonging to Mongoloid race are original settlers of the Shan state of Burma. They are divided into several tribes, which have turned to Christianity now. Mizoram hills are steep and run north – south and are separated by rivers, which flow in between creating deep gorges. Mizo community is changing fast and adopting western culture. Many of the present customs are mixtures of their old tradition and western style of life.
Mizoram has the highest literacy rate (95%) in the country (Source: Adult Education, 2001) and people are peaceful and hospitable. This state is a storehouse of natural beauty with its diverse flora and fauna, lush green landscapes, pleasant climate and jubilant people.


The young state of Mizoram is economically weak and entirely depends on its agriculture. Inefficient infrastructure and poor connectivity are the major deterrents for the tourists. The entry permit formality for the both domestic and international tourists is another hurdle for tourists. However, the State Department of Tourism has developed satisfactory tourist facilities, within a short span of its activity. The state has excellent potential for tourism development with emphasis on ecotourism and adventure tourism. The government of Miaoram has realized the potential in the tourism sector and has given thrust on the development of tourism by way of creating basic infrastructure and promoting whatever amenities that are required to attract tourist from outside. As a consequence Mizoram is fast coming up on the tourist map of the country. However the success of its tourism highly depends on the infrastructure development of the entire Northeast region.

Fig. 2 – Map of Mizoram:



8. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The Department of Tourism, Govt. of India proposed to carry out this study in order to prepare a 20 years perspective plan for the sustainable development of tourism in various Indian states with following major objectives:

a. Prepare a 20 years perspective plan for developing sustainable tourism in the state, giving phased programme considering the resources available
b. Indicate short-term and long-term plans, targets and ground realities
c. Indicate all activities to be undertaken by different agencies with a definite time frame to achieve these activities
d. Assess the existing tourism scenario in the state with respect to natural resources, heritage and other socio-cultural assets, quantitative and demographic factors like population, employment, occupation, income levels, services and infrastructure etc.
e. Review and evaluate the status of existing tourism schemes in the state
f. Plan expansion / up gradation to the existing facilities and also propose new tourism projects

g. Arrive at an indicative cost configuration of likely investment on infrastructure development and prioritise investment needs over the next 20 years
h. Prepare an action plan for implementation of potential development schemes in conformity with the guidelines provided by the concerned state / central departments and the funding agencies
i. Indicate projected tourist arrivals and prioritise the schemes for employment generation
j. Prepare strategy for the participation of local people in the tourism development
k. Deal with environmental issues of the tourism sites and suggest measures for the mitigation of adverse impacts
l. Suggest strategy for privatisation of the tourism infrastructure owned by the state
m. Consider and suggest sources of funding for the tourism development in the state and strategy to develop a coordinating agency in the state
n. Work out strategy to project and protect cultural identity of the state and her ethnic people through appropriate tourism plans


9. METHODOLOGY

The Technical proposal (appendix – a) and the Inception Report (appendix –
b) provide the details of the methodology and approach for this study. The study has been conducted according to the broad guidelines provided by the Department of Tourism, Government of India.

The study was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of experts under the overall coordination of the Principal Investigator (PI) and the Co-investigator (CI). The study commenced in March 2002 with literature survey and strategic planning. Formats for questionnaire and interviews were prepared. Two field visits (approx. one week each) were carried out in April and May 2002. Two separate teams visited the state independently. The PI and CI carried out their visits along with the tourism officials, whereas other team visited various destinations on their own like ordinary tourists. The team members traversed approximately 3200 Kms of distance in the state during the field visits, using different modes of travel. (See appendix – e & f, Interim Reports 1 & 2). The questionnaires (appendix – b) were sent to people (sample size 100) from various categories connected directly or indirectly with tourism in the Northeast. Extensive interviews were carried out in a predesigned format (appendix – c) with selected individuals (over 50 nos.) connected with tourism development and government sector. The difficult terrain and adverse climatic conditions created several hurdles for the field studies. However, in spite of all odds and shortage of time, interesting data was collected, analysed and the findings are used for the preparation of this report. Additionally, extensive photo documentation has also been carried out.

CHAPTER – 2 MIZORAM
1. INTRODUCTION

Mizoram is a small and young state of Indian Union. It had its full-fledged statehood on the 20th February 1987 as the 23rd state of Indian Union by an Act of Parliament in the wake of a Peace Accord singed by the Government of India and Mizo National Front on the 30th June 1986. The state of Mizoram occupies important place in India because of its long international borderline, its attainment of the highest position in literacy rate in India and the achievement of some youths in national and international sport events in the recent years. The scenic beauty, the flora and fauna, the unique socio- cultural life of peace loving and jubilant people and the pleasant climatic condition is a fascination for people from outside the state and also the foreign nationals. However, poor infrastructure facilities, restrictions for entry and uncomfortable socio-political situation in the northeast region have been the major deterrents for outside tourists to the region and the state. A gradual improvement in the situation is showing positive signs for the development of the region, particularly for Mizoram since it is the most peaceful state of India today. (See appendix – d, General Information)


2. GEOGRAPHY

The geographical location of Mizoram is between the latitude 21 58’ N and 24 35’ N and the longitude 9215’ E and 93 29’ E. The tropic of Cancer runs through the Southern periphery of Aizawl town at 23 30’ N latitude.
The state covers the area of 21,087 Sq. Kms bordered by Bangladesh and Tripura in the west, Myanmar in the east and south and Assam and Manipur in the north. Mizoram has a great strategic importance for India since it has 630 Kms international border with Myanmar and Bangladesh.

The topography of Mizoram is mountainous with three hill ranges running north – south parallel to each other. The hill slopes are very steep creating narrow and deep gorges through which flow various rivers, northwards and southwards. A very small portion lies in the plains situated in the midst of hills and narrow valleys. The largest of these plains is Champhai, situated on the eastern border of the state, bordering Myanmar. It has a length of about 11 Kms. and maximum width of about 5 Kms. The other major plains are Vanlaiphai and Thenzawl. The major parts of these plains have been converted into rice fields. The average height of the hills is about 900 meters on the west, rising to about 1,500 meters further east and in place crossing 2,000 meters. The highest peak Phawngpui having an altitude of 2,157 meters lies in the Blue Mountains situated in the south Chhimtuipui district. The other main peaks are Lengteng (2,141 meters), Sur Tlang (1,967 meters), Lurh Tlang (1,935 meters), Tan tlang (1,929 meters).

There are many rivers in Mizoram but only a few of them are large enough to be mentioned. The rivers of northern Mizoram flow towards the north and ultimately meet the Barak river of Assam plains. The rivers in south Mizoram flow towards the south. The important rivers in the northern portion of the state are Tlawng or Dhaleswari (185.15 Kms.), Tuirial or Sonai (117.53 Kms.) and Tuivawl (72.45 Kms.). The southern hills are drained by the Chhimtuipui or Kolodyne (138.46 Kms.) and its tributaries Mat, Trichang, Tiau and Tuipui. The Khawthlangtuipui or Karnaphuli (128.08) with its tributaries Tuichwng, Kau, De, Phairuang and Tuilianpui form the western drainage system. It is interesting to observe that the Kolodyne enters Mizoram from the Haka area of Myanmar and flows in the northwestern direction till it joins the river Mat. Thereafter, it takes a half-circle bend towards the south and flows again to Myanmar (Arakan). Except Kolodyne, all the rivers are fed by monsoon rain only. They swell rapidly during the rains and recede abruptly shortly after the rains. In winter many rivers dry up. Only the Tlawng, Tuirial and the Khawthlangtuipui are navigable throughout the year.

Vantawngkhawhtha la (approx. 250 meters), on the river Vanva, is the highest waterfall. The hills are dotted with idyllic lakes (dil), the famous being Tamdil, Palakdial and Rungdil.

Geologically, the hills in Mizoram are comparatively young and mostly composed of soft sandstone and slate. The soil type generally found in the state is a clayey loam mixed with broken angular shale of varying sizes.
Though there is a fair percentage of clay in the soil, the water holding capacity of the soil is very low and due to this, the topsoil becomes very dry during winter. In the southern portion the soil is more clayey and deeper than in the north. Due to the continuous washing away of the alkaline soil by the rainwater, the soil of Mizoram is generally acidic in nature but the soil in the plains is rich alluvial.

With its moderate height and fairly heavy rainfall, Mizoram has a pleasant climate, moderately warm in summer and not very cold in winter. Barring the winter frost in some places, there is no snowfall on the hills of the state. The temperature ranges between 11 C to 21C in winter and 20C to 30 C in summer with heavy monsoon rain from May to September. The entire territory is under the direct influence of the monsoon. The average rainfall is
217.50 cm. per annum in Mizoram (Source:Statistical Handbook, Mizoram).


3. PEOPLE AND CULTURE

The historians believe that the Mizos were a part of the great wave of the Mongolian race spilling over into the eastern and southern Asia centuries ago. They have yellowish skin colour, flat nose, broad face, straight hair, and medium to short stature, comparatively long body and short legs. Their language belongs to Tibeto Burman family. The word Mizo is a generic term and literally means hill men or highlanders. Under this, there are various sub

groups like Paite, Hmar, Mara, Lai, Luisei, Ralte, Ranglong, Bawm. Pang etc. All these groups have separate dialect, which are closely akin to each other.
The most common language is Lusei and the dialect is known as Duhlian tawng or Mizotawng, which is used as local official language in addition to English. The language has no script of its own, however sometime around 1894; the missionaries brought it to a written form in Roman script. Since then, the Christianity and education simultaneously spread far and wide over the whole Mizoram. Today the 95% population follows Christianity and the literacy rate is the highest in the country (95%). The present Mizo population is composed of fifteen broadly divided ethnic communities. There are two distinct cultural regions in the state, though the people live in the same natural environment. The first group follows the Mizo way of life, which is mostly governed by Christian ethic. The second group, consisting of Chakma, Magh and a section of the Riang, follows a way of life, which is governed by a mixture of the ideals of Buddhism and animism.

The gregarious and close-knit society of Mizos evolved some principles of self-help and co-operation to meet social obligations and responsibilities. Many public utility services were provided through voluntary community works known as Hnatlang, wherein every family contributes labour for the welfare of the community. The Mizos also established a unique code of ethics called Tlawmngaihna, which stands basically for selfless service for the others. It is a compelling moral force that requires a man to be hospitable, kind, unselfish, courageous and helpful to the others. Tlawmngaihna is the core of their philosophy of life. The spirit of Hhnatlang combined with Tlawmngaihna makes it mandatory for the Mizos to render all possible help on occasions of marriage, public feast, accident and death. In spite of many changes in the socio- cultural life of the Mizos, the spirit of Tlawmngaihna is popularize and well fostered by the biggest voluntary organization in Mizoram called Young Mizo Association (YMA). This association has its headquarters in the capital city of Aizawl and branches in every locality and village in and outside Mizoram. One of the aims and objectives of the YMA is to preserve and promote Mizo culture through the spirit of Tlawmngaihna or selfless service.

The Mizos are highly cultured, jovial and sociable people having no class or caste distinction. Their three main festivals are – Mim Kut, Chapchar Kut and Pawl Kut. These festivals are in one way or another associated with their agricultural activities, which their main occupation. The Mizos love to dance and sing. They can boast of a number of folk and community dances, which have been handed down from on generation to the other through the ages.
The dances are expressions of the gay, carefree spirit of the Mizos and they are performed for community involvement and participation. Some major ethnic dances of Mizos are – Cheraw, Khuallam, Chheih-lam, Chai, Rallu- lam, Solakia, Sarlamkai, and Par-lam.

Fig. 3 – Children of Mizoram:





Since 1899, when the Christianity was first introduced in Mizoram, many old, ethnic religious and cultural practices have now been discarded. Mizos embraced the new faith with such dedication that it brought a tremendous change in their thought process and social life. Present Mizo society, both urban and rural, is guided by this faith and their notion of ritual values; customs and lifestyle have undergone drastic changes. Even the traditional festivals are dying out and new festivals like Christmas and New Year have become popular. However, a few present customs are still a mixture of their old tradition and western pattern of life. Recently, the government of Mizoram understood the importance of the traditional festival and set up a separate wing in the education department just to revive their traditional festivals, music and songs.

Agriculture is the major of the people of Mizoram. Shifting cultivation (Jhumming) is pre-dominantly practiced in Mizoram, which has degraded the natural forests of Mizoram to a very large extent. Presently, efforts are on to wean away the farmers from the destructive practice of Jhumming and adopt new and sustainable agricultural practices.

Though a late starter in the sphere of development, a greater part of Mizoram is undergoing rapid progress with the objective of gaining lost grounds and progressing along with the rest of the country.


4. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY

The geographical location and the rugged topography have blessed Mizoram with unique natural environment. The state situated in the transitional region of tropical and temperate environment is also bestowed with hills having steep slopes, deep valleys, rivers, natural lakes, plains etc. thus creating

varied ecosystems in a relatively small region. The forests of Mizoram could be broadly classified as: North – Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest
South – Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest
East – Subtropical Pine Forest (mixed with broad leaved species)

The forest-clad mountains of Mizoram were rich in flora and fauna. However, the tremendous biotic influence exerted by way of jhumming and burning has retrograded the forest to a drier and more deciduous, more open and shrubby type mainly covered by bamboos and wild plantains. The most common species of the earlier virgin forests, Dipterocarpus turbinatus is not visible now except in the deep and moist river valleys. However, the region has a variety of interesting plant species e.g. orchids, Rhododendron sp., palms and many medicinal plants.

Large-scale hunting has taken heavy toll of Mizoram’s wildlife. The region was once rich with wildlife like tiger, elephant, gaur, wild buffalo, black bear, deer, goral, serrow, wild cats, wild boar, monkeys etc. and a variety of birds like hornbills, pheasants etc. However, today the wildlife is scarcely existent. Approximately 30% of the total area of the state has reserve forest and is under the control of the state forest department. Additionally, three district councils have their own reserve forests.

Fig. 4 – Natural Beauty of Mizoram:


Prompted by the awareness and need of the forest and wildlife conservation, the forest department has been initiating various measures. There is a conscious effort to follow the National Forest Policy, 1988 norm to bring the 2/3 of the geographical area of this hilly terrain under the forest cover. The government launched a massive project called ‘Green Mizoram’ in June 2000. A large-scale afforestation of degraded lands has been taken up at district levels with community participation. Additionally, Joint Forest Management, Community Biodiversity Conservation Project, Eco-

development in protected areas; Medicinal Plant Project etc. have been initiated.

However, the basic approach and concept has been towards the afforestation for exploitation rather than for biodiversity conservation and this needs to be changed.
Some of the Wildlife Protected Areas of Mizoram:


1. Dampa Tiger Reserve: Situated in the western Mizoram close to Bangladesh border. Area approx. 500 Sq. Km. Major wildlife includes tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, wild dog, sambar, sloth bear, deer, hoolock gibbon etc.

2. Murlen National Park: Situated on the east of Aizawl, close to the Indo-Myanmar border. Area approx. 150 Sq. Kms. Major wildlife includes tiger, leopard, Himalayan black bear, hoolock gibbon, goral, serrow, deer, pheasants etc.

3. Phawngpui National Park: Situated in the southeastern Mizoram close to Myanmar border. Area approx. 50 Sq. Km. Major wildlife includes goral, sambar, leopard, hoolock gibbon, deer, pheasants etc.

4. Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary: Situated in the southwestern Mizoram close to Indo-Myanmar and Indo-Bangladesh border. Are approx. 110 Sq. Km. Major wildlife includes tiger, clouded leopard, elephant, gaur, deer, hoolock gibbon, leaf monkey etc.

5. Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary: Situated in the Eastern Mizoram adjacent to Murlen National Park. Area approx. 80 Sq. Km. Major wildlife includes tiger, leopard, sambar, deer, goral, serrow, hoolock gibbon, pheasants etc.

6. Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary: Situated in the central Mizoram. Area approx. 35 Sq. Km. Major wildlife includes leopard, deer, sambar, hoolock gibbon, wild boar etc.

7. Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary: Situated in the central Mizoram. Area approx. 50 Sq. Km. Major wildlife includes tiger, leopard, deer, sambar, hoolock gibbon, wild boar etc.


The state government has identified interesting natural features for general awareness about the state’s natural treasure:

State animal: Hoolock Gibbon (Hauhuk)
State Bird : Hume’s Bartailed Pheasant (Vavu) State Flower: Dancing Girl Orchid (Aiting) State Tree : Mesua ferrea (Nahar, Herhse)

Fig. 5 – Orchids of Mizoram:





5. SOCIO-ECONOMICS

Mizos are the products of primary societies and confederations of tribes without any strong economic and professional foundation. They have little background and training even as traders and merchants. Manufacturing was unknown. However, in spite of various geographical and socio-political handicaps, Mizos have advanced considerably on the socio-economic front. The Mizos explored the economic potential of their natural resources, which is visible from their indigenous utilization of cane, bamboo, leaves, herbs and other forest products for their needs. Due to the lack of contacts with the neighbouring plains, the trade and commerce was reduced to bear minimum. Thus the Mizos applied their genius just to meet their own requirements. A small trade use to be carried out with the neighbouring tribes in cotton, wax, cane and bamboo.

In the absence of economic infrastructure and other manufacturing agencies, agriculture continues to be the main occupation of about 90 % of people in Mizoram. The 1961 census revealed the poor economic condition of Mizoram while it was one of the districts of Assam. It contributed only 1.5 % of the state’s income. The total income of Mizoram district was estimated at Rs.
5.36 crores of which 77 % came from agriculture, 1% from mining and manufacturing, 5.6 % from commerce, transport etc., 13 % from Public services and the balance from the other services. The per capita income stood at Rs. 206/- then.

The situation has improved quite a lot today. However, major economy is still based on Agriculture and Government Service sector. The agricultural sector

is passing through a lot of transformation. The farmers are being motivated to accept the latest technologies for agriculture. The agriculture is also being industrialised to enable agriculture products to be exported in turn giving stable and profitable income to the farmers.

Mizoram has remained backward industrially. The backwardness is attributed to physical and psychological alienation, lack of mineral resources, and distance from the mainland India and communication bottlenecks. For the first time Industrial Policy of Mizoram was announced in 1989. The new industrial policy 200 will accelerate the pace of industrial development in the State. The state government is following the policy of setting up Industrial Estates and Industrial Growth Centre. The major industrial growth is likely to be in the sector of agro industries like food processing units, meat processing units, handloom and handicrafts, sericulture, spices etc. Experimentation in tea and coffee cultivation is also going on. Passion fruit juice is likely to become a major income earner soon. The state government has established various independent corporations to look after the interests of these sectors.

However, for a state like Mizoram, which is blessed with natural resources, any attempt of socio-economic development has to be considered with utmost concern for the natural environment. And considering this factor alone agriculture and tourism could be the best alternatives for the bright future of Mizoram.

Fig. 6 – Jhoom Cultivation:


6. EVOLUTION

The social evolution of the Mizo society from the ethnic tribal community to the post-modern society of today, just over the span of about 200 years is incredible. It shows the tenacity and adaptability of this unique community. The economic growth of the Mizo society may not be satisfactory in comparison with the other states; however, the astonishing growth in the literacy rate is commendable. More so when one considers that the majority of this population lives in rural areas. A large number of Mizo youth,

including girls is going out for higher education in the professional fields of medicine, engineering, architecture etc. Also striking is the transformation from the traditional militancy to the present peace loving culture. At the same time, the ancient traditions of self-service have been carefully nurtured, preserved and transformed into a unique movement of voluntary organizations in the state. The adaptation of the ancient democratic administrative practices into the present day democratic political system through the network of Village Councils is also interesting and educative.
The dress code of Mizos has gone through a drastic change. Today Mizos, both men and women wear western attire. The traditional dresses and jewellery has been transformed into modern fashion designs. However, during this rapid social evolution of the Mizo society, the ethnic ethos has still remained intact. That is the major asset of Mizoram.

Fig. 7 – Evolving Mizos:


CHAPTER – 3 TOURISM IN MIZORAM

1. TOURISM STATUS

Mizoram is one of the youngest states in the country. The location of the state in the northeast region of the country, isolated from the mainland India has brought in a few inherent problems. The entire region has remained neglected, backward and undeveloped. The socio-economic and infrastructure status is poor, causing unrest and frustration amongst the people, which resulted in a long-term insurgency in the entire northeast region. Mizoram was under insurgency for over two decades and has gone through a state of turmoil. As such the socio-economic development in general and the tourism development in particular has been lagging behind the other states for over 20 years. The strides in the direction of development truly started 1987 onwards, after the historic Mizoram Accord was signed (30 June 1986) and the independent statehood was given to Mizoram (20 February 1987).

The status of tourism is reflected in the following statistical data of tourist visits in the northeast and Mizoram (Source: Tourist Statistics – 2000, page 58-59, Dept. of Tourism, GOI):

Table 3:ESTIMATED DOMESTIC & FOREIGN TOURIST VISITS (1998 –2000)

1998 1999 2000 Prop. to the total (%)
Location Dom. For. Dom. For. Dom. For. Dom. For.
Northeast Region (7states except Sikkim) 529784 2909 567284 3570 1489112 11788 0.7 0.2
Mizoram 23998 126 27139 216 28221 235 0.0 0.0


Apart from poor infrastructure and communication facilities, entry formality is a major deterrent. There is also shortage of accommodation. Private entrepreneurs are not coming up for hotel business due to heavy capital investments and very slow or no returns. The state tourism department has created satisfactory tourist facilities with the state and central assistance. However, the tourism has remained very local and increased very marginally.

2. TOURISM POTENTIAL
Mizoram is a mountainous state with interesting topography. Natural beauty in various forms is the major asset of Mizoram. Lush green vegetation having interesting flora and fauna, deep valleys with clean rivers, natural lakes, hill agriculture and pleasant climate throughout the year are unique natural features of Mizoram. Additionally, the ethnic tribal culture reflected through folk dances, music, festivals and handicrafts are major tourist attractions.
Mizoram also has her own unique identities reflected through selfless social culture, peace loving, hospitable and jovial people, rapid social evolution of the Mizo society, very high literacy rate, interesting and indigenous architecture, class / caste less society and beggar free urban areas. The unique geographical location with the tropic of cancer passing through the heart of Mizoram and also long international boundary with Myanmar and Bangladesh could be another tourist feature.

It is quite clear that Mizoram has tremendous and quite unique tourism potential. This could be tapped mainly through the concept of eco-tourism. Nature / wildlife tourism, adventure tourism, cultural / heritage tourism, leisure tourism, international border tourism could be some special tourist packages.


3. PEOPLE’S OUTLOOK TOWARDS TOURISM

Mizo society is a very sociable and hospitable community. The traditional concept of ‘Tlawmngaihna’ meaning selfless service is the core of their philosophy, even today in spite of changing westernised outlook. Service oriented and democratic culture is reflected in their traditional systems, which have been continued through the network of village councils and voluntary organizations. People’s outlook towards tourism is sympathetic and will be full of enthusiasm. In fact, community participation in tourism development could be a great success in Mizoram.


4. GOVERNMENT’S OUTLOOK TOWARDS TOURISM

The tourism had a subordinate status prior to 1987 in Mizoram when it was a part of the Department of Information and Public Relations. Since 1987, the Department of Tourism is looking after the activities of tourism development in the state. The state government has realized the importance of tourism development as a support to cultural and socio-economic development of the state. The government has given the thrust on the creation of basic infrastructure and amenities required for tourists. This has been done mainly through the assistance provided by the central government.

The state government declared its Industrial Policy in March 1993, wherein the tourism has been declared as an industry. Many incentives and financial assistance are being proposed for creation of tourist infrastructure through private participation. However there have been no responses till now.

The Department of Tourism, Govt. of India, under the ministry of Tourism and Culture has been providing liberal financial and technical support for the tourism development in the state based on the projects received from the states. Additionally, a special plan outlay has been provided under the ninth plan since the year 2000-2001 for the tourism development in the northeast states to the tune of lump sum 10% of the overall budget. This is a conscious and sympathetic attempt for the socio-economical upliftment of the north- eastern states through the upcoming tourism industry.In general, the outlook of the state government towards the tourism development is full of optimism. However, it will be dependent on the central assistance for a few years.


5. PRESENT BUDGET AND ECONOMICS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

The main sources of finances for the tourism development in the state are from the normal annual budget of the state and the central financial assistance for the definite projects.
Table 4: State budget for the tourism development for the years 1999-2000 to 2002-2003 (Source: Dept. of Tourism, Mizoram):

YEAR AMOUNT IN RS.LAKHS
1999 – 2000 133.75
2000 – 2001 168.80
2001 - 2002 226.24
2002 – 2003 235.50


The Department of Tourism collects revenue from the room rents and food costs at the tourist infrastructure run by the department. This amounts to approx. Rs. 25 to Rs. 30 Lakhs, which is credited to the government revenue every year.

Table 5: Expenditure (2000-2001) on the maintenance of the existing infrastructure (Source: Dept. of Tourism, Mizoram)
The rates fixed by the department for the amenities provided by them are very reasonable and are based on the per diem rates of the state government for its o








o
official’s on duty. This rationale looks fine since the government officials on duty are using the amenities regularly.

The state entirely depends on the central assistance for the creation of tourism infrastructure.

The following statement will give an idea of the assistance provided to the state from 1998-99 to 2000-01 (Source: Tourist Statistics, 2000, Page 117, Dept. of Tourism, GOI):

Table 6: STATEMENT SHOWING THE PROJECTS / AMOUNT SANCTIONED DURING 1998-99 TO 2000-2001 (Rs. In Lakhs)


1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001
State No
. of pro
jec ts Amt. Sancd. Amt. Reled. No
. of pro
ject s Amt. Sancd. Amt. Reled. No. of pro ject
s Amt. Sancd. Amt. Reled.
Mizo- ram 8 203.34 137.95 13 297.23 157.01 13 309.19 95.33

Additionally, a special plan outlay was provided under the ninth plan from the year 2000-2001 for the tourism development in the northeast states to the tune of lump sum 10% of the overall budget (Source: Tourist Statistics, 2000, Page 113-115, Dept. of Tourism, GOI):

2000-2001 - B.E. Rs. 13.50 Crores R.E. Rs. 12.50 Crores
2001-2002 - B.E. Rs. 14.80 Crores

Table 7: Allocation to northeast Region under the 9th Plan
The break up of allocation is as under:

1 Tourist Infrastructure (Revenue) Rs. 1.00
Crores
2 Tourist Information & Publicity (Revenue) Rs. 3.00
3 Computerisation & Information Technology (Revenue) Rs. 1.00
4 Training (Revenue) Rs. 1.00
5 Tourist Infrastructure (Capital) Rs. 8.80
TOTAL Rs. 14.80

At present, the Department of Tourism, Mizoram is carrying on its tourism development activities on the dependent economy. It is barely managing to meet the recurring expenditure through revenue generation. It will be difficult to continue this way in the long run, when major costs for the renovation / repairs of the existing infrastructure will crop up.

6. SUSTAINABILITY

In the present scenario, the state government’s outlook towards the tourism development is of total dependence on central assistance. There are proposed plans for privatisation but the possibility of their success looks bleak.
Considering the external adverse factors of complex nature, which are beyond the control of the state government, it is unlikely that the tourism development in the state can be self-sustaining in the near future.

However looking at the bright tourism potential, enthusiasm of the state government, peaceful ambience and the expected rise in the tourist arrival, it looks quite possible to make the tourism in the state sustainable in a decade. It will require futuristic vision, conscious and planned efforts at all levels and a disciplined action plan and implementation strategy. In the meanwhile, sympathetic approach of the central government will be required to stabilize the socio-political situation in the northeast followed by overall infrastructure development in the region.

CHAPTER – 4

BASIC TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN MIZORAM

1. COMMUNICATION NETWORK

a. International

At present, there is no direct international communication network to Mizoram except for Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Myanmar can be approached by road through Mizoram from the check post near the village Zokhawthar in Champhai district. The road passes over a narrow bridge on the river Tiau, which is the Indo- Myanmar border.

Bangladesh can be approached by a ferry through the river Khawthlangtuipui near Tlabung.

For all other international tourists, the nearest airport is Kolkata (West Bengal).

b. National

By Air: Lengpui Airport (approx. 43 Kms from Aizawl), connected via Kolkata (West Bengal) and Imphal (Manipur). Other airports in the Northeast region are Guwahati and Silchar (Assam), which have road transport connections to Mizoram.

By Train: Bairabi in Kolasib district, only goods trains. The other nearest station for passenger trains is Silchar (Assam), which has road transport connection to Mizoram.

By Road: NH – 54 via Silchar (Assam). Private and state transport buses, private taxis (Tata Sumo jeeps) regularly operate on this road.

c. Regional

Northeast region is connected to Mizoram by road via Silchar (Assam). Private and state transport buses operate from Guwahati (Assam), Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Agartala (Tripura) to Silchar.

d. State
Private and state transport buses connect all the district places by road. Buses and Taxis (unmetered) operate in most of the district HQs and the surrounding region for local travel.

2. TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK

Telephone network with ISD, STD facilities is available only at a few district HQs. Local network is remotely available in some regions. The connectivity is very poor.

Telegraph, Telex, Trunk, Phonogram etc. services are available at the Post Offices at the major district HQs. Postal services and Courier services are also available from major district HQs, however the service is very slow.


3. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Internet network is available only in the capital city of Aizawl. The connectivity is very poor.

There is an All India Radio station at Aizawl, which broadcasts regular programmes.
Satellite cable TV Network is available in the major district HQs.

The major news agencies like PTI and UNI have permanent correspondents at Aizawl. A Media Centre of Press Information Bureau has been established at Aizawl.

There are about 35 daily newspapers and 50 news magazines (Mizo and English) published at Aizawl.


4. ENTRY PERMIT OFFICES

Inner Line permits (ILP) for Indian tourists are issued through the Resident Commissioners / Liaison Officers, Mizoram at their offices in New Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, Silchar. They are also issued at the Lengpui (Aizawl) airport.

Restricted Area Permits (RAP) for foreign tourists are issued by the Resident Commissioner, Mizoram House, New Delhi, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, New Delhi, Foreigners’ Regional Registration Offices at Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and all Indian Missions abroad.


5. TOURISM DEPARTMENT

The office of the Director, Department of Tourism, Mizoram is located at Aizawl.
The Liaison Officers at Mizoram Houses at Kolkata (West Bengal), New Delhi, Shillong (Meghalaya), Guwahati and Silchar (Assam) also provide tourist information.

6. NETWORK OF INFORMATION CENTRES

The tourism information is available at the Office to the Director, Aizawl and also at the other centres at Kolkata, New Delhi, Shillong, Guwahati and Silchar.

However, there is no networking amongst these offices and all the bookings etc. will have to be done through the main office at Aizawl.

The contacts with the main office at Aizawl could be made through phones, fax, post, courier etc. This office is not connected through Internet.


7. ACCOMMODATION FACILITIES

The Department of Tourism, Mizoram has tourist facilities at 18 destinations all over Mizoram. They have total capacity of 136 rooms having 322 beds.

Fig. 8 – Tourist Lodge, Lunglei:


There are 9 private hotels in Aizawl with a total capacity of 180 rooms having 285 beds.

(See appendix – e, Tourist Accommodation)

Additionally, there are government guest / circuit houses at the district HQs and the Forest Rest Houses of the Forest Departments near the forest divisions / protected areas.
There are modest facilities provided by the Youth Hostel Association and the Young Mizo Association at a few places.

8. RESTAURANTS

The Department of Tourism has provided restaurant facility at all the tourist facilities. They also have Cafeterias and Wayside Amenities at a few places.

There are many medium / small private restaurants in the major cities at the district HQs. There are several small restaurants / eateries along the National Highway, near the villages.

Most of the restaurants serve simple non-vegetarian food. There is total prohibition in Mizoram and liquor is not allowed.

9. BASIC SERVICES

a. Water

Mizoram, in general has a shortage of drinking water supply due to the hilly terrain. Ground water table is low at most of the places. The major cities at district HQs have piped water supply from local reservoirs or tube wells. The other areas depend on the local tube wells, rivers and ponds. Rainwater harvesting is a very common and popular phenomenon in almost all the villages. This is done through masonry tanks along the hill slopes and through G.I. / Aluminium / PVC tanks storing roof water at individual houses.

b. Sanitation / Garbage disposal

In general, public / community toilets and sanitary network is very poor even within the major cities.
Sanitary system in the cities is through local septic tanks and soak pits, wherein subsoil water is drained down the hill slopes.
In the villages, a few houses have septic tanks system. Otherwise sewage is generally drained down the hill slopes.The situation is same for the garbage disposal. In major cities, the garbage is dumped on the outskirts in valleys / lowlands.

c. Power

Mizoram is dependent on Assam for its power supply and the present status of power supply is much below the normal standards.

There are five Hydro Electric Projects proposed for Mizoram, out of which Bairabi HEP is almost completed and has capacity to produce 80 Mega Watt power. The other four projects are likely to produce about 400 MW power, on their completion.

d. Market

The major market in Mizoram is at the capital city of Aizawl. The districts HQs have medium size markets. All villages have weekly markets and also petty shops.However, major market supplying / marketing all necessary goods is at Silchar (Assam).

The proposed International Trade Centres on Myanmar and Bangladesh border may open large avenue for trade.

e. Medical

There are no major public hospitals in Mizoram.

Aizawl city has three medium size private hospitals. There are Primary Health Centres at village levels.

There is a good network of voluntary organizations working in the field of Community and Social Health.

Many Church establishments provide reasonable medical facilities

f. Banks

Three nationalized banks, State Bank of India, Vijaya Bank, UCO Bank operate in Mizoram.Additionally, there is a network of co- operative banks of Mizoram, well spread out at the district & taluka level.

However, there are no ATM centers. Credit card facilities are also not available.

g. Entertainment

There are a very few places for general entertainment, that too restricted to major cities. Aizawl city has three cinema halls, a few cultural centres and two clubs. There are a few small gardens and playgrounds. The Department of Tourism and Forest Department have developed a few picnic spots around Aizawl.

In general, sports and music / dance are major entertainments for the Mizos and any open ambience is used for this purpose. Ethnic festivals at different intervals are the main occasions of jubilation, apart from Christmas and New Year celebrations.

h. Security

The capital city of Aizawl has two police stations and two police outposts. There is also a special Narcotic Cell.
The other district HQs also have fair network of police stations and outposts.

The presence of Army Cantonments, GREF establishments and BRF at regular intervals also bring in the feeling of security.

In general, crime rate is very low in Mizoram.

CHAPTER – 5

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FACTORS

2. NORTHEAST REGION (8 states – Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur & Nagaland):

General Negative Factors of NE Region:

a. Insurgency
b. Isolated, Neglected & Backward region
c. Difficult / rugged terrain
d. Intermittent adverse climatic conditions, particularly in monsoon
e. Earthquake prone region
f. Inappropriate Time Zone
g. Poor communication infrastructure / connectivity to mainland and also within the NE states
h. Poor development infrastructure: power, roads, industry, transportation
i. Lack of higher / Professional education & research facilities
j. Jhum cultivation causing degradation of natural resources
k. Lack of exposure to the outside world
l. Lack of professionalism in attitude and management
m. Lack of discipline
n. Lack of emergency medical facilities
o. Loss of ethnic culture especially in the hilly region


General Positive Factors of NE Region:

a. Wonderful Natural Beauty of Mountains and Rivers
b. Unique and endemic flora and fauna
c. Large percentage of land under forest cover
d. Low population density
e. Clean and unpolluted Environment
f. Closeness to five international boundaries – Nepal, Bhutan, China,
Myanmar, Bangladesh
g. Peaceful cultural relationship with international communities of Myanmar and Bangladesh
h. Diversity of very charming ethnic cultures
i. Diversity of folk art forms particularly music and dances
j. Peaceful intermingling of diverse communities, faiths and cultures
k. Hospitality and warmth of people
l. Mysticism of the region creating awe and curiosity
m. Great potential for Eco-tourism and Adventure tourism
n. Unexplored region for tourism development

2. MIZORAM STATE:

General Negative Factors of Mizoram:

a. Degradation of forests / wildlife
b. Entry formalities i.e. ILP / RAP
c. Poor Connectivity to the other northeast states and mainland
d. Poor infrastructure of road / rail / air
e. Loss of ethnic culture
f. Poor Water and Power supply
g. Health Hazard – mosquitoes, excessive smoking and chewing of Pan / tobacco / gutkha etc. (Supreme Court order has banned this in public places)
h. Fear of Drug-trafficking
i. Over population / concentration in Aizawl city
j. Limitation in availability of decent vegetarian food


General Positive Factors of Mizoram:

a. The land of wonderful scenic natural beauty
b. Exciting topography of hill ranges and deep valleys
c. Pleasant and moderate climate throughout the year
d. Unique geographical location within the transition zone of tropical and temperate ecosystems
e. Tropic of Cancer passes through the heart of Mizoram
f. Closeness to the international boundaries of Myanmar and Bangladesh
g. The most peaceful state of the country
h. Very high literacy rate
i. Warm, peace loving, sociable, happy and selfless people
j. Unique hill architecture and Rainwater harvesting methods
k. Very low crime rate
l. Beggar free ambience even in the urban areas
m. Clean and pollution free environment
n. Organic agriculture and horticulture
o. Fast changing society with a mix of modernity and tradition, receptive to new ideas

CHAPTER – 6 PROPOSED TOURISM POLICY

1. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE NORTHEAST REGION:

The broad approach for the tourism development in the Northeast should be regional (incorporating Indian states and neighbouring countries) rather than local. The unique geography of the region and its ecological character demands this concept. Individual states in the Northeast do have their own specific identity, which should reflect in their detailed local proposals.

The Tourism Development in the Northeast region will depend on integrated approach, involving various government departments, private entrepreneurs, voluntary organisations and local community. The broad and general recommendations revolve around the unified strategy of tourism development for the Northeast and specific development proposals essential and complementing tourism development in the region. This approach will also help in evolving local people’s perception towards tourism development as a strong tool for socio-economic upliftment, with self-dependence and without environmental destruction of the region.

Most of these recommendations will fall outside the state government’s purview. It will be the responsibility of the Central Government to augment these services for these neglected states. However, the state governments need to understand the importance of these basic requirements for the overall development of the states, and should keep no stone unturned in their efforts of constant follow up, persuasion and also collaboration with the central government / funding agencies etc. These should be aggressively and diplomatically handled by the state government on all fronts, political, bureaucratic, social and economical at regional, national and international levels.


a. Communication Network – road, rail, air, phones, internet:

The status of the basic communication network in the region is much below the minimum standards. The tourism development in the region will heavily depend on the immediate improvement in this infrastructure within the next five years. A few urgent measures are as under:

ROADS: The roads are the most important sector in the communication network since they are used by maximum number of people. The GREF is doing excellent work of the road development in the region. At present they are concentrating on the National Highways. Special efforts should be made to take corrective actions at

known points of regular disruption during the monsoon. Generally these are caused by landslides or floods in this difficult mountainous terrain. (e.g. Sonpur near Silchar on Guwahati – Shillong – Silchar National Highway)

The state highways interconnecting different states in the region should be taken up for the development immediately. Additionally, the other minor roads leading to various tourism destinations should also be taken up for development and maintenance.

Diplomatic efforts should be strengthened for the approvals and development of the international roads linking the neighbouring countries. The implementation of the proposed Transport Corridor linking the countries in the Southeast Asia should be expedited. This will be a socio-economic boon for the Northeast India.

This should be complemented with efficient, quality passenger transport service under the public and private sector. The basic passenger facilities like clean, hygienic and decent rest rooms with toilets, drinking water fountains and restaurants should be provided at the terminal points and also at regular intervals along the National Highways. The private taxi service should also be made available for the tourists. The public transport service should be effectively monitored and controlled by the government authorities.

RAILWAY: Present railway infrastructure in the region is just bear minimum. It does not even connect to all the states in the region. All lines are not broad gauged lines. The quality and frequency of trains is very low. The basic infrastructure and facilities for passengers at the railway stations are also very poor. This is a neglected sector of the Indian Railways and need immediate attention since this is the most popular travel mode for all categories of passengers. This mode also works as a very good alternative in case of road blockages etc. due to climatic adversities in this rugged region.

The railways are also very popular amongst the tourists; particularly international tourists and a special tourist railway route could also be considered.

Additionally, a possibility of international connectivity may also be attempted, particularly to Myanmar and Bangladesh.

AIR: Northeast is the most neglected sector of the country for air travel. The entry point is Kolkata airport from where all the flights to the northeast embark. Presently, there is only one direct link (Delhi) to the mainland other than Kolkata. Recently, one International flight has been introduced to Bangkok from Guwahati. The flights are very irregular, generally cancelled for various reasons. The airports are primitive and landings cannot take place during the slightly inclement

weather or at nights. The flight schedules and frequencies are not satisfactory.
This requires a total revolutionary thinking. Interstate connectivity must be planned on a priority basis. Up gradation of all airports should be done urgently. Guwahati airport should be made international as soon as possible and more direct national connections should be introduced.

PHONES: The entire country has been going through the telecommunication revolution, except the Northeast. Even local telephone service is not available in many areas. The connectivity is very poor wherever the service is presently available.

This requires to be resolved on a priority basis. The ISD / STD / FAX and local service must be made available at all towns and major villages along the highways. The availability of public telephone booths can also provide employment opportunity to many local youths
/ women and physically challenged people. This has become a basic need for any development proposal and more particularly for tourism.

INTERNET: Internet service has become the basic amenity since the world entered in the 3rd millennium. Every business needs this service to compete in the world / national market. This service is almost non- existent even in the major cities in the Northeast.

This service also needs to be provided on a high priority basis, if the Northeast has to be developed. The tourism sector cannot develop and compete with the other states unless this facility is available urgently.

b. Biosphere Reserve – Ecological Land-Use Policy for NE:

The Northeast India has been identified as one of the most important Biodiversity Hot Spots in the world and has been included in the Red Data Book of the IUCN. It is one of the richest phytogeographic regions in the country. The entire Northeast Region must be considered as the country’s major Biosphere Reserve and any development in this region has to be planned with a very careful, environmentally sensitive and responsible approach. All development will strictly follow the norms enlisted by the Ministry of Environment and Forests under various Acts and also those of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). There should be a Regional Master Plan for the Northeast based on the Ecological Land- Use Policy. (See Appendix-t)

A special emphasis should be given to conserve the entire Brahmaputra River Valley along with the tributaries and catchment area as a special Eco-sensitive Zone
The Tourism Policy for the entire region should also revolve around this basic concept.

c. Entry formalities:

At present, except for Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura entry to all the other states is restricted even for Indian tourists. This is a major deterrent for tourism in the region.

The entry permit requirements for the Indian tourists should be abolished immediately.

The entry permit formalities for the foreign tourists should be simplified immediately and abolished in due course.


d. Documentation and research to create user-friendly database of tribal culture of NE – art, music, dance, food, textiles etc.:

There is tremendous interest amongst the tourists in the ethnic tribal culture of the Northeast. However, not much authentic literature is available. Various government organisations and Universities have been carrying on research in these fields over the years and the documentation and papers have remained locked into the cabinets of these offices. Thus holistic documentation of the cultural heritage of the Northeast is non-existant today.

The Tourism Development in the Northeast Region is closely linked with the rich and diverse cultural heritage of more than 200 ethno- linguistic communities of the region. This offers great opportunity for promoting Cutlural & Heritage Tourism, which has remained unexplored. The detailed and holistic will provide the base to plan an integrated strategy to develop this paremeter for the entire region and also for the individual states of the region. There should be a coordinated effort from the Department of Tourism to create the database and make it available in a user-friendly and presentable form. The Northeast Zone Cultural Centre (NEZCC) situated at Dimapur in Nagaland and various Tribal Research Institutes in different states can play a key role in this documentation exercise.

A time bound Action Plan needs to be drawn for this activity since the development action for Cultural & Heritage Tourism will greatly depend on this documentation. This exercise should commence immediately and should be implemented in a scientific and professional manner.

The activity will involve:

1. Literature study & compilation of the existing information
2. Systematic fieldwork to update this information
3. Collection of additional data and filling in the gaps
4. Scientific analysis of the entire data
5. Synthesis and interpretation of the data in an appropriate context
6. Presentation of the entire documentation in a user-friendly manner
7. Interpretation of the unique features from this documentation for the purpose of development of Cultural & Heritage Tourism in the Northeast Region and also in individual states
8. Involvement of local people in the strategy planning and ensuring their participation in the implementation
9. Preparation of the Master Plan for the development of Cultural & Heritage Tourism for the Northeast region through a professional consultant
10. Preparation of detailed Project Plans for individual states through professional consultants
11. Implementation of the Projects through professional agencies

The first step towards this achievement is the process of Documentation, which should commence as soon as possible. It is a complex and time consuming exercise and will require a multi- disciplinary team of professionals. This exercise could be a part of the implementation of the Perspective Plan and we will make a state-wide budget provision for this activity.


e. Replacement of jhoom by appropriate forestry / horticulture or other alternatives:

The natural forests and ecosystems of the Northeast have been destroyed because of one main reason i.e. the practice of jhoom cultivation by the locals. This needs to be replaced on a priority basis by creating alternate opportunities for the local farmers.

This requires socio-economical and ecological approach and the Forest department and the local voluntary organisations must take
lead to revert the present situation. The project ‘NEPED’ in Nagaland may be used as a guideline for the other regions.

f. Computerisation / Internet networking of all basic services:

The entire world has become one small community because of computer and Internet technology. All economic and development endeavours have become very efficient and competitive. Any imitative cannot succeed today without effective and appropriate use of computer and Internet technology.

Particularly for the Northeast region, which is geographical isolated from the mainland India, it will be of tremendous advantage to make use of these modern facilities for effective and efficient communication and service. All basic services e.g. Bus / Railway / Air bookings, Tourist Destination bookings, regional information network etc. should be made available as online service, with immediate effect.

g. International Research Projects (Tourism, Trade, Adventure, Ecology, Nature) with the adjoining and other nations:

The Northeast region is lacking in international exposure. There are hardly any international collaborative projects in development / research fields. This one area must be projected with emphasis, since it can bring in innovative technological and scientific approach to various facets of development strategy and also could attract large funding. Our students and local communities could also gain intellectually through such an exposure.
These efforts need to be coordinated through a single agency dealing with international research / development collaboration and emphasis could be given to the fields of Ecology, Nature, Adventure and Heritage Tourism, Trade etc. which has regional significance. The extra efforts may be made to begin such collaboration with the neighbouring countries.

h. Eco-tourism policy of entire NE region:

The Tourism Policy for the entire Northeast Region should be based on the concept of Eco-tourism with very wide parameters. The eco- tourism should not just mean nature tourism, but also should consider environmental / Heritage conservation and education as a core feature.

i. Publicity campaign with main emphasis on Nature & Culture:

Entire Northeast region need to be showcased positively with a well- designed and aggressive publicity campaign. It is a major need for the tourism development of the region. The emphasis of the campaign should be on Nature and Culture. These are two very positive aspects of the Northeast and people from all over the world will be interested to visit the region, if these aspects are highlighted.

Such positive publicity will also counter the negative image of the Northeast created because of insurgency incidents.

This should be carried out through all possible media e.g. newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, films, Internet etc. and through various forms of journalism (feature articles, tourism articles) and sports / glamour / cultural events, educational / religious / political gatherings etc.


j. Major Institutes for tourism, adventure, defence, forests & wildlife etc.:

The Northeast region has specific potential for unique sectors like Tourism, Adventure, Defence and Forests & Wildlife. These could be exploited to create interest amongst the people while providing them advanced training in these fields, which could create better opportunities, particularly for the local youth.

Such Institutes can also create international interest. A few such examples are Nehru Institute of Mountaineering (NIM) at Uttar Kashi in Uttaranchal, Himalayan Mountaineering Institute (HMI) at Darjeeling in West Bengal, Central Institute of Jungle Warfare (CIJW) in Mizoram, Wildlife Institute of India (WII) at Dehradun in Uttaranchal.

k. Cultural Centres at Indian metro cities and major international cities:

Northeast Cultural Centres, as a joint effort of all eight states of the region, could be an excellent avenue to project Northeast in a positive way to the other Indian states and also to international community.
These centres could act as ambassadors of the Northeast region to promote tourism, education, culture, arts and also to provide opportunities to the youth from Northeast Region to focus themselves in front of the world. They can also function as Socio-economic Centres for the Northeast.

This could be initiated in the South Indian cities of Bangalore and Chennai, since majority of youth from the Northeast prefer these cities for higher education.

These Cultural Centres could be designed to function on the lines of British Council or Maxmueller Bhawan in India.

l. Major Service Sector – Power, Water, Health, Education:

The Northeast Region has remained socio-economically backward mainly because of very weak Service Sector. The standard of major basic services like Power, Water, Health, Education is much below

the satisfactory level. These need to be enhanced with a concentrated effort within a short span if we wish to achieve the overall development growth in the Northeast in the next five years.

This need not depend on the central assistance. The centralised development body like Northeast Council could achieve this with a strong persuasion and enthusiastic collaboration from the state governments / voluntary organisations. Good and well-designed proposals with a positive approach could generate their own funds or international funds.


2. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MIZORAM:

The general recommendations are based on a broad approach considering the future time frame of 20 years for the tourism development in the State. Since Nature is the main asset of the state, the tourism policy will have strong emphasis on Eco-tourism and entire planning strategy will be based on the eco-sensitive principles of Environmental Design. All development will strictly follow the norms enlisted by the Ministry of Environment and Forests under various Acts and also those of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The state may not have control over the implementation of the recommendations for the region, since that will be under the purview of the Central government and NEC. However, the state must make concerted efforts and follow up with these agencies for quick redressal of these recommendations. This will require sustained efforts, persuasion, enthusiasm and patience on the part of state officials. It must be noted that the success of the tourism development in the state will largely depend on the timely implementation of the regional infrastructure.

The strategy is four fold:

i. Regional (NE) infrastructure development necessary for the tourism development of the state. This has been enumerated in the section-1 above.
ii. General infrastructure development in the state necessary for the tourism development. This is enumerated in this section-2.
iii. Development of existing / proposed tourism projects which have been already worked out by the Department of Tourism. This is enumerated in the section-3 hereunder.
iv. Development of new unique and specific Tourism Projects and Tourism Circuits (state, interstate and international). This has been enumerated in the sections-4 & 5 hereunder.

General Infrastructure Development in the State:

a. Roads & Transport, Railway, Air:

The major roads in the state are being designed and maintained by the GREF / BRO. These are generally in a satisfactory condition.
However the conditions of the other roads is very poor. These need to be upgraded by the PWD immediately. Priority must be given to the roads leading to the tourist destinations. Many new roads also need to be planned and developed specifically to provide access to the new tourist destinations. These will be also useful to provide alternate access / circuits for smooth connectivity of nearby destinations.

Along with the development of roads, it will be very useful to develop the road landscaping, particularly on the roads leading to the tourist spots. This includes roadside plantation of trees and shrubs with a specific concept and aesthetic value, creation of shelters, viewpoints and select appropriate locations for interesting signage and graphic designs. This will have educational and publicity value in addition to functionality. This can be carried out in close collaboration with the GREF since they have specific budget provisions for some of these features.

The improvement of interstate and local public transport system is of utmost importance. This needs up gradation in the quality of buses, service, frequency and also the basic tourist facilities at the bus stands. The special tourist buses could be provided in the public / private sector at special rates, once the tourist traffic increases. This will avoid conflict with local passengers. This can be worked out by the Tourism Dept. in co-ordination with the state / private operators. The Tourism Dept. may have its own minimum transport facilities like jeeps, mini buses etc. mainly for the conducted tours for a group of tourists. However, the financial sustainability of such arrangement needs to be carefully worked out.

At present, there is reasonably good private taxi (Tata Sumo) service between Silchar (Assam) and Aizawl. There is also good local taxi service in the major cities of Mizoram. However, this service needs to be improved with regular control and monitoring by the government. The rates should be standardised and local taxi service must have meters. This removes any confusion / doubts in the mind of a tourist and creates a comfortable feeling.

Railway: Presently, there is no passenger service to Mizoram though goods service is available up to Bairabi. Passengers have to get down at Silchar and then travel by road. Since the railway is the most popular and economical mode of transport for tourists, this needs to be upgraded soon. The passenger service should be started up to

Bairabi on an urgent basis. This line should be extended up to Aizawl, Saiha, possibly within the next 10 years.

Air: The Lengpui airport at Aizawl is at a distance of 43 Kms. from Aizawl city. The airport needs immediate up-gradation in terms all weather and night landing facilities, communication services, transit accommodation facility etc. The frequency of services and interstate (Northeast) connectivity needs to be improved. The efficient transport system like prepaid bus or taxi should be made available urgently since the distance to Aizawl city is considerable.

There could be a joint effort by the Tourism Department and the Railway / Air / Road transport authorities to develop Yatri Niwas like transit accommodation facilities at the terminals. Mizoram Tourism has a tourist lodge near the Aizawl airport, which has poor occupancy. This could be linked to the airport through Indian Airlines / Airport Authority to be used as a transit facility.

b. Modern Tourist Information Centres:

The tourists feel most comfortable if the efficient information service is available at the entry points. At present, such facility is not available for Mizoram. The modern Tourist Information Centres should be installed at all the entry points i.e. airports at Aizawl, Silchar, Imphal; railway stations at Guwahati, Silchar; bus terminals. These Tourist Information Centres should be well equipped with all modern communication facilities (phone, fax, internet etc.) and should have computerised services. All tourist publications / books / brochures and maps should be available at these centres. The tourists should be able to book their accommodation and travel from these centres and such information should be easily available. These centres could be an employment opportunity mainly for women and youth.

c. Computerisation of Tourism Services:

Computerisation and Internet networking have become essential components of any business and service-oriented establishments. The tourism sector is a very competitive sector and could be successful only through efficiency and prompt service. The Tourism Department of Mizoram is lagging behind in this aspect and this up gradation of the department is of utmost urgency. The computerisation of the office services should be linked to the information & booking / reservation networking of all the facilities at various centres all over the country / world. Online reservation / booking facility through credit cards etc. should be made available to the tourists. The efficient website of the Tourism Department will be a good tool to achieve this.

d. Booking Agents:

The efficient service in any business sector depends on wider network, either through Internet or through well-distributed competent agents. For a state like Mizoram, which has locational obstacle, must organise for both these networks for showcasing itself to the world.
The Tourism Department, Mizoram should start immediately in this direction by establishing Booking Agents in the major cities in the country e.g. Kolkata, New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad. The empanelment of such agents should be done on a selective basis and good incentives should be offered for better response. This system is more sustainable since this does not involve the department in any investments or establishments. However, Internet connectivity with such agents will improve the efficiency of tourist attraction to Mizoram. The system of agents has been popular and effective in many business sectors.

e. Professional Training of staff:

Tourism industry has become a specialised sector today. It is a fast growing, labour incentive and competitive industry. The concepts in tourism sectors are also changing fast and one requires to be updated constantly. Unfortunately, this does not happen in the government sector easily, more so in the isolated and young state like Mizoram. The Department of Tourism, Mizoram is relatively young department. The senior officials have learnt the subject with experience. However, professional training in various aspects of tourism sector to the different categories of staff is of utmost importance. The exposure to the national and international scenario is also very important. This could be achieved by their participation in different seminars / workshops / short-term courses etc. Such training programmes could be organised in-house also to minimise the costs. The staff should be encouraged to improve their qualifications in this sector and incentives like increments / promotions etc. could be offered. All new staff must have tourism related professional qualifications. This will be very useful investment on part of the government.

f. Target Tourist identification and appropriate strategy:

The tourism development strategy needs thorough research and analysis of the past trends and existing scenario. Unfortunately, the department is not equipped for such exercise, nor they have a database. This basic research and data collection should start immediately. It is also of utmost importance to understand the principles of Eco-tourism since that will be the basic theme for Mizoram Tourism. Excessive tourism may look economically attractive but it will destroy the tourism potential due to degradation of the surrounding natural environment. This could happen with uncontrolled tourism. The carrying capacity of the infrastructure and

also the tourism environment must be carefully assessed before starting the marketing strategy. The controlled approach will be the most sustainable strategy. In the meanwhile, we suggest a few target groups for immediate service e.g. Local (state), Regional (NE), Domestic (West Bengal, Orissa, Delhi, Maharashtra, South India), International (Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, China). This choice is based on our analysis of the small tourist data collected by us and this could be modified based on the changing trends (See Appendix-p & q). Each of these target groups will require appropriate strategy for publicity, service and facilities. At present, the local and regional tourists are the most important users of the facilities. This group should be targeted with appropriate incentives in a big way for the first 2 / 3 years. This group will not be affected by outside circumstances and there will not be big downward fluctuations in their traffic. These groups will help the stabilisation of the tourism business in the state and will allow the opportunity for further development of facilities to attract the other groups in the next 5 / 10 years. The publicity at local and regional level will help to achieve this target.
Involvement of local voluntary organisations, educational institutions etc. could consolidate this effort. Educational and Cultural tours for larger groups could be big attractions for this sector. The investments pattern will also be low for these efforts.

g. Tourism Clubs:

As a part of tourism promotion at local and regional level, an idea of Tourism Clubs could be initiated in the schools and colleges from Mizoram and the Northeast Region. This could be on the line of Nature Club movement of the WWF-India. In a very short time, the tourism concept would reach the younger generation. The Tourism Department should become a nodal agency to promote, encourage and monitor this activity. The Clubs will be registered with the Tourism Department and they will be provided with tourism information, magazines, films etc. The schools / colleges will be encouraged to carry on these tourism related activities as extra-curricular activities of their institutions. The tours organised by the Clubs will get concessions from the Tourism Department. This activity can become very popular within a short time and it does not need large investments from the Tourism Department. This should be started in the state immediately.


h. Marketing & Publicity:

This requires professional approach and could depend on the basic concept of Eco-tourism. However, basic publicity has to be carried out through different media. Most important and attractive is the roadside signage and hoardings. They are functional and permanent. The strategy for the design of signage / hoardings has to be carefully

planned. It must provide independent and unique identity to Mizoram Tourism. The punch lines, scripts and colour schemes are important factors to achieve quick and long-lasting results. This is relatively less expensive item. Additionally this should be complemented with usual outside publicity through regular newspaper and magazine articles, radio / TV programmes on the state and various interesting features and occasional sponsored advertisements. We do not recommend expensive advertisements in the initial period of ten years. Slow but steady and quality publicity will create permanent market for the state like Mizoram.
The marketing strategy will depend on the assessment of the carrying capacity of the tourism potential and also on the regular monitoring of the initial efforts for the tourism development. It will take a very long time for the tourism to really pick up in the Northeast, particularly because of infrastructure deficiencies and socio-political issues.
Therefore, it does not look advisable to start very ambitious marketing strategies at this juncture. However simple marketing methods could be used to augment the existing facilities. The existing Wayside amenities and Restaurant are under utilised even though they are at strategic and excellent locations. The tourism department can tie up with the Department of Transport and private bus operators, so that these locations become regular lunch / tea halts. Appropriate incentives may be provided for this joint effort.

i. Health Care:

General Healthcare strategy specifically from the tourism point of view is very important. This is non-existent today. Mizoram has two major possible health problems for tourists i.e. Malaria and Gastro- enteritis. The concerted efforts are required for prevention of these problems at all tourist destinations. These could be tackled with following simple strategy:

• All tourist lodges should have mosquito control systems e.g. Mosquito nets in all bed rooms, mosquito nets on all windows / double shutter system for windows, provision of eco-friendly mosquito repellents, cleanliness of the surrounding environment like lowlands, open tanks, septic tanks and soak pits etc. which act as mosquito breeding places.
• Biological control of mosquitoes through the appropriate use of repellent plants in the landscape design, use of appropriate fish in the water bodies in the surrounding region etc.
• All tourist lodges must be equipped with efficient water purification plants. The regular maintenance of such plants is of utmost importance for their efficiency. This should be also made mandatory at all restaurants, at least those operated by the tourism department. Additionally, this should be complemented with the availability of bottled water of certified brands.

• All kitchens must have high standards of hygiene. The kitchens and restaurant must be kept absolutely clean. The equipment and raw material must be maintained in clean condition. The staff should follow strict disciplines of hygiene.
• All toilets must have high standard of hygiene and cleanliness.
• Intermittent and regular pest control with eco-friendly methods must be carried for the tourist premises and the surroundings.
• In general, awareness of high standard of cleanliness, hygiene and health care amongst the staff must be ensured with regular monitoring and intermittent campaigns.
• All tourist lodges must be equipped with first-aid facilities


j. Joint Projects with the other Departments:

The Tourism Department should not work in isolation. In fact, the tourism department should act as a co-ordinating agency to develop the tourism potential in the state in different interesting areas. This will help the Tourism Department to use its limited resources judiciously. There are other government departments like Forest, Archaeology, Tribal Development, Rural Development, Agriculture & Horticulture, Education, Sports etc. The activities and programmes of these departments could be designed to suit the tourism potential of the state and tourism department should give these inputs to these departments. Wildlife and Adventure tourism are the upcoming and very promising sectors and they could be effectively and sustainably developed as the joint projects and programmes. At present, there are no such attempts and this must be developed immediately since this is the most sensible and sustainable approach.


k. Special Tourist facilities at the State entry / exit points:

Entry and Exit points have a lot of importance to create identity for the State. The tourists get their first and lasting impressions at these points. These points are important for Mizoram, in the present circumstances where permits are required to enter the state. The tourists spend a lot of time at such points and it will be advisable to make their time at such places comfortable and pleasant. This could be achieved by creating Special Tourist Centres at these entry / exit points in co-ordination with the security authorities. These centres could provide basic tourist facilities, provide information and also play a major role in establishing the first warm contact and impression with the tourists. The design of such Centres should reflect the identity of the state.

l. Privatisation Strategy:

The role of the Tourism Department should be to develop the tourism potential in the state by creating infrastructure and developing tourist spots. It should get out of implementation process as early as possible. The privatisation of various facilities with different strategies makes the projects sustainable in a long run. However, in the present nascent stage, it may not be possible for the department to attract private entrepreneurs who could take risk and invest funds since the tourism market is unpredictable. The Tourism Department will have to prepare its own strategy of sustainability through economic / participatory / collaborative projects for the next ten years. At the same time efforts must be continued to involve the private participation in the creation of infrastructure, through attractive incentives and benefits. A few popular tourist spots could be offered on a BOT basis as an experiment.

m. Barrier Free Design approach for physically challenged people:

This is the most important modern concept and should be included in all the infrastructure designs for indoor and outdoor spaces. A concerted effort must be made to make the tourist spaces universal. Additionally, all tourist places must be made fully equipped with amenities like wheel chairs, walking sticks, umbrellas and also the first aid facilities. This concept is new and has to be insisted upon and handled very sensitively.
(Appendix-dd)

n. Tourism Act & Heritage Act:

Tourism Industry has a great potential to develop into a very strong socio-economic sector. This sector will have many facets and will cover a very large and complex area. It is necessary to envisage this factor at this preliminary stage in a state like Mizoram and cover many complex issues under the Tourism Act to develop, control and monitor various parameters of Tourism Industry in a systematic way. Introduction of such an Act at this stage will also allow the state to understand its finer issues and allow it to be evolved along with its progress. Many countries already have such Acts and even many Indian states are in a process of formulation of such a statutory provision. The state government should initiate this process, which will strengthen the tourism movement in the state.
The tourism development in Mizoram will follow the basic concept of Eco-tourism and Heritage tourism because of its strengths in these two sectors. It is imperative that any development under these two concepts has to be handled in a very careful and sensitive manner to make it sustainable. There are various acts already in existence both at the central and state level to take care of Environmental Conservation and the strategy could be to follow these acts strictly. However, there

are no such centralised acts for Heritage Conservation. Mizoram has many heritage assets in different categories like culture, archaeology, religious places, natural features, cantonments etc. Many of these are located in the fast developing urban centres and could get lost if this development is not monitored in this direction at this stage itself.
Heritage Act is a necessity for tourism development and it should be enacted soon. There are many models available to follow (Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore etc).

o. Funding Avenues:

The Tourism Department must try various funding avenues in a process to make the activity economically feasible and sustainable. All proposals / projects must be worked out like business proposals considering all possible projections. The state / central governments may provide limited assistance for the initial gestation period.
However, a definite strategy has to be worked out for the long-term maintenance of such facilities. The other funding avenues should be tapped. Various government departments and organisations provide specialise funding for specific projects related to their activities and tourism sector being a versatile sector could tap these resources. The Ministry of Environment and Forests finances projects related to Biodiversity, Wildlife, Plant Conservation etc., the Central Zoo Authority provides funds for zoo related projects, the department of Alternate Energy, Education etc. also provide similar financial assistance. There are many international organisations / universities which are interested in long term ecological research in the regions like Northeast. The tourist infrastructure could be also used for such complementary activities and made sustainable. Mizoram has tremendous potential to attract private investments in tourism sectors. However it will depend on the other factors adversely affecting the Northeast region. The state government has already identified tourism as an industry. Now it must begin to treat the tourism sector like a public sector industry. Tourism industry is likely to provide tremendous socio-economic benefits to the state with multiplier effects. It is a fast growing and non-polluting industry, most suitable for a state like Mizoram. The state government must invest / divert substantial funds in this sector to reap quick overall benefits. (Appendices – gg,hh,).

3. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE EXISTING / PROPOSED PROJECTS:

The Tourism Department, Mizoram has developed substantial infrastructure in the state since its inception in 1987. There are a few projects which are under construction and a few which are in the pipeline awaiting approval from the Department of Tourism, Government of India (See Appendices- f to i & m). All these projects have been under the assistance from the central government. The state government budget provides for routine maintenance of this infrastructure. At present, the occupancy rate and effective revenue generation is quite low. It will be very difficult for the department to maintain the infrastructure in good condition. Even at the present stage, the infrastructure requires a lot of up gradation just to bring it up to the satisfactory standards.

We therefore recommend the strategy of stabilisation for the next five years. That will include:

i. Complete all incomplete / under construction works of the approved projects
ii. Obtain the approval for the projects in the pipeline awaiting sanction from the Department of Tourism, New Delhi; commence and complete those works as soon as possible
iii. Do not apply for any more new, infrastructure projects
iv. Carry out total up gradation of all the infrastructure to bring it to the excellent standard
v. All efforts should be concentrated to identify and develop new and unique tourist spots and tourist circuits with very minimum basic amenities
vi. Simultaneously, additional efforts should be focussed on effective publicity and marketing through innovative and professional approach


The above strategy may be further detailed out as under:

a. Up-gradation of the existing infrastructure:

The present status of the infrastructure is not satisfactory and requires immediate total overhauling. This will include work under structural, architectural, interior, services and landscape categories. This should be taken up as a single project and handled professionally. Piecemeal repair works will not achieve a desired result. A total master plan for this project need to be worked out including the strategy for phased implementation so that a part of the infrastructure remains available for the use. This work should be taken up more seriously than even the new constructions. A thorough brainstorming should be carried out while deciding about the utilisation of the space for appropriate functions and also to decide material specifications, which should be functional, economical, maintenance free and aesthetic. Mizoram falls in the

category of high seismic zone and maximum efforts must be made to see that the structural up-gradation takes care of earthquake resistance. The attention must be given to include all Healthcare measures required to be incorporated at the construction / renovation stage itself. This should be made an integral part of the infrastructure. All the concepts of environmental design should be integrated in this master plan since Eco- tourism will be the basic theme of Mizoram Tourism. This investment will be a good saving in the long run, if carried out professionally and with integrated approach. (Appendices –u & v).

b. Architectural face lifting with ethnic character:

The above exercise of up-gradation should be complemented with another innovative attempt to change the façade of the present set up. Most of the present structures are designed as standardised building designs of PWD. They are functional but lack any character. The tourism sector needs innovative thinking in design of all products, and infrastructure should get priority in this direction. The architecture must reflect the ethnic character and identity of Mizoram / Northeast. This approach must be considered for all new designs; at the same time the existing structures could also be superficially modified to achieve such results.


c. Landscape design:

Nature is the most important feature of the Mizoram Tourism and as such it becomes imperative that the infrastructure provided for the purpose of tourism does not become eyesore but merges with the surrounding landscape. Therefore, the landscape design of these tourist places becomes a very important factor. It must also be emphasised that the landscape design should follow ecological concept rather than beautification process.

d. Up-gradation of existing transport facilities:

The tourism department already possess some minimum transport facilities like jeeps and a mini bus. The utilisation of these facilities for the tourism purposes is very minimal. These vehicles require regular maintenance and they become a liability over the years if not put to proper use. The in-depth analysis of the utilisation and possible requirements must be carried out immediately to decide the strategy for such in-house facilities. The bear minimum vehicles should be kept for routine use. A joint collaborative strategy should be worked out with the State Transport Department and private entrepreneurs for utilisation of their vehicles for conducted tours etc. on a regular basis or whenever required. The department vehicles should be given a new look to provide special identity and tourism publicity.

e. Publicity:

The tourism publicity should be carried out with specific concept of Eco- tourism and through various methods. It must be carried out innovatively and economically. The care also must be taken to consider the infrastructure and its carrying capacity, before taking up the publicity in a big way. Subtle approach will be the best strategy at this juncture for Mizoram. Localised publicity could be best carried out through roadside signage and hoardings. This has to be designed with a definite theme and should be very attractive. It must provide the identity to Mizoram Tourism. Outside publicity can be carried out most economically through newspapers / magazine articles on the state and its interesting features.
This should be a regular and sustained effort. Talented local journalists could be given some incentive to provide these inputs. Innovative programmes on Radio and TV is another effective strategy for far reaching publicity. This needs to be coordinated with some regular features on these media. Well-designed products and souvenirs make a subtle positive impact on tourism publicity. These are functional elements, which could become show windows of Mizoram Tourism.
Some examples are backpacks, caps, T-shirts, stickers etc. The innovations in design will provide economical success to these products with minimum investment and will also achieve subtle but long lasting publicity. Information literature like brochures, posters and books is another excellent avenue for publicity. However, the theme based and innovative products will only stand out. Care must be taken to follow environmental norms, like use of recycled paper etc. to emphasise the basic theme of Eco-tourism. The active participation in various national and international travel / tourism / trade fairs is another effective method of self-projection at minimum cost.

f. Information Database:

A lot of important information about the state has been documented by various agencies over the years. However, it is lying scattered all over, without any reference cataloguing. The genuineness of the information is also not guaranteed. Easy access to this information is very important from tourism point. The tourism department should take lead to coordinate with various government departments and other agencies to compile and systematically document this information as a reference database. This will be very useful for the tourism department and others for the dissemination of information and also for educational purposes.
This could be carried out through professional assignment.

g. Signage and Graphic Design:

These are important tools to create identity while achieving functionality through aesthetics. At present, this is non-existent in Mizoram Tourism. This also requires professional and strong concept based approach. This could be achieved in many ways like directional signage towards tourist

places, logo for the department, stationery of the department, staff uniforms, name plates, vehicles etc. This is inexpensive item considering the outputs it could achieve. The roadside signage and tourism hoardings could be implemented in close collaboration with the GREF / PWD since they have budget provisions for such features in their road development activities.

h. Budget:

The entire exercise of tourism development has to be carefully planned considering all financial implications. The realistic estimate is the key for successful and timely completion of the assignments. The financial planning and management is utmost important for short term and long term objectives. The functional and financial phasing of the development activities can be worked out through this exercise. It provides the clear vision for the management.


4. SPECIFIC UNIQUE TOURISM PROJECTS FOR MIZORAM:


a. Zokhawthar / Tiau River / Rih Dil Lake (Myanmar border) Region, International Collaborative Project:

This could be the first International Collaborative Project in India (perhaps after Kailas-Manas yatra project). The Tourism Department has already prepared a proposal (Rs. 60, 93, 200/-) for a Tourist Lodge at Zokhawthar, which is awaiting approval of the Department of Tourism, GOI. However, we recommend a larger regional project with International collaboration with Myanmar considering the tremendous tourism potential of this region. Some unique features of this region:

• A Border Trade Centre is being developed at Zokhawthar village
• Beautiful and serene ecosystem of the Tiau river which acts as border between India and Myanmar
• Sacred Rih Dil Lake located at about 4 Kms distance from the border, in Myanmar. The lake is located at a picturesque site surrounded by lush green hills. The lake is a sacred place for the people of Myanmar and Mizoram and has various folk tales ascribed to it.
• In general, very beautiful topography and landscape.

International boundaries are always of great interest to the tourists. This place has been already popular amongst the locals. There is a very cordial and transparent relationship between India and Myanmar at this border at people from both side intermingle with very simple entry formalities. This spirit of international comradeship could be further enhanced and used through appropriate tourism development of the region. However, this requires a broad and futuristic vision in planning,

extremely careful handling of the serene ecosystem and an integrated approach. Utmost care is required to check that the development of the proposed Border Trade Centre and also any developments in the region will follow all environmental and ecological parameters. The ecosystems of the Tiau River and Rih Dil Lake need to be conserved and enhanced under this project. The co-ordination of various departments and agencies will be required to handle this sensitive project. The basic concept and Master Plan, including overall budget should be worked out immediately and developed in phases over the next five years. This requires professional inputs of very high standard. This project has great potential to become an international attraction of very high value. We strongly recommend this project as a high priority project for Mizoram.

Fig. 9 – Rih Dil Lake, Mynmar:



b. Tlabung / Khawthlang Tuipui River Region at Bangladesh border, a Composite Project:

This could be another interesting tourism project on the International Border. Tlabung village has an importance being on the Bangladesh border. Tourism Department has proposed a Tourist Lodge, which is at a final stage of construction. However, we recommend a large regional project at this location. Some unique features of this region are:

• An International Trade Centre is proposed to be developed here.
• The region has quite a different landscape and flora / fauna being at a lower altitude.
• The Chakma tribal community inhabits this region and their ethnic lifestyle and architecture, much different than the other communities of Mizoram could be of tourist interest.

• The meandering Khawthlang Tuipui River has its own charm and interesting ecosystem.
• International Border is always a tourist attraction. There is a ferry service, which takes you up to, the Bangladesh border in the middle of the river (about 5 Kms distance). Local trade across the border takes place and relationship amongst the people is very cordial.

This requires a broad and futuristic vision in planning, extremely careful handling of the serene ecosystem and an integrated approach. Utmost care is required to check that the development of the proposed International Trade Centre and also any developments in the region will follow all environmental and ecological parameters. The co- ordination of various departments and agencies will be required to handle this sensitive project.

The basic concept and Master Plan, including overall budget should be worked out immediately and developed in phases over the next five years. This requires professional inputs of very high standard. This project has great tourism potential. We strongly recommend this project as a high priority project for Mizoram.


c. Eco-tourism, Wildlife & Adventure Tourism Projects:

This is a very popular and upcoming tourism sector all over the world. It is very important aspect for Mizoram since Nature, Forests and Wildlife are major assets of Mizoram. Additionally, the Eco-tourism is the basic theme of Mizoram Tourism and development of these projects will be like presenting the best model of eco-tourism to the country. These projects need to be coordinated with the Forest Department who has basic infrastructure and authorised control over the region. Some unique protected areas of Mizoram have been identified for this development:

• Dampa Tiger reserve:

The Dampa Tiger Reserve is situated in the western part of Mizoram on the International boundary of Bangladesh. This is the largest sanctuary in Mizoram admeasuring about 500 Sq. Km. This region has a large area under virgin natural forest which shelters unique flora and fauna. This perhaps is the only tiger area in Mizoram.

• Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) National Park:

The Phawngpui National Park popularly known as Blue Mountain National Park is situated in the South-eastern Mizoram and is adjacent to Myanmar. The National Park admeasures 50 Sq. Km.

presently and there is a possibility of increasing this to a larger area by including adjoining important hilly terrain. The highest peak in Mizoram is in this range and this provides wide opportunities for adventure tourism.

• Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary

This Sanctuary admeasuring about 110 Sq. Km. is situated in the South-western Mizoram. This sanctuary has the best virgin forests in Mizoram and shelters interesting flora and fauna. This Sanctuary has unique locational advantage being on the border of both Myanmar and Bangladesh. The population pressure is relatively less on these forests and tribal communities here still follow their ethnic culture.

These three sites have been identified as representative natural forest areas of Mizoram, well distributed over the state of Mizoram. This even distribution will provide opportunity for tourists to enjoy the natural and geographical diversity, without putting these areas under tourism pressure. This will also provide interesting opportunities for ecologists and wildlife researchers to study diverse regions with a possibility of international collaboration. Being on the international boundary of Bangladesh, there could be possibilities of international joint wildlife conservation and research programme. There could be excellent possibility to attract international funding for conservation and research and develop this into a Northeast Ecological Research Centre. The areas need to be carefully managed according to the strict norms of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Definite Tourism Zones should be demarcated and tourist activities should be restricted within that zone. Even the tourism development should be within the strict norms of Eco-tourism. The Tourism Department should work closely with the Forest Department to popularise these unique sites for innovative experience and also for ecological research. This is an excellent avenue for the Tourism Department to earn publicity and revenue without much investment.

d. Cultural Tourism through integration at the International / Interstate Tri-Junctions:

Mizoram has interesting advantage of its geographical location having large and peaceful international border with Myanmar and Bangladesh.
At four unique locations this provides opportunity for triangular cultural integration. These locations have potential to be developed into Large Cultural Centres, spread over these three diverse regions. The locations identified are as under:

• Junction of Manipur, Myanmar and Mizoram:

This is the Northeast corner of Mizoram. The exact location has to be
identified which will be within the Ngopa Rural Development Block of the Champhai District, somewhere near the Sialkal village. Mizoram Tourism should take initiative to develop this Cultural Centre jointly with Manipur State and Myanmar.

• Junction of Bangladesh, Myanmar and Mizoram:

This is the Southwest corner of Mizoram. The exact location has to be identified which will be within the Chawngte Rural Development Block of the Lawngtalai District, somewhere near the Parva village. Mizoram Tourism should take initiative to develop this Cultural Centre in collaboration with Myanmar and Bangladesh. This is a unique triangular junction of three countries, representing the earlier Indian Subcontinent.

• Junction of Tripura, Bangladesh and Mizoram:

This is the Northwest corner of Mizoram. The exact location has to be identified which will be within the W. Phaileng Rural Development Block of the Mamit District, somewhere near the Tuipuibari village. Mizoram Tourism should take initiative to develop this Cultural Centre in collaboration with Tripura State and Bangladesh.

• Junction of Tripura, Assam and Mizoram:

This is the Northwest corner of Mizoram. The exact location has to be identified which will be within the Zawlnuam Rural Development Block of the Mamit District, somewhere near the Kanhmun village. Mizoram Tourism should take initiative to develop this Cultural Centre in collaboration with Tripura and Assam States.


These Cultural Centres will be a unique contribution of Mizoram not only to India but also to the Southeast Asia to showcase the cultural diversity and its integration. This project can evoke sponsorships from various national and international quarters.


e. Handicraft / Agriculture Centre at Thenzawl:

Mizoram’s main economy is agriculture. Unfortunately, the forests have been degraded due to traditional practice of jhoom cultivation. However, the new thought has entered and new experiments are being

introduced to the people. These have become interesting demonstration and educational areas for local people. These demonstration areas can also become attractions for the farmers from the Northeast Region. It will of interest of general tourist also if presented in an innovative package.

One large Agricultural & Animal Husbandry Centre is under development at Thenzawl in the Serchhip District in the Central Mizoram. This centre is being developed on a participatory experiment and local people are directly involved in the activities and programmes. The village itself quite famous for its handloom industry and people are producing beautiful traditional and modern design textiles as a cottage industry. Thus the village has a great potential to be developed and popularised as Handicraft / Agriculture Centre.

Mizoram Tourism should take initiative to develop this Centre in collaboration with the other Departments like Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Tribal Development, Education, Khadi & Handloom Board, Rural Development etc. The low landscapes of the village and surrounding picturesque region could be added attractions to add on other features. The Vantawng Waterfall and one of the Heritage Caves, which are in the nearby vicinity, could be other attractions. This place is quite close to the capital city of Aizawl and tourists could be easily attracted with an attractive and innovative package. The investment component could be low considering the existing features and possible collaboration with the other Departments. The North East Council could be a major sponsor in this endeavour since they are promoting the farm development at Thenzawl.

f. Defence Tourism:

The state of Mizoram has a very long International border with Myanmar and Bangladesh. Due to this, there is significant presence of Army in this region. Some of the establishments are quite old like the one at Lunglei. These Cantonment areas have their own character and they evolve with unique identity. The major Cantonment Areas in the country have been declared as Heritage Sites due to their uniqueness of the character and also the historical background that they carry.
These Cantonment areas in Mizoram need to be identified by the Mizoram Tourism in collaboration with the Army. Some special programmes could be organised jointly in the Cantonments areas for the tourists. It could be a big attraction and would provide small opportunity to the armed forces to interact with the civilians interested in their activities and contribution in the country’s defence.

The Central Institute of Jungle Warfare (CIJW) situated in North Mizoram has already achieved international fame. This could be introduced as a tourist attraction and some visit programmes could be

worked out in collaboration with the Institute. Defence is the subject of great passion of everyone and if Mizoram Tourism could tap this existing potential quickly, it would advance considerably on the tourism map of the country.

g. Water Tourism:

The unique hilly topography of Mizoram has created some interesting natural features all over the countryside. Mizoram gets considerable monsoon rain and this hilly terrain gets flooded with streams, rivers, waterfalls and lakes. Very few rivers are perennial, however they make interesting attractions in the overall mountainous landscape.

Fig. 10 – Vantawng Waterfall:



Some rivers, lakes and waterfalls are already popular and have become major tourist spots e.g. Tuipui River, Tamdil Lake, Vantawng Waterfall etc. Mizoram Tourism has already developed some infrastructure at these places. The efforts are also on to develop River Rafting facilities in a few rivers. However, the most important concept of ecological development of these regions should be taken into consideration. It is necessary to prepare a Master Plan to develop Water Tourism concept for Mizoram. This should follow all the norms of the Ministry of Environment & Forests, particularly related to the conservation of our water bodies. This plan should also take into consideration the possibilities of Watershed Development of the region. Ecological Landscape Design of the Tourist Spots, creation of interesting and educational Nature Trails and Adventure Trails and providing serene, picturesque ambience should be the objectives for such a plan. The Water Tourism should be developed with this

innovative approach rather than typical entertainment approach. The tourists should be able to enjoy all the moods of water and carry those memories along with them. That will be a success story for Mizoram Tourism.

h. Rural Tourism:

The State of Mizoram has its main economy dependent on hill agriculture and the except a few district HQs which are like small towns, the entire state has a rural character. However, the Mizo population has been largely influenced by the western culture and the ethnic tribal traditions are very rarely seen even in the villages. Under these circumstances, the concept of Rural Tourism plays a very major role. There are a few villages, which still maintain their ethnic traditions, including the rural architecture. This rural lifestyle expresses the way people have been living sustainably using natural resources around them judiciously. Their traditional wisdom is reflected in many of their old practices like use of herbal medicines, understanding of natural elements to predict the climatic conditions, agricultural rituals and festivals etc. It is a social evolutionary process in which slowly these traditions will be transformed into modern lifestyle. Exactly for this very reason, it is important to conserve a few traditional villages. This lifestyle is a subject of interest for many visitors and also sociologists. Their folk arts and handicrafts have a great artistic value and they need to be encouraged. The development of Tourism around these traditional villages is one way to give them respect that they deserve.

In Mizoram, there are a few villages under the Autonomous District Councils, which present this character. Mizoram Tourism has already identified various satellite villages around the town of Sakawrdai in the Aizawl district and have proposed a Tourist Lodge at Sakawrdai as a basic infrastructure for tourists. These villages are inhabited by Hmar tribal community who maintain their ethnic identity through language, art forms, textiles, festivals, architecture etc. Hmar Development Council looks after the welfare of these villages.

Another region, which maintains such ethnic rural character, is in Lawngtlai district in the Southwest Mizoram. The Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) governs these villages and the major ethnic community in this region is Chakma tribal. This community follows Buddhism along with the tribal traditions.

We suggest that both these village settlements could be selectively identified to be developed for Rural Tourism. The Master Plan for such development has to be prepared carefully. The Ministry of Tourism, GOI has decided to give priority funding to the projects of Rural Tourism (one in each state) and we recommend that a Chakma Village under the CADC may be identified on a priority basis to be

developed under Rural Tourism concept. The basic funding could be available from the Department of Tourism, GOI that could be complemented with other resource from various allied departments like Rural Development, Tribal Development etc.

This project will provide true identity and character to Mizoram Tourism.

i. Geography / Astronomy Centre at the Tropic of Cancer:

One of the unique features of geographical location of Mizoram is the Tropic of Cancer, which runs in the heart of Mizoram. Not much importance is given to this unique fact. However, this feature has a potential to attract a large number of tourists to these spots. This fact will also expose the uniqueness of Mizoram, which is interestingly located in a transition zone of Tropical and Temperate region. This itself will tell an important ecological story of the flora and fauna of Mizoram. An educational centre with emphasis on Geography and Astronomy should be proposed at the exact location of the Tropic of Cancer. This has to be exactly located by the professional through GIS. Approximately, this will be to the south of Aizawl city. An ideal location on the National Highway should be selected and developed with multi dimensional programmes and activities. This centre will be very useful for local students and teachers. It could be developed with the other appropriate ancillary and complementary facilities like Planetarium, Astral Garden etc. A special exhibit area should be interestingly designed where tourists can come and stand across the line of Tropic of Cancer and carry the memories of this experience with them. It will not be difficult to find a sponsor for this centre and the Department of Science & Technology could provide guidance for international sponsorship.

j. Urban Tourism:

In spite of all the charms of nature and wilderness, the main attraction for the majority of tourists is major cities. Urban Tourism is at great advantage due to this universal fact. Interestingly, Mizoram has two very charming cities, wonderfully located and ideally developed.
These are Aizawl and Saiha.
Aizawl is the capital city of Mizoram and most of the infrastructure facilities are already available. However, the Master Plan for the city needs to be carefully prepared to develop the city for Urban Tourism. Various innovative tourist attractions should be designed and developed. The existing amenities should be upgraded or transformed.
The nightscapes of Aizawl are amazing and the Master Plan of the city could be evolved with a basic concept of ‘Starworld on the
Earth’.

The story for Saiha, which is a relatively smaller town and a District HQ, is slightly different. It also has its locational charm and its beauty lies in its smallness. The Master Plan for Saiha needs to be prepared very carefully and differently than Aizawl to maintain its charm of smallness and natural beauty. Saiha should be developed for Urban
Tourism with the concept of ‘Small is Beautiful’.

It is obvious that this project will require large investments. However being the urban areas, it possible to generate this funding locally. A few of the projects could be given to private entrepreneurs on BOT basis. The Tourism Department already has substantial infrastructure and economical stake in both these cities, particularly. There are new proposals in the pipeline. Mizoram Tourism can comfortably take off from these existing assets to develop Urban Tourism immediately.
The revenue generation from these efforts will also be simpler and there will be many other benefits and multiplier advantages. The socio-economic potential of these projects will be very high. This project, at least for one city must be taken on a priority basis.

Fig. 11 – Aizawl Cityscape:



k. Regional Nature Parks:

Tourism requires large open spaces and parks for people for passive recreation. At present Mizoram does not have this amenity. Nature is in abundance everywhere but tourists require basic facilities and some innovative features and activities linked with these open spaces. There are Wildlife Sanctuaries, but they have restricted areas and control on free movement. It is therefore necessary to develop a few large parks on the basic concept of Ecological Conservation. They should not become amusement / entertainment parks. These parks should have

recreation and education value. They should be well spread out over the state. The funding could be available from the Ministry of Environment & Forests under their various schemes. International funding is also a good possibility. We have following suggestions:

• Ecological Park – Lawngtlai:

This region is in a better state as far as natural biodiversity is concerned. The population and urbanisation pressures are also less. A large (Over 100 Hectares) Ecological / Nature Park should be designed and developed at a suitable location close to the District HQ.
The basic theme will be to represent Mizoram’s indigenous flora and fauna along with innovative features for tourists. The park will also have educational component built into it in a form of Conservation Centre. This can develop into an attractive tourist spot for local and domestic tourists.

• Botanical Park / Orchid Sanctuary – Lunglei:

Lunglie is the second biggest city in Mizoram and is a District HQ. A large (Over 100 Hectares) Botanical Park and Orchid Sanctuary could be developed on the outskirts of this city. The Park should represent the indigenous flora of Mizoram and separate innovative sections including an Orchid Sanctuary.
Mizoram and the Northeast Region are famous for variety of wonderful orchids. They could be conserved and promoted here. Greenhouse for endangered plants, section for insectivorous plants, Herbal Garden etc. could be other interesting features. The park will have good tourist and educational value. It will be very useful for schools and colleges for their outdoor activities and excursions.

• Zoological Park – Aizawl:

Zoos always have great attraction in urban areas and tourists love to visit the zoos if they are well designed to represent indigenous animals exhibited in their near-natural and open habitat.
Zoological Parks have great educational and scientific value in addition to the touristic and recreational value. At present, there is a mini zoo at Bethelhem in Aizawl and we understand that the Forest Department has some proposal for its renovation / shifting. It is advisable to propose a very large (Over 500 Hectares) Zoological Park to be developed on the modern open zoo concept on the outskirts of Aizawl, perhaps nearby Lengpui Airport. The terrain seems to be suitable there.

All these Regional Parks could be initiated by Mizoram Tourism in collaboration with the other departments like Forest, Education, Horticulture etc. The funding is possible from the Ministry of Environment & Forests and also from International Agencies. They require to be carefully and sensitively designed including the activities, research component and the management plan. These Parks could be an excellent tourist attraction, particularly to the domestic and local sector.

l. Heritage Tourism:

Mizoram does not have many and important Heritage Sites like many other states in the country. Therefore it is important to highlight and develop a few sites of historical and heritage importance. We have identified a few such sites as under:

Historical Caves:

The Tribal Research Institute has enlisted 15 Caves of historical importance in Mizoram (See Appendix – u). Not many people are aware of these sites and their status. One of the caves near Vantawng that we visited could not create positive response in spite of the interesting location. This sector will require a lot of technical and development inputs. Mizoram Tourism should take initiative in collaboration with the Tribal Research Institute, Archaeological Survey of India, Education Department etc. to develop these as tourist spots.

Historical site at Rengdil (Mamit district):

Rengdil village has a historical site, which is under archaeological investigations. A few interesting ruins have been unearthed here. This place was inhabited by Maharaja of Tripua and he constructed a lake here. The name Rengdil has an appropriate meaning. ‘Reng’ means Chief and ‘dil’ means Lake. The place could be of interest from historical point of view particularly since it involves some cultural association with the neighbouring state of Tripura. Mizoram Tourism should take initiative, carry out basic development and popularise this spot.

Lunglei: 1st church in Mizoram:

Lunglei is the second biggest city of Mizoram which is also a District HQ. This region had a locational advantage being on the higher hill range. This was used by the Britishers for strategic control over the region and the first establishment came here in the year 1880. The first Church of Mizoram was established here sometime around 1884, which is still in existence and under use. This place has an important historical and heritage value and should be popularised as a tourist

spot. Mizoram Tourism should work out collaborative programmes and tourism strategy along with the Church authorities.

This development of Heritage Tourism should not be of much financial burden for Mizoram Tourism since the publicity will be the major input. Basic tourist facilities and landscape improvement of the surrounding area need to be provided by the department. A collaborative effort would reduce the burden and achieve an interesting feature of Heritage, which is lacking today.

Tourism Festivals:

Tourism Festivals is a very popular concept in the tourism industry. However, its major objective is publicity. General observation is that these festivals are not sustainable on their own. We recommend that Mizoram Tourism, at this juncture, should take up only those festivals which are economically feasible and which could attract large participation. Tourism Department could initiate two activities as under:

Christmas & New Year:

Mizoram being a predominantly Christian state, Christmas and New Year are celebrated with a lot of jubilation. The atmosphere is very festive during this period. The season is also excellent for tourism. Mizoram Tourism should use this Christmas / New Year Festival opportunity to attract tourism in the state. A grand festival should be planned in Aizawl with various activities, cultural programmes, handicraft exhibitions, ethnic food feasts etc. Church authorities could be also involved in these programmes. Aizawl city with its urban and geographical charm could become a popular tourist destination due to this Festival Tourism. Mizoram Tourism should start this from this year with wide publicity through newspapers / magazines articles.

Festivals in collaboration with Star Hotels:

As a part of publicity effort outside the state, Mizoram Tourism should try to collaborate with various Star Hotels in the major cities and organise Mizo Festivals in these hotels at different times. The festivals could include ethnic cultural programmes, handicraft exhibitions and special food. Such festivals could attract wide attention of tourists without much cost to the tourism department. The tourism department gets advantage of hotel infrastructure whereas hotel gets advantage of unique programme and special clientele. This could achieve excellent publicity for Mizoram Tourism all over the country at a very minimum cost.

5. SPECIFIC UNIQUE TOURISM CIRCUITS FOR MIZORAM:

Tourism Circuits is a very popular concept in the tourism sector today. The development of such circuits and organising tours on these circuits becomes economical for both tourists and tourism departments. Various tour organisers also find it convenient from the management point of view.

However, in Mizoram where infrastructure is a major obstacle for tourism, the Circuit Tourism does not look appropriate at this juncture. There are a few unique possibilities, which could be worked out with careful planning and support system, even at the present situation. This Circuit Tourism will involve multi-mode transport and even trekking. However, this obstacle can become an opportunity to achieve success and popularity. It could be partly considered as Adventure Tourism. A few possible Circuits are as under:

a. Heritage circuit: (Caves, Lunglie Church, Rengdil, Ethnic Villages under Rural Tourism, Handicraft Centre)

b. Wildlife circuit: (All sanctuaries & National Parks)

c. International Border Circuit: (Myanmar border circuit, Bangladesh border circuit)

d. Interstate Circuit: (Mizoram – Tripura (via Jampui hills, Mizoram – Manipur circuit)

e. River Tourism Circuit: (Perennial Rivers – Kolodyne, Tlawng, Tuirial, Khawthlangtuipui)


This Circuit Tourism will need careful planning up to the smallest detail. It will also require the development of proper support system at various locations along the Circuit route. However, this could be an excellent opportunity to involve local people in the tourism development. This participatory effort could be an excellent economical opportunity for local people.

CHAPTER – 7

TOURISM TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS IN MIZORAM

1. Tourism Research and Documentation:

The status of Tourism Research and Documentation is quite low in India. Apart from the work of the Department of Tourism, Government of India, there is no significant research and documentation at the state level. The World Tourism Organisation provides Tourism Data on international tourism. The general scenario of Indian Tourism is also reflected from the Tourism Data made available by the Department of Tourism, Government of India.
However, the genuineness of this data is somewhat doubtful since it is based on the information provided by the different states. At present, the states are not equipped to carry out Tourism Research and Documentation in a scientific way. The Northeast States are in a nascent stage in the field of Tourism Development. The state like Mizoram is quite young in this field and is in a process of getting organised. The Tourism Development has to be looked at like an Industry or Business. The Tourism Research and Documentation are the keys for appropriate strategy of Tourism Development in the State. Mizoram Tourism has maintained some general data on the Tourism Scenario in the State. It is not sufficient and a lot more attention has to be provided to this parameter. However, we have arrived at some possible trends and implications based on this limited data and also our own assumptions based on our fieldwork in the state. It should be noted that due to these limitations, these assessments and projections may not be accurate and they should be considered as indicative only.

2. Past and Existing Tourism Trends:

Mizoram Tourism has maintained records of the tourist arrivals at their tourist lodges and also at a few private hotels in Aizawl since 1987 (Appendix – o). The data gives overall general idea of tourists inflow to the state. It shows a random break up of foreign and domestic tourists. A random projection of tourists for the year 2002-2003 has also been made (appendix – l). However, destination wise and category wise details of tourist arrivals are not available. We have to make certain assumptions based on this limited data available to us for interpretation.

General information of the Tourist Accommodation facilities at the tourist lodges and a few private hotels in Aizawl is available (appendix – e).
Additionally, there are ongoing and proposed/prioritised projects for tourist infrastructure (appendices – f, g, h, i), which are likely to be completed in a couple of years. There is some moderate private accommodation (assumed 5% of govt. accommodation) available in smaller towns. The occupancy rate at all these places varies between 30% and 50%. Considering low and off seasons, it is assumed that tourism is active in Mizoram for about 200 days in a year. The assumption of tourist arrivals at various destinations is made on

the basis of availability of rooms/beds and the abovementioned criteria of occupancy. The general indication of past trends and future projections for 20 years is as under:

Table 8: Trends & Projections of Tourist Arrivals at the major Tourist Destinations:

Destination Past Trends Future Projections (Annual-average)
1999 2000 2001 2002-
2006 2007-
2011 2012-
2016 2017-
2021
Zokhawthar/Rih Dil Lake 819 1915 10000 15000 25000 50000
Tlabung/Khawt
hlang Tuipui River Region 1683 2944 3000 5000 10000 20000
Dampa Tiger Reserve
Phawngpui (Blue Mountain)
National Park 227 493 3000 5000 10000 20000
Ngengpui
Wildlife Sanctuary
International Tri-junctions 2000 3000 5000 10000
Interstate Tri- junctions 1000 2000 4000 8000
Handicraft Centre at
Thenzawl 1000 2000 4000 7000 10000
Defence Tourism 1000 2000 4000 8000
Rural Tourism 2000 4000 7000 12000
Astronomy Centre 2000 5000
Urban Tourism- Aizawl 11036 19923 20000 30000 60000 120000
Regional Parks at Lawngtlai/Lungl
ei/Aizawl 1889 3647 7000 12000 20000 35000
Heritage Tourism/Circuit 1000 2000 3000 5000
Wildlife Circuit 2000 4000 8000 15000
International Border Circuit 3000 5000 10000 20000
River Tourism Circuit 1000 1500 2500 4000
TOTAL FOR MIZORAM 25372 26881 29413 33000-
48000 52000-
77000 88000-
155000 180000-
315000

Note: The details of the past trends at various destinations are awaited from the Mizoram Tourism. The numbers here are the total of domestic & foreign tourists, foreigners being approx. less than 1% of the total tourists. The percentage of foreign tourists could increase only with very special efforts. The past trends show approximate annual increase of 10%. This rate will continue for the first ten years, after which it may increase to 15%-20%. Since the destination wise details of past trends are not available, assumptions are made based on the availability of rooms/beds and 40% occupancy.

3. Future Tourism Implications:

We have proposed that Mizoram Tourism should be actively involved in the development of Tourism Destinations. They should not get involved in the development and management of Tourist Infrastructure like tourist lodges etc. However, at this preliminary juncture some basic infrastructure will have to be created by the government. The general progressive need of accommodation facilities (rooms/beds) at various destinations has been worked out based on the tourist projections for the next 20 years. The indicative projection is as under:
Table 9: Existing status and projected needs of accommodation at various destinations:
Destination Existing Status (2001) Future Projections (No. of Rooms / Beds)
No.of Roo
ms No.of Beds 2002-2006 2007-2011 2012-2016 2017-2021
Zokhawthar/Rih Dil Lake 120 /200 180 / 300 240 / 400 280 / 500
Tlabung/Khawthlang Tuipui River Region 60 / 100 120 / 200 180 / 300 240 / 400
Dampa Tiger Reserve 25 / 40 35 / 60 50 / 80 60 / 100
Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) National Park 30 / 50 60 / 100 90 / 150 120 / 200
Ngengpui Wildlife
Sanctuary 25 / 40 35 / 60 50 / 80 60 / 100
International Tri-junctions 30 / 50 60 / 100 120 / 200 180 / 300
Interstate Tri-junctions
Handicraft Centre at Thenzawl 30 / 50 60 / 100 120 / 200 180 / 300
Defence Tourism
Rural Tourism 30 / 50 60 / 100 120 / 200 180 / 300
Astronomy Centre
Urban Tourism-Aizawl 222 379 300 / 500 450 / 750 900 / 1500 1600 /
2800
Regional Parks at Lawngtlai/Lunglei/Aizawl
Heritage Tourism/Circuit 30 / 50 60 / 100 90 / 150 120 / 200
Wildlife Circuit 30 / 50 60 / 100 90 / 150 120 / 200
International Border Circuit 30 / 50 60 / 100 120 / 200 240 / 400
River Tourism Circuit 30 / 50 60 / 100 90 / 150 120 / 200
TOTAL FOR MIZORAM 316 607 760 / 1000 1140 /
1500 2280 /
3000 4560 /
6000

(Note: This includes government and private accommodation. The combined data of destination wise existing infrastructure is not available except for Aizawl.)

Our proposal is based on the development of Tourism Destinations. At present the tourist accommodation is scattered all over and not necessarily linked to these destinations. However, this limitation can be used as an opportunity to combine accommodation facilities for various tourist destinations and tourist circuits.

It is our assessment that the present and ongoing projects should provide these minimum facilities to give preliminary impetus for tourism attraction in Mizoram. The development of innovative tourism destinations combined with appropriate marketing and publicity strategy should attract steady tourist inflow to Mizoram. This inflow, in turn, would attract private investments in the hospitality and tourism business. The Mizoram Tourism should act as a catalyst and monitor/control this development.

4. Evaluations and Future of Tourism:

It is always useful and advisable to evaluate the Tourist Destinations based on various key parameters. The evaluation of the present status and the consideration of appropriate strategy for the tourism development in the state could indicate about the future of tourism.

There are several parameters required to be considered when one thinks about the development of tourist destinations.

The existing destinations need to be assessed based on their present status and further potential. The carrying capacity of each destination also needs to be considered. This is more important when the destinations are being developed with a strong concept of Eco-tourism. The status of existing general infrastructure like road, market etc. and specific infrastructure like tourist accommodation at or near the vicinity of the tourist destination needs thorough consideration. The data of the visitors provides information on the peak/off period, seasonal variations etc.

The new destinations could be assessed hypothetically, based on the evaluation of the similar trends, experience from the similar destinations and basic survey. We have already considered these factors while proposing the new destinations.

We have considered four parameters as key and indicative at this preliminary stage of tourism development. The assessment of the first two parameters – attraction and popularity, is subjective and based on our own understanding, interactions and experience. The assessment of the other parameters – infrastructure and volume of tourist traffic flow, is based on the existing status of these parameters.

Table 10: General Evaluation of Tourist Destinations in Mizoram:

(Note: The evaluation is graded on 1 to 10 scale from poor – fair – best, based on the existing status)


Destination Attractions Popularity Infrastructure Volume of Traffic Flow Overall Average
Zokhawthar/Rih Dil Lake 8 6 5 5 6.00
Tlabung/Khawthlang Tuipui River Region 8 6 4 5 5.75
Dampa Tiger Reserve 5 4 3 3 3.75
Phawngpui (Blue Mountain National Park) 8 5 4 5 5.50
Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary 5 3 3 2 3.25
International Tri-junctions 8 8 4 4 6.00
Interstate Tri-junctions 6 6 4 3 4.50
Handicraft Centre at Thenzawl 8 7 5 5 6.25
Defence Tourism 8 8 3 3 5.50
Rural Tourism 8 6 4 3 5.25
Astronomy Centre 6 5 3 2 4.00
Urban Tourism-Aizawl 8 8 7 6 7.25
Regional Parks at Lawngtlai/Lunglei/Aizawl 8 8 6 5 6.75
Heritage Tourism/Circuit 5 5 3 3 4.00
Wildlife Circuit 8 8 4 3 5.75
International Border Circuit 8 8 5 5 6.50
River Tourism Circuit 6 5 4 3 4.50
Overall Average for Mizoram 7.12 6.24 4.18 3.82 5.33


We feel that future picture is quite optimistic. Even considering the limitations of the last two parameters (due to the existing status), the average rating worked out for all major destinations varies between 3.25 and 7.25, whereas overall average for Mizoram works out approx. 5.33 (i.e. Fair).

This provides us confidence to state that once the recommendations of the perspective plan are implemented, the future of Mizoram Tourism will be very bright.

CHAPTER – 8

FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS, PRIVATISATION STRATEGY & INSTITUTIONAL FUNDING AVENUES


1. Financial Implications:

The State Government of Mizoram considers the Tourism Department as one of the fastest growing department and the Outlay of Rs. 1045.00 Lakhs has been proposed for the 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007)

Table 11: State Government’s Proposed Outlay (General) for the 10th Five-Year Plan for Tourism (Rs. In Lakhs):

S.No. Years Plan Non-Plan Allotment Expenditure
1 2001-2002 226.24
2 2002-2003 190.00 235.50
3 2003-2004
4 2004-2005
5 2005-2006
6 2006-2007
Total for 10th
Plan 2002-2007 1045.00


The above table showing the general outlay for the 10th Five Year Plan
indicates the State’s approach towards Tourism Development in the state. It also indicates the State’s financial capacity and potential and also limitations not only for new Tourism Development, but also for the maintenance of the existing infrastructure.

The seriousness and detailed conceptual thought process for the comprehensive tourism development could be revealed through the category wise allocations. We have tried to tabulate the key categories required for the comprehensive and holistic approach. However, the following table will indicate that the major proportion of the budget allocation is towards the staff salaries. There is also a considerable allocation towards the State’s share for Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) for infrastructure development. This indicates that at present, Mizoram Tourism is largely dependent on the Central Government assistance and the department cannot afford to think beyond the basic maintenance of their infrastructure.

Table 12: State Government’s Proposed Outlay (Category wise) for the 10th Five-Year Plan for Tourism (Rs. In Lakhs):

S.No. Category 2002-
2003 2003-
2004 2004-
2005 2005-
2006 2006-
2007 Total for 10th Plan
1 Infrastructure Development 44.00 209.45
2 Product
Development
3 Entrepreneurship Development
4 Enhanced Facilitation
5 Human Resource Development 6.00 20.15
6 Research & Computerisation
7 Promotion &
Marketing 9.00 60.00
8 Environmental & Cultural Conservation
9 Provision for Incentives
10 Monitoring & Evaluation
11 Strengthening of
Organisation
12 Staff Salaries 131.00 755.40
13 TOTAL 190.00 1045.00


2. Privatisation Strategy:

The role of the Tourism Department should be to develop the tourism potential in the state by creating infrastructure and developing tourist spots. It should get out of implementation process as early as possible. The privatisation of various facilities with different strategies makes the projects sustainable in a long run. However, in the present nascent stage, it may not be possible for the department to attract private entrepreneurs who could take risk and invest funds since the tourism market is unpredictable. The Tourism Department will have to prepare its own strategy of sustainability through economic / participatory / collaborative projects for the next ten years. At the same time efforts must be continued to involve the private participation in the creation of infrastructure, through attractive incentives and benefits. A few popular tourist spots could be offered on a BOT basis as an experiment.

Package of incentives offered by the State Government to attract Private Sector Investments:

The tourism had a subordinate status prior to 1987 in Mizoram when it was a part of the Department of Information and Public Relations. Since 1987, the Department of Tourism is looking after the activities of tourism development in the state. The state government has realized the importance of tourism development as a support to cultural and socio-economic development of the state. The government has given the thrust on the creation of basic infrastructure and amenities required for tourists. This has been done mainly through the assistance provided by the central government.

The state government declared its Industrial Policy in March 1993, wherein the tourism has been declared as an industry. Many incentives and financial assistance are being proposed for creation of tourist infrastructure through private participation. However there have been no responses till now.

Package of incentives offered by the Central Government to attract Private Sector Investments:

The Central Government has adopted a conscious strategy for the Development and Regulation of Tourism Industry with private participation. A few salient features are as under:

a) The tourism industry was declared as a Priority Sector for foreign investments, as a consequence of economic restructuring and liberalisation of policies. The horizons for foreign investment in the tourism sector were widened and it is eligible for automatic approval of direct foreign investment up to 100 per cent of the equity. Automatic approvals are given for Foreign Technology Agreements and Management Contracts within specified parameters.

b) An ‘Investment Facilitation Cell’ in the Department of Tourism was set up to undertake key activities related to private investments in the tourism industry. Some important activities are:
• Formulation of national investment policies of tourism industry
• Co-ordination and integration of State policies on tourism
• Prepare investment profiles for each State in collaboration with the respective State Governments. These profiles will include information on identified priority centres for tourism development, details of existing infrastructure, expected demand, availability of land and other support services, agencies to be contacted etc.
• Regular interactions with prospective entrepreneurs both within the country and abroad to promote investment in tourism
• Establishing linkages with Ministry of External Affairs to highlight investment opportunities in tourism abroad through their investment cell

• Process investment proposals received from both local and foreign investors and obtain approvals and clearances from various agencies like FIPB, SIA and Environment Ministry etc.
• Assist the entrepreneurs in getting import licences, finance, land etc. by coordinating with the respective agencies and the State Governments
• Provide technical assistance wherever required
• In consultation with State Governments, devise a ‘Single Window System’ to facilitate investors to obtain various clearances speedily
• To formulate a statutory framework for identification, creation and establishment of Special Tourism Areas and Mega Tourism Projects for development of tourism infrastructure
• To coordinate with the ‘Investment Promotion and Infrastructure Development Cell’ in the Department of Tourism with regard to infrastructure requirements, facilitation and monitoring of investment in the tourism sector

c) Considering a large potential of tourism industry as foreign exchange earner, employment generation etc., the Government has accorded Export House Status to tourism industry. Hotels, Travel Agents, Tour Operators and Tourist Transport Operators are now entitled for recognition as Export House/Trading House/Star Trading House/ Super Star Trading House on earning free foreign exchange in accordance with prefixed slabs and shall be entitled to certain benefits.

d) The endeavour of the Government is to achieve sustained growth of tourist facilities in the private sector and to ensure high standards of quality in their services. Incentives have been made available by the Central Government as under:

• Interest subsidy of 3% on loans taken from financial institutions for 1 to 3 star categories of hotel projects outside the metropolitan cities. A subsidy of 5% is made available to hotel projects located in the Travel Circuits and Destinations identified as per National Action Plan for Tourism. Heritage Hotels are eligible for the higher rate of interest subsidy of 5%. Financial institutions such as ICICI, IDBI and SIDBI have been included in the scheme in addition to TFCI, IFCI and State Finance and Industrial Corporations.
• As a fiscal incentive, under Section 80 HHD, 50% of profits derived by hotels, travel agents and tour operators in foreign exchange are exempt from income tax. The balance amount of profit in foreign exchange is also exempt provided it is reinvested in tourism projects.

• The Ministry of Finance has reintroduced Section 80-IA now known as 80-IB for the hotel units located in rural areas, hilly areas and place of pilgrimage. They are allowed 50% exemption in their profits, whereas for the hotels located in other areas (except metropolitan cities) under the same section, the exemption is 30%.
• Benefits have been made available under Liberalised Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS). Hotels, travel agents, tour operators and other tourism units have been given facility to open and operate Exchange Earners Foreign Currency (EEFC) Account. The procedure for release of foreign exchange for specified purposes has been streamlined and liberalised.
• Import of special items for hotel industry is permitted subject to import entitlement. Concessional Customs Duty is charged for import of specified goods required for initial setting up of substantial expansion of hotels.
• A new Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme has been introduced for the Service Sector, which includes hotels and restaurants, travel agents and tour operators. Under this scheme, capital goods can be imported at a concessional duty of 5% subject to fulfilment of an Export Obligation over a period of time.

e) The Department of Tourism presents National Tourism Awards and Awards for Excellence for various segments of travel and tourism industry every year. National Tourism Awards are presented to classified hotels including heritage hotels, approved travel agents, tour operators and tourist transport operators in recognition of their performance in their respective fields and also to encourage healthy competition in order to promote tourism. Awards of Excellence are presented to various other segments of travel and tourism industry.


f) The State Governments have also been informed about these incentives and are being encouraged and advised to introduce similar incentives at state level to encourage tourism industry and private participation.


Attempts of Privatisation by the state:

Ten Tourist establishments, namely Tourist Lodges, Tourist Cottages and Highway Restaurants at Vairengte, Bairabi, Saitual, Thenzawl, Khawbung, Tamdil, Chhiahtlang, Hnahthial, Thingdawl and Kawlkulh are under the process of privatisation. The proposal will be submitted to the government for approval. The details of Lease Agreement are being finalised.

Action Plan for Privatisation:

a. Fiscal evaluation of the existing infrastructure on a realistic / business like manner, according to various categories.
b. Auction / offer Tourist Lodges to private entrepreneurs / authentic NGOs/ reputed charitable institutions on an appropriate terms and conditions.
c. Offer restaurants to reputed charitable institutions, particularly Women’s organisations for management on lucrative terms and conditions
d. Offer service oriented infrastructure like booking counters, information booths, STD booths etc. to the deprived sector (educated unemployed, handicapped, women, students etc) in an individual / organisational capacity. This offer could be charitable.
e. Offer incentives to the existing staff to form co-operatives to run / manage existing Tourist Lodges, Restaurants etc. on reasonable terms and conditions.
f. Offer new infrastructure development to Village Councils, NGOs, private entrepreneurs etc. on a turnkey basis (BOT i.e. built, operate, transfer), if necessary, even for a long term.
g. Offer development of smaller infrastructure like wayside amenities, public toilets, tourist transport etc. to existing local entrepreneurs on a lucrative terms and conditions.
h. Offer remote area concessions and incentives to private entrepreneurs for the development of tourism destination and infrastructure in the remote regions. These could include free land, partial subsidy for development etc.
i. Give wide publicity to the schemes being offered for privatisation. Keep the terms of offer lucrative like low/refundable deposits, quick decisions etc.
j. Protect the long-term government interest by legally safeguarding the terms of offers and agreements. The terms should also ensure long-term maintenance of infrastructure and quality service.
k. The Department should work out effective strategy to regularly monitor the privatised properties and ensure the quality of service.


3. Governmental Funding Avenues:

The Tourism Department must try various funding avenues in a process to make the activity economically feasible and sustainable. All proposals / projects must be worked out like business proposals considering all possible projections. The state / central governments may provide limited assistance for the initial gestation period. However, a definite strategy has to be worked out for the long-term maintenance of such facilities.

The other funding avenues should be tapped. Various government departments and organisations provide specialise funding for specific projects related to their activities and tourism sector being a versatile sector could tap these resources.

The Department of Tourism under the aegis of the Ministry of Tourism & Culture supports the most of the tourism development of Mizoram Tourism. However, the collaboration with the sister departments under the same Ministry, namely Archaeology Survey of India and National Culture Fund has not been tried yet by Mizoram Tourism. There is a good potential of joint ventures leading to tourism development.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests finances projects related to Biodiversity, Wildlife, Plant Conservation etc. and the Central Zoo Authority provides funds for zoo related projects. Since the emphasis of Mizoram Tourism is going to be on Eco-tourism, this ministry could be a major sponsor/partner. The Ministry of non-conventional Energy Sources and the Ministry of Science & Technology could also support many activities and parameters under Eco-tourism development.

The tourism projects, particularly the large/unique projects, proposed under the Perspective Plan are of wide range. They come under varied parameters like rural development, agriculture, tribal development, education, science & technology, heritage conservation, adventure sports, information technology etc. There are Ministries specifically working for the development under these parameters and specific funds are allotted to these ministries under the Five Year Plan. These allocations are at the Central and the State level. The Mizoram Tourism should make special efforts to coordinate with these ministries for the specific projects, which combine the interests of both. The Project Proposals need to be designed and worked out in detail and appropriate to the needs of the Ministry requirements. These could be developed as joint projects.

Some of the Ministries at the Central Government, which could be approached for various tourism projects, are as under:

Ministry of Agriculture- Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region

Ministry of Commerce & Industries- Agricultural & Processed Food Products Exports Development Authority (APEDA), Industrial Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)

Ministry of Communication & Information Technology- National Information Centre (NIC), Department of Tele Communication (DOT)

Ministry of Defence- Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), GREF

Ministry of Environment & Forests- Central Zoo Authority (CZI), Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Medicinal Plant

Board, Forest Development Agencies (Joint Forest Management Committees & Eco-development Committees)

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare- Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homeopathy

Ministry of Home Affairs- Northeast Council (NEC)

Ministry of Human Resource Development- Department of Education, Department of Women & Child Development

Ministry of Information & Broadcasting
Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources- Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA)

Ministry of Road Transport & Highway

Ministry of Rural Development- Council of Advancement of People’s Action & Rural Technology (CAPART), National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD)

Ministry of Science & Technology- Department of Science and Industrial Research, Institute of Himalayan Bio-resources Technology (IHBT)

Ministry of Small Scale Industries & Agro & Rural Industries

Ministry of Textiles- Handloom Export Promotion Council (HEPC), Handicraft & Handloom Export Corporation (HHEC)

Ministry of Tourism & Culture- Archaeological Survey of India, National Culture Fund, Department of Tourism

Ministry of Tribal Affairs Ministry of Water Resources
Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports

4. Institutional Funding Avenues:

There are many national and international organisations / universities which are interested in long term ecological research and appropriate development in the regions like Northeast. The tourist infrastructure could be also used for such complementary activities and made sustainable. Mizoram has tremendous potential to attract private investments in tourism sectors.
However it will depend on the other factors adversely affecting the Northeast region.

The state government has already identified tourism as an industry. Now it must begin to treat the tourism sector like a public sector industry. The national and international organisations and funding agencies have a professional and business like approach. They ensure soundness of the proposals, integrity of the project leader and the team, technical and financial viability of the project etc. They also monitor the progress of the project during the implementation. The success rate is generally good in these types of arrangements due to mutual interest and control. However, the approach to generate such funding has to be high quality and professional. The State Government needs to invest reasonable seed capital for the preparation of sound and comprehensive Project Proposal understanding the minute details of the project and also the fundamental approach and philosophy of the donor agency. This preparation of Project Proposal needs to be handled professionally and the consultants should be able to explain and convince the funding agencies about the viability of the project.

In case of International funding agencies, the process will be more complex. Many times the Project Proposals need to be developed as joint and collaborative projects. The approval of the Ministry of External Affairs and the Ministry of Home Affairs becomes mandatory. There are many collaborative projects going on in the country in different sectors and the success rate seems to be reasonably good. The Tourism Sector should also try for these funding possibilities, particularly for large, innovative and unique projects where such collaborative approach would be viable and sustainable.
Here again, the technical and financial viability of the project and the project’s uniqueness from the point of the interest of the funding agency becomes the key issue. This needs professional approach at basic planning stage and the state government must invest reasonable seed capital for this purpose.

The Department of Tourism, Government of India has already established strategy for International Co-operation for Tourism Development. The efforts of interactions with International Organisations have been initiated and there have been several meetings of officials to discuss and sort out various issues in the year 2001 e.g. Human Resources & Development (Geneva, Switzerland), Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) Annual Conference (Kaula Lumpur, Malaysia), World Tourism Organisation Commission of South Asia Region (Male, Maldives), Satellite Accounting (Vancouver, Canada), EIBTM meeting (Geneva, Switzerland), Strategic Group of WTO (Geneva, Switzerland), PATA Board meeting (Taipei, Taiwan), WTO General Assembly ( Seoul, Korea), Tourism India 2001 conference (Singapore), International Travel Mart (Kunming, China), World Travel Mart (London). There have been also efforts to arrive at Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation Agreements with various countries and a few important achievements have been made e.g. South Asia Joint Marketing and Promotion Action Plan for tourism, India-Singapore Joint Task Force, Indo- Italian Joint Working Group on Tourism etc. A large collaborative project, ‘Ajanta - Ellora Conservation and Tourism Development Project’, with external assistance of the Japanese Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC)

is currently under progress. The Department of Tourism should encourage and advise the State Governments for Bilateral and Multilateral Collaborative assistance for specific and large Tourism Development Projects in the State.

The Institutional Funding Agencies may be classified under the following categories:

National Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) International NGOs
International Government Agencies
Inter Governmental Organisations (IGOs)

Many agencies in these categories have been implementing various Collaborative Projects in different states of India. These bilateral / multilateral collaborations are with government / semi-government agencies and also with the NGOs. These projects are in different fields like environment, development, health, social welfare, education, rural development, agriculture, science and technology etc. The Mizoram Tourism should work out the Tourism Projects with such diverse and comprehensive manner, so that these types of collaborations become possible. It may be noted that these projects are large and the success rate is quite high. A few ongoing examples of such projects, which could be tied up with Tourism Development:

• Basic Health Programme – Indo-German Development Co-operation - Maharashtra
• Conservation Education Project – Overseas Development Administration – Mumbai
• Lake Restoration and Development – Indo-Norwegian Project – Bangalore
• Mangrove Park – Godrej Foundation – Mumbai
• NEPED – Indo-Canadian Project – Nagaland
• Project Tiger – World Wide Fund for Nature – 16 National Parks in different states of India
• Bangalore Agenda Task Force for Urban Development & Beautification – Infosys Foundation – Bangalore
• Wildlife Research Projects – US Fish & Wildlife Department – Various parts of India

The modalities of such collaborative projects depend on the philosophy of the funding agency and also the nature of the specific project. However, the professionalism and integrity are the key essential factors. Mizoram Tourism should try to avail these possibilities and being a government department such collaborations and successful implementation looks distinctly possible.

A list of few Institutional Agencies is given hereunder:

National Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
Infosys Foundation Pirojsha Godrej foundation Reliance Foundation
J.R.D. Tata Trust
Tata Sons Ltd. & various Trusts Wildlife Trust of India
K. Mahindra Foundation

International NGOs

Aga Khan Foundation
Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada Asian Cultural Council
AT & T Foundation Aurora Foundation Environmental Trust Ford Foundation
Foundation for Deep Ecology Gates Foundation
Global Conservation Fund (Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation) Goldman Environment Foundation
International Fund for Animal Welfare Kellog Foundation
MacArther Foundation
National Geographic Foundation
Paul Getty Allen Forest Protection Foundation Paul Getty Trust
Smithsonian Institute The Asia Foundation The Carnegie Foundation
The Rockfeller Foundation
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), International

International Government Agencies

Department of Environmental Research & Social Sciences, Germany German Ministry of Development Co-operation
National Environment Research Council (NERC), UK Netherlands Development Organisation
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (Earth & Life Science) Swiss National Foundation, Switzerland
The Research Council of Norway (Environment & Development)
The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agriculture & Spatial Planning, Sweden
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) United Kingdom Department of International Development

United States Department of Fish & Wildlife US Global Change Research Programme, USA

Inter Governmental Organisations (IGOs)

Conservation International
Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) Department for International Development (DFID), UK Environment Programme of European Commission Environment Protection Agency, USA
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
India Canada Environment Facility (ICEF)
Indo-Dutch Programme on Alternatives in Development (IDPAD) Indo-Norwegian Environment Programme (INEP)
International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) International Relations Council (Social Science & Humanities Research), Canada
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Japanese Bank for International Co-operation (JBIC) National Natural Science Foundation of China Overseas Development Administration (ODA)
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNCF)
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

5. Modalities of Funding:

The above-mentioned funding agencies have their own norms and modalities for funding. Most of them have their own specific interests in the areas to provide funding e.g. environment, forests, water, infrastructure, heritage, education, tourism, rural development, women’s empowerment etc. Generally all funding agencies have their own formats of application for the funding.
They also have time frames and schedules. Most of the funding agencies prefer to collaborate with the Government Departments, however they also like to involve NGOs and also look for people’s participation. International Funding Applications need to be routed through the Ministry of External Affairs and also the Central Government Ministries related to the Projects.

The international funding agencies have different approaches. Some provide funding in a form of Grant and also technical know-how / human resources etc. These are collaborative projects, bilateral or multilateral. The ODA and European Union provide funding in this manner. These are generally long term projects (5 to 10 years) and the funding agencies regularly monitor the progress of the project through their own consultants / specialised institutions.

These agencies generally provide 100% funding on the cost estimates worked out jointly, however they ensure the commitment of the grantee to look after, maintain and continue the project in future. The agreements / MOUs ensure these clauses for the commitment. These agencies also ensure the participation of the grantee in the form of existing infrastructure including human resources, land etc. at the beginning of the project.

The Mizoram Tourism could attempt to get such funding for following specific projects:

1. Rih Dil Lake Project as an International Collaborative, Heritage and Cultural Integration Project
2. Handicraft & Agriculture Centre at Thenzawl as a Rural Development & Women’s Empowerment Project
3. Cultural Tourism Centres at International / National tri-junctions as Cultural Integration Project
4. Geography / Astronomy Centre at the Tropic of Cancer as an Educational Project
5. Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) National Park as an Eco-tourism / Eco- development / Adventure tourism Project

There are other funding agencies, which are basically financial institutions like Asian Development Bank (ADB), Overseas Economic Corporate Fund (OECF), now JBIC, International Monetary fund (IMF) etc. These agencies provide soft loans for mostly development projects. They have their own parameters to decide about the eligibility components. Such funding is generally provided to the Government Departments and there are standard norms of sureties for repayments etc. They also insist for proportionate investment / participation from the recipient. For example, the JBIC provides financial assistance in a form of soft loan up to maximum 85% of the total project costs. The eligible components for JBIC are Land Cost, Infrastructure Development Cost, Compensation / Rehabilitation cost, Duties & Taxes, Interest during the implementation of the project etc. These loans are provided to the State Government Departments on the approval of the Ministry of External Affairs. Most of the times, 30% of the approved amount as provided as Grant and 70% as Loan. This type of funding is very useful for tourism development projects, wherein the State Governments do not have financial resources to develop the basic tourism infrastructure and at the same time, once such an infrastructure is created they can start generating revenue on a regular basis. However, the state government will need to provide the seed money to the extent of 15% of the project cost

The Mizoram Tourism could attempt to get such funding for following specific projects:

1. Urban Tourism i.e. development of Aizawl and Lunglei
2. Regional Parks at Aizawl, Lunglei and Lawngtlai
3. Development of Tourism Infrastructure i.e. roads & services at the tourist destinations, signage etc.
4. Computerisation of tourism services, Publicity infrastructure, Capacity Building etc.
5. Cultural Centres in other parts of the country

CHAPTER – 9

TOURISM ECONOMICS, COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATION

1. Tourism Economics:

Tourism is today the world’s largest industry, with the Travel and Tourism (T & T) Industry and T & T Economy respectively contributing 4.2% and 10.7% of global GDP. Tourism is also the highest generator of jobs, with the T & T Economy accounting for 8.2% of total employment or 1 in every 12.2 jobs.
By 2011, over 50 million additional jobs will be created by the T & T
Economy. No wonder then that Tourism has been described as ‘one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the last century’.

International Tourist Arrivals in 2000 reached 698 million with International Tourism Receipts of US $ 476 billion, with International Fare Receipts accounting for a further 20% of receipts. Tourism is the single largest and fastest growing category of international trade, accounting for 12.8% of total exports. It is one of the Top 5 export categories for 83% of countries and the main source of foreign exchange for 38%. The potential for international
tourism is vast as today only 3.5% of the world’s population travels internationally.

The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) estimates that the scale of world domestic tourism far exceeds world international tourism, by a ratio of 10:1.

The forecasting study undertaken by the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) indicates that between 2001 and 2011:

• Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will increase from 10.7 % to 11 %
• Global employment contribution will increase from 207.1 million to
260.4 million jobs or 9 % of total global employment
• The global value of tourism related exports will increase from US $ 1,063.8 billion to US $ 2,538.3 billion or 12.8 % of global export value
• Global capital investment in tourism will increase from US $ 657.7 billion to US $ 1,434 billion or 9.3 % of global investment

Forecast data from the WTO shows that the share of tourism volumes and related receipts, GDP, employment and export earnings is expected to move away from the developed countries towards the less developed countries as a result of favourable economic, motivational, technological and policy factors.

WTTC’s status paper ‘The India Imperative’ has analysed India tourism in the light of the latest Tourism Satellite Accounting Research (TSA), 2001 and projections for the year 2011. WTCC has identified India as one of the foremost growth centres in the world in the coming decade.

2. Role of Tourism in National Socio-economical Development:

In 2000, India received 2.64 million international arrivals and had an estimated 210 million domestic tourists, a ratio of 1:80. Of this demand, however, Rs. 250 billion results from international tourism to India, while Rs, 912 billion is generated domestically, a ratio of 1:3.65.

While India’s receipts from international tourism at $ 3, 168 million in 200 rank it 29th in the world, India accounts for just 0.67% of world tourism receipts from international arrivals.

In 2001, total tourism exports (visitor and non-visitor) in India are expected to generate Rs. 308 billion or 9.5% of total Indian exports as compared to a world average of 12.9% and India ranks 31st in the world.

In 2001, T & T in India will generate Rs. 1,564 billion of economic activity (total demand), making India the 22nd larges tourism market in the world, ahead of competitors such as Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Egypt. Yet, India accounts for only 0.74% of world demand.
The contribution of the T & T Economy to GDP is impressive in dollar terms. This is due to the sheer size and scale of travel in the country (India ranks 17th in world). The potential contribution of tourism to India’s GDP as seen today is at 5.3% as compared to the world average of 10.7%, and India ranks 140 in the world when tourism’s contribution to GDP is measured. Similarly, despite a world rank of 15, the T & T Industry in India contributes 2.5% of GDP as compared to a world average of 4.2%, ranks 124 in terms of percentage contribution to GDP.

In terms of employment, India’s T & T Economy accounts for 25 million jobs (World Rank 2). This translates to a share of 6% of all employment, giving India a rank of 140. The Department of Tourism’s estimates of T & T Industry jobs are 4.2 million. This has been derived based on a study conducted in 1985-86, which derived the multiplier effect of the tourism industry. Similarly, despite employment of 12.3 million and a world rank of 2, the T & T Industry in India contributes 2.9% of total employment as compared to a world average of 3.1% and ranks 111 in terms of percentage contribution to total employment.

Tourism can play an important, pioneering and effective role in achieving the growth targets set out for the nation. The primary objective of tourism development in India is to accelerate economic growth significantly, so as to meet a series of socio-economic imperative that are unique to India.
Tourism is one economic sector in India that has the capacity to maximise the productivity of the country’s enormous natural, human and technological

assets and resources. It has the capacity to capitalise on the country’s success in the services sector and provide sustainable economic growth over the longer term, offsetting in optimum performance in other economic sectors due either to domestic or global economic or political circumstances.

Tourism is recognised as having the potential to stimulate most economic sectors through its tremendous backward and forward linkages and cross- sectoral synergies. Its most apparent benefits are across the entire retail trade, and in particular in a variety of cottage industries, handicrafts, arts and agriculture. Its benefits for widespread national economic integration are immeasurable.

Tourism can provide the greatly increased revenues and incomes required to achieve the country’s central social objective of significant improvement to human well-being and the quality of life of all our people. The economic benefits that flow into the economy through tourism as increased national and state revenues, business receipts, employment, wages and salary income, and central, state and local tax receipts, which contribute to the social upliftment of the country.

Tourism development, through accelerated and sustainable economic growth, can contribute to the equitable development of the country and the removal of disparities. The income benefits of tourism can spread geographically, particularly to rural areas. Tourism offers employment to women, youth, the disadvantaged and weaker sections of society, the disabled and tribal communities. Tourism can support social equity and stability.

Tourism can enhance the country’s international image and prestige, strengthen its standing in the international community and foster greater
international understanding. It forms part of the country’s economic agenda and improves the overall climate for foreign investment.

95% of tourism businesses are small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) and tourism could be a great supporter of entrepreneurship, cottage industries and economic diversity in rural areas.

Tourism is an export industry and can achieve the acceleration of economic growth by tapping the opportunities afforded by the international economy, thus providing valuable hard currency for imports and reducing the imbalance in trade and payments, Its limited leakage (7 %) makes it the most valuable contributor to India’s international trade and vital ingredient to India’s integration with the global economy.

Tourism being labour intensive promotes new employment, which is not only large in scale but also of a high quality that can support a higher quality of life.Tourism has the capacity to stimulate widespread direct private sector investment, both domestic and foreign. In particular for India, SMEs are recognised to play a vital role in industrialisation.

3. Present Economics of Mizoram Tourism

The main sources of finances for the tourism development in the state are from the normal annual budget of the state and the central financial assistance for the definite projects (appendices – m, q).

Table 13: State budget for the tourism development for the years 1999-2000 to 2002-2003 (Source: Dept. of Tourism, Mizoram):

YEAR AMOUNT IN RS.LAKHS
1999 – 2000 133.75
2000 – 2001 168.80
2001 - 2002 226.24
2002 – 2003 235.50

Table 14: The expenditure (2000-2001) on the maintenance of the existing infrastructure (Source: Dept. of Tourism, Mizoram):

PLAN EXPENSES
S.No. Title Budget Estimate Expenditure
1 Office Expenses Rs. 3,00,000/- Rs. 11,33,948/-
2T Other Charges Rs. 11,50,000/- Rs. 11,62,780/-
3h Materials & Supply Rs. 15,00,000/- Rs 12,79,635/-
e NON-PLAN EXPENSES
1 Office Expenses Rs. 15,00,000/- Rs. 15,15,527/-
2D Other Charges Rs. 11,30,000/- Rs. 11,10,860/-
3e Materials & Supply Rs. 1,00,000/- Rs. 1,00,310/-
p
The Department of Tourism collects revenue from the room rents and food costs at the tourist infrastructure run by the department. This amounts to approx. Rs. 25 to Rs. 30 Lakhs, which is credited to the government revenue every year.

The rates fixed by the department for the amenities provided by them are very reasonable and are based on the per diem rates of the state government for its officials on duty. This rationale looks fine since the government officials on duty are using the amenities regularly.

The Mizoram Tourism has total staff (permanent) strength of 159. Additionally, there is temporary staff employed from time to time on contract/daily wage basis. The recurring expenditure of staff salaries is met from the State Budget. The present annual budget allocation towards the staff salaries is Rs. 131 Lakhs.

The state entirely depends on the central assistance for the creation of tourism infrastructure.

4. Future Economics of Mizoram Tourism

The Perspective Plan for the tourism development has been worked out with an objective to make the tourism industry in the state very sustainable. Over the years, it must become a self-supporting industry.

The proposal of the Perspective Plan as worked out is economically feasible. It is also envisaged that there will be average 10 % annual increase in the tourist traffic due to these overall efforts. It may boost further more after 5 / 10 years. The overall increase by 100 % in the next 10 years will itself make the Mizoram Tourism a profit-making department. At present level also, they have almost managed to cover the recurring costs on maintenance. The strategies recommended in the perspective plan will ensure that Mizoram Tourism will eventually work as a catalyst for tourism development and its administrative and management costs will be within the profits generated from the tourism in the state.

The other additional benefits of the tourism development for the state of Mizoram will act as incentives to further the tourism activities with private participation.

We feel that the Perspective Plan will not only be economically feasible but will also make the Tourism Development in Mizoram very sustainable. It will also provide great impetus for overall socio-economic development of the state of Mizoram in a short time.


5. Cost Benefit Analysis – Tourism in Mizoram

A few norms (Source: Trade in Tourism Services) to work out Cost – Benefits from the tourism development are as under:

a) Hotel Rooms: For 10 lakhs tourists (with average length of stay 10 nights, 65 % average annual occupancy, 1.4 guests per room) annual bed nights available per room will be 332. The number of rooms required will be 30,107. The average cost (all inclusive) per room will be Rs. 15 lakhs.

Employment generation: Direct – 2 persons per room, Indirect – 3 persons per room. Thus 30,127 rooms will generate direct employment for 60,214 persons and indirect employment for 90,321 persons making total employment for 1,50,534 persons.

b) Air Transport: For 10 lakh tourists (with average distance 8000 km., annual 265 round trips, 400 seats per aircraft, 65 % load factor, 260 passengers per aircraft, 50 % foreign tourists) number of aircraft required will be 29. The average cost per aircraft will be Rs. 752.5 Crores

Employment generation: Average 450 persons per aircraft

c) Foreign Exchange: For 10 lakh tourists (with average foreign tourist spend US $ 1100, 10 % import leakage, 50 % tourists for aviation, average travel per tourist 16,000 km, average rate US $ 0.10 per km., import leakage 45 %) average foreign exchange earning from visitor spending will be US $ 9900 lakhs i.e. Rs. 4,356 Crores and from aviation US $ 4400 lakhs i.e. Rs. 1936 Crores

These norms need to be appropriately amended for the Northeast State like Mizoram considering the ground realities. The costs and benefits for Mizoram Tourism according to the modified version could be like this:

• Hotel Rooms: For 10 lakhs tourists (with average length of stay 8 nights, 40 % average annual occupancy, 1.5 guests per room) annual bed nights available per room will be approx. 400) The number of rooms required will be approx. 15000. The average cost (all inclusive) per room will be Rs. 10 lakhs.

Over the next 20 years (2002 to 2021) the expected number of tourists in Mizoram ranges between 33,000 and 2,70,000 and the subsequent need of rooms ranges between 500 and 3000 (see chapter 7). Thus the investments will range from Rs. 50 Crores in 2002 and Rs. 300 Crores in 2021. Most of this investment will be in private sector.

Employment generation: Direct – 2 persons per room, Indirect – 4 persons per room. Thus 500 to 3000 rooms will generate direct employment for 1000 to 6000 persons and indirect employment for 2000 to 12,000 persons making the total employment for 3000 to 18,000 persons over the next 20 years

• Air Transport: For 10 lakh tourists (with average distance 2000 km., annual 200 round trips, 200 seats per aircraft, 50 % load factor, 100 passengers per aircraft, 10 % foreign tourists) number of aircraft required will be 10. The average cost per aircraft will be Rs. 500 Crores.

As per the requirements of Mizoram, the need for 33,000 tourists in 2001 to 2,70,000 in 2021 will be 1 to 3 aircrafts. These could also be shared with the adjoining Northeast states. Thus the investment will range from Rs. 500 Crores in 2002 to Rs.1500 Crores in 2021.

Employment Generation: Average 450 persons per aircraft. Thus 450 to 1350 persons may be employed between 2002 and 2021.

• Other Transport (Railway & Road): The majority of the tourists will depend on these transport system. Intra state transport will be also through these means. The needs for the number of tourists from 33,000 to 2,70,000 over the next 20 years will be approximately 1 % per day. Thus approximate requirements will be 6 buses (2/3 passengers) and 25 jeeps/taxis (1/3 passengers) in 2002, increasing to 50 buses and 200

jeeps/taxis in 2021. The investment will range from Rs. 300 lakhs (2002) to Rs. 2500 lakhs (2021)

Employment Generation: Average 6 persons per bus and 3 persons per jeep/taxi. Thus approximately 100 to 900 persons may get employment in this sector between 2002 and 2021. This employment will be mostly for local people.

The requirements of investment in the development of rail linkage and subsequent employment generation cannot be predicted at this stage, however it will be considerably economical venture.

• Foreign Exchange: For 10 lakh tourists, average foreign exchange earning from visitor spending will be US $ 9900 lakhs i.e. Rs. 4,356 Crores and from aviation US $ 4400 lakhs i.e. Rs. 1936 Crores. At present the number of foreign tourists to Mizoram is very negligible (approx. 1 %). With more emphasis on the tourism development and conscious efforts to attract foreign tourists this may improve to 5 % over the next 20 years. Thus foreign exchange earning will be to the tune of Rs. 1 Crore (visitor spending) and Rs. 0.4 Crores (aviation) in 2002, which may increase to Rs. 4 Crores (visitor spending) and Rs. 1 Crore (aviation) in 2021. This may look negligible but the importance of foreign exchange earnings goes much beyond the figures and special efforts must be made to improve this position.

The overall costing of the Tourism Development in Mizoram under this 20 years perspective plan has been worked out as Block Estimate in the chapter
13. The total outlay of the Perspective Plan over the next 20 years (2002 – 2021), amounts to Rs. 270 Crores, i.e. approximately Rs. 13.5 Crores per year. The Perspective Plan proposal envisages about 30 % investment from the Government (Central and State) Sector and 70 % investment from the private sector. The Projects will be self-supporting, thus taking care of the recurring costs and future maintenance and up-gradation costs. The growth rate will be low in the preliminary years (up to 5 years), however depending on the initiative and other socio-economic conditions in the Northeast region, the growth rate could increase substantially and the state will accrue all the benefits.
Some benefits are direct and could be quantified. However, in the tourism sector major benefits are indirect and cannot be quantified at a preliminary stage. A few salient benefits are as under:

• It has been estimated that in tourism sector, the investment of Rs. 10 lakhs creates about 58 jobs. Thus Mizoram Tourism has potential to create approx. 7830 jobs every year, on the implementation of the Perspective Plan.

• In addition to the job/employment generation directly in the tourism sector, the tourism development also creates opportunities for self- employment in service sector e.g. booking counters, information counters,

STD booths, Cyber centres, tourist guides, tourism transport, taxi service, courier service etc.

• Tourism as a source of income is not easy to measure because of the multiplier effect. The flow of money generated by tourist spending multiplies as it passes through various sections of the economy through the operation of the multiplier effect.

• Tourism Development opens avenues for tourist destination development and also the surrounding region enhancement. This gives opportunity for small entrepreneurs to initiate business like fast food stalls, handicraft centres, village resorts, landscape contractors, civil contractors etc.

• Tourism Development becomes ongoing process and provides opportunities to professional consultants to provide their skills/expertise in an innovative way e.g. graphic designers, commercial artists, landscape designers, architects, script writers, film/documentary producers, web designers etc.

• Tourism development opens avenues of socio-economic development in rural and backward areas.

• Tourists contribute to tax revenues both directly through sales tax and indirectly through property, profits and income tax.

• In general, tourism development brings in the feeling of cultural pride and at the same time brings in social and cultural integration with the national and international communities.

• Due to diverse positive effects of tourism development the overall infrastructure, socio-economics, commerce and environment of the state and the region also gets impetus.

• The emphasis in tourism development like Eco-tourism, Heritage conservation, Wildlife tourism, adventure tourism etc. brings in the sense of environmental conservation in the society.


6. Employment Generation from Tourism Development in Mizoram

There is great potential for creating enormous number of new jobs through travel and tourism. The employment potential is the highest in the tourism sector as compared to any other sector and India has the potential to more than triple its travel and tourism jobs. WTTC had estimated that in the year 1999 travel and tourism was expected to generate almost 200 million jobs across the world economy. It further expected that over 8 % of all jobs worldwide would depend on travel and tourism in 1999 and that the industry would support the creation of over 5.5 million jobs per year over the next

decade. In this decade up to 2010, employment in travel and tourism is expected to grow at 2.6 % per annum.

The majority of jobs associated with travel and tourism tend to come in the form of direct service jobs in tourist related facilities and attractions at the destinations and in tourist generating areas. However, the bulk of the jobs are in tourist destinations e.g. accommodation sector, travel intermediaries, restaurants, shops, travel enterprises etc. In addition, employment opportunities are also available in other sectors, such as manufacturing and transport services, banking, agriculture and fisheries. Many of these jobs are created in backward areas where few employment opportunities are available.

Tourism Industry is a highly labour intensive service industry and is a valuable source of employment. It employs large number of people and provides a wide range of jobs which extend from the unskilled to the highly specialises. In addition to those involved in management, there are a large number of specialist personnel required to work as accountants, housekeepers, waiters, cooks and entertainers who in turn need large number of semi skilled workers such as porters, chambermaids, kitchen staff, gardeners etc. Tourism is also responsible for creating employment outside the industry such as furnishing and equipment industry, souvenir industry, textile and handicraft industry, farming and food supply and also construction industry.

Thus to quantify employment potential of tourism development in a region is not easy and here also Employment Multiplier effect has to be considered.

The tourism industry has a very strong linkage to socio-economic progress of the country. It has a very high revenue capital ratio. It is estimated that an investment of Rs. 10 lakhs creates 47 direct jobs and 11 indirect jobs, which far surpasses the employment potential from Agricultural and Industrial sector.

• The total outlay of the Perspective Plan over the next 20 years (2002 – 2021), amounts to Rs. 270 Crores, i.e. approximately Rs. 13.5 Crores per year.

• It has been estimated that in tourism sector, the investment of Rs. 10 lakhs creates about 58 jobs. Thus Mizoram Tourism has potential to create approx. 7830 jobs every year, on the implementation of the Perspective Plan.

• In addition to the job/employment generation directly in the tourism sector, the tourism development also creates opportunities for self- employment in service sector e.g. booking counters, information counters, STD booths, Cyber centres, tourist guides, tourism transport, taxi service, courier service etc. The effect of Employment Multiplier will be enormous in the underdeveloped state like Mizoram.

• There will be tremendous opportunity in the secondary employment sector, which provides bulk, services to tourism industry e.g. construction industry, farming and food production, furnishing and equipment suppliers, professionals and consultants etc.

The present status of economy of Mizoram is quite dismal. The basic economy is agricultural economy, which is seasonal and unpredictable. The other sector that provides employment opportunities is the Government Service Sector, which also has stagnated. The state does not have potential for industrial development to provide large employment opportunities. Even the business opportunities are limited due to the geographical isolation of the state from the country and also due to socio-economic problems of the region. Mizoram has tremendous natural resources and they need to be conserved for its overall enhancement in a long term. Considering all these factors, Tourism Development based on strong emphasis of Eco-tourism will be the best opportunity for the socio-economical upliftment of the state of Mizoram.

7. Year wise projections of the Direct / Indirect benefits & Employment Generation

a) Direct Benefits:

This is the net value addition due to the increased tourist spending as a result of increased number of tourist arrivals in the state. Due to the creation of additional facilities and infrastructure, the average expenditure of a tourist would increase. The spending pattern of the tourist is assumed to remain unchanged during the plan period. The amounts spent by the tourists are the receipts, which form the direct output of the plan.

The factors to compute the direct benefits are as under:

• The number of foreign tourists is very negligible (1%) and may not change without special efforts. Therefore the combined average expenditure is worked out
• The projected tourist arrivals in the state as a result of interventions is as shown at the table no. 8 – Trends & Projections of Tourist Arrivals in Chapter 7
• Average per day per capita expenditure of tourists (domestic/foreign combined) in Mizoram is estimated as Rs. 2000/-
• Average duration of stay of tourist is assumed to be 5 days
• The percentage change in the Whole Sale Price (WSP) Index is assumed as 5% per year

Table 15: Average Per Capita Per Day Tourist Expenditure:
Year % Change of WSP Average Per Capita Expenditure (Rs.)
2002-03 5 % 2000
2003-04 5 % 2100
2004-05 5 % 2205
2005-06 5 % 2315
2006-07 5 % 2431
2007-08 5 % 2553
2008-09 5 % 2680
2009-10 5 % 2814
2010-11 5 % 2955
2011-12 5 % 3103
2012-13 5 % 3258
2013-14 5 % 3421
2014-15 5 % 3592
2015-16 5 % 3771
2016-17 5 % 3960
2017-18 5 % 4158
2018-19 5 % 4366
2019-20 5 % 4584
2020-21 5 % 4813
2021-22 5 % 5054

Table 16: Direct Economic Benefit from Projected Tourist Arrivals:
(For Direct Value Added, factor 0.3854 is considered. Source: Dr. Raveendran, 1993)
Year Tourist Inflow Expenditure per Tourist for 5 days Direct Receipts (Rs. Crores) Direct Value Added (Factor 0.3854) Rs,
Crores Direct Benefit (Rs. Crores)
1 2 3 4 5 6 (4+5)
2002-03 33000 5 x 2000 33.00 12.72 45.72
2003-04 36300 5 x 2100 38.12 14.69 52.81
2004-05 39930 5 x 2205 44.02 16.97 60.99
2005-06 43923 5 x 2315 50.84 19.59 70.43
2006-07 48315 5 x 2431 58.73 22.63 81.36
2007-08 53147 5 x 2553 67.84 26.15 93.99
2008-09 58462 5 x 2680 78.34 30.19 108.53
2009-10 64308 5 x 2814 90.48 34.87 125.35
2010-11 70738 5 x 2955 104.52 40.28 144.80
2011-12 77812 5 x 3103 120.73 46.53 167.26
2012-13 89484 5 x 3258 145.77 56.18 201.95
2013-14 102906 5 x 3421 176.02 67.84 243.86
2014-15 118342 5 x 3592 212.54 81.91 294.45
2015-16 136094 5 x 3771 256.61 98.90 355.51
2016-17 156508 5 x 3960 309.89 119.43 429.32
2017-18 179984 5 x 4158 374.19 144.21 518.40
2018-19 206981 5 x 4366 451.84 174.14 625.98
2019-20 238029 5 x 4584 545.56 210.26 755.82
2020-21 273733 5 x 4813 658.74 253.88 912.62
2021-22 314793 5 x 5054 795.48 306.58 1102.06

b) Indirect Benefits:

The Indirect Benefits arise out of the multiplier effect of tourist spending as different segments of the tourist industry purchase commodities and services from other sectors of economy. The additional output produced in other sectors of the economy by the chain of inter-industry spending is the indirect output of tourism. The indirect benefits can be computed by using the output multiplier as 1.058 and income multiplier as 1.412 (Source: Dr. Raveendran, 1993).

Table 17: Indirect Economic Benefits from Projected Tourist Arrivals (In Rs. Crores):

Year Direct Receipts Direct Value
Added Output Col.2 X
1.058 Value Added Col.3
X 1.412 Total Col. 4
+ Col. 5
1 2 3 4 5 6
2002-03 33.00 12.72 34.91 17.96 52.87
2003-04 38.12 14.69 39.18 20.74 59.92
2004-05 44.02 16.97 46.57 23.96 70.53
2005-06 50.84 19.59 53.79 27.66 81.45
2006-07 58.73 22.63 62.14 31.95 94.09
2007-08 67.84 26.15 71.77 36.92 108.69
2008-09 78.34 30.19 82.88 42.63 125.51
2009-10 90.48 34.87 95.73 49.24 144.97
2010-11 104.52 40.28 110.58 56.88 167.46
2011-12 120.73 46.53 127.73 65.70 193.43
2012-13 145.77 56.18 154.22 79.33 233.55
2013-14 176.02 67.84 186.23 95.79 282.02
2014-15 212.54 81.91 224.87 115.66 340.53
2015-16 256.61 98.90 271.49 139.65 411.14
2016-17 309.89 119.43 327.86 168.64 496.50
2017-18 374.19 144.21 395.89 203.62 599.51
2018-19 451.84 174.14 478.05 245.89 723.94
2019-20 545.56 210.26 577.20 296.89 874.09
2020-21 658.74 253.88 696.95 358.48 1055.43
2021-22 795.48 306.58 841.62 432.89 1274.51


c) Cost Benefit Analysis:

The following table gives the cost benefit analysis of the Perspective Plan, which has been proposed. The investments for the tourism development are as per the Phase Development and the Block Estimate (Chapters 12 & 13).

Table 18: Cost Benefit Analysis of the Perspective Plan for Mizoram Tourism

Year Direct Benefits Indirect Benefits Total Cost Investment Net Incremental Benefits
1 2 3 4 5 6
2002-03 45.72 52.87 98.59 25.00 73.59
2003-04 52.81 59.92 112.73 25.00 87.73
2004-05 60.99 70.53 131.52 32.00 99.52
2005-06 70.43 81.45 151.88 32.00 119.88
2006-07 81.36 94.09 175.45 16.00 159.45
2007-08 93.99 108.69 202.68 16.00 186.68
2008-09 108.53 125.51 234.04 11.50 222.54
2009-10 125.35 144.97 270.32 11.50 258.82
2010-11 144.80 167.46 312.26 11.00 301.26
2011-12 167.26 193.43 360.69 11.00 349.69
2012-13 201.95 233.55 435.50 10.75 424.75
2013-14 243.86 282.02 525.88 10.75 515.13
2014-15 294.45 340.53 634.98 10.25 624.73
2015-16 355.51 411.14 766.65 10.25 756.40
2016-17 429.32 496.50 925.82 7.75 918.07
2017-18 518.40 599.51 1117.91 7.75 1110.16
2018-19 625.98 723.94 1349.92 7.75 1342.17
2019-20 755.82 874.09 1629.91 7.75 1622.16
2020-21 912.62 1055.43 1968.05 6.50 1961.55
2021-22 1102.06 1274.51 2376.57 6.50 2370.07



d) Employment Generation:

Tourism is a labour intensive industry. The publication of ESCAP on the Economic Impact of Tourism in India (as referred in the Report of the Working Group on Tourism for the Ninth Plan) indicated that 1.2 International visits provide employment to one person, while 17 domestic tourists generate on employment. By using these values the projection of direct employment has been shown in the following table. Since the presence of foreign tourist is not likely to be very significant in Mizoram, the combined number is considered for this evaluation as domestic tourists and the ratio is slightly modified 15 tourists for 1 employment.

Table 19: Generation of Direct Employment on Implementation of the Perspective Plan for Mizoram:

Year Additional Tourist Inflow Direct Employment (15 tourists for 1 employment)
2002-03 33000 2200
2003-04 36300 2420
2004-05 39930 2662
2005-06 43923 2928
2006-07 48315 3221
2007-08 53147 3543
2008-09 58462 3897
2009-10 64308 4287
2010-11 70738 4715
2011-12 77812 5187
2012-13 89484 5965
2013-14 102906 6860
2014-15 118342 7889
2015-16 136094 9072
2016-17 156508 10433
2017-18 179984 11998
2018-19 206981 13798
2019-20 238029 15868
2020-21 273733 18248
2021-22 314793 20986

CHAPTER – 10

COMMUNITY & WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION

Mizo community is heavily dependent on agricultural economy, particularly jhoom cultivation. This labour intensive agriculture provides enough just for subsistence. On the other hand, this practice has destroyed the natural wealth of the state. The agriculture in Mizoram is very much seasonal and people remain occupied in the laborious process for a long time without any returns. The rugged terrain does not allow much scope for any other type of industrial or development activity. In this sense, tourism that is a labour intensive, non- polluting, fast growing and income generating industry is an excellent option for Mizoram.

The success of Tourism Development in the state like Mizoram particularly, will hinge on the local participation. Mizoram already has a strong sector of Voluntary Organisations (See Appendix – aa). The women and youth in Mizoram are also very active, outgoing and full of enthusiasm. This potential can be tapped for multiple purposes. It will achieve employment generation in the otherwise deprived section of the society, will allow the government activity of tourism development to grow like efficient business and at the same time will bring in the feeling of ownership amongst the local people.

Community Participation:

The tourism development is a complex activity and the Tourism Department cannot carry it out successfully on its own. It requires collaboration with various departments, agencies and private individuals. Tourism Development has two major components, creation of infrastructure and management.
Though the first part of creation of infrastructure is looked after by the Tourism Department quite satisfactorily, the second part of management becomes difficult and uneconomical. The effort to involve people at such fragile stage does not succeed since people can foresee losses. They also do not feel as a part of the whole effort. The strategy, therefore, should be to attempt community involvement right at an inception stage of a project.

It is obvious that such an effort may not be feasible and appropriate for all projects. Some important sectors where such projects could be tried are Handicraft Centres, Cultural Centres, Restaurants, Service Centres (phone, internet etc.), Tourist Information Centres, Rural Tourism / Resorts, Tourist guides for Adventure Tourism, village houses as pensions near important tourist destinations etc.

Mizoram Tourism should initiate the strategy through different methods. The most efficient and simple method will be to invite and involve genuine and reputed Voluntary Organisations. This involvement should be right from the planning stage of the project. The proposal should be worked out in the most transparent manner so that the participants feel comfortable. The scope of

participation and the terms of reference should be drafted jointly and carefully. An undertaking / bond should be obtained from them as their commitment to this joint venture. This should be treated like a partnership business and the community should not only be offered share of profits, but also should be given incentives. This can be a Joint Tourism Management Project (JTMP). The success of the JTMP will depend on the freedom, flexibility given to the participants and also on the healthy competition between the various JTMPs running different projects.

Some smaller projects could be handed over to the individuals also, preferably from a deprived class like physically handicapped, senior citizens, unemployed youth, women etc. These projects will act like employment generation means and will also provide important service to the tourists. The best example for this category is the Telecom Facilities (STD / ISD booth). Even Tourist Information Counters could be run through this system.

An attempt could also be made to offer some larger projects on a BOT basis to the organisations. These could be offered to Village Councils, Institutions etc. through invitation.

The participatory activity in the tourism sector could relieve a lot of burden from the Tourism Department and it can use its time, experience and resources in creation of new destinations, publicity and innovative projects.

Mizoram Tourism can initiate this activity of JTMP immediately with excellent incentives offered to the participants including financial assistance through the banks and financial institutions. This activity is a self-sustaining since it does not require major investments / establishments from the government.

Women’s Participation:

The community participation through JTMP should be also complemented with another concerted effort to ensure the participation of Women in the Tourism Development and Management. It is commendable that women in Mizoram are industrious, outgoing, full of enthusiasm and already in the forefront in many sectors. However, special opportunities must be created for their active involvement in the tourism sector. This is not necessarily to help them but also to help the tourism sector since it is in a need to have human resource with an aptitude of service and hospitality. The women should be encouraged, with due incentives to take major responsibilities to run some of the activities of the tourism department. Even here, they should be treated like equal business partners. The scope and terms of reference have to be worked out jointly and carefully.

Additionally, a special effort must be made to ensure the employment of women staff in the Tourism Projects. The Department of Tourism, Mizoram should be proud to have a very decent gender ratio amongst the staff. The following table will give an idea of the present situation:

Table 20: Women Staff in the Tourism Department

REGULAR STAFF
No. of Males No. of Females Total % Males % Females
55 26 81 67.9 32.1

CASUAL STAFF
52 26 78 66.67 33.33
TOTAL STAFF
107 52 159 67.3 32.7


This shows a very positive picture in the Tourism Department. However, a special attempt has to be made not only to improve this ratio up to 50 %, but also to attract individual women entrepreneurs to run various Restaurants, Handicraft Centres etc. An attempt must be made to invite proposals from individuals and organisations and liberal financial assistance could be offered through the banks and financial institutions. A specially designed ‘Women’s Tourism Project’ (WTP) should be initiated by Mizoram Tourism with immediate effect. In fact, Mizo women should be invited to prepare this innovative WTP.

Fig. 12 – Mizo Women:


Employment Generation:

The participatory projects, both JTMP and WTP have potential to create enthusiasm amongst a large sector of Mizo society. This would reduce the burden of the tourism department substantially and in turn will create tremendous enhancement in the tourism business. This itself will have a multiplier effect to generate employment possibilities through various allied and dependent sectors.


The Mizoram Tourism needs to emphasise this very positive aspect of the tourism industry to the state government to have sympathetic and liberal budget allocations in the Five Year Plans. It has to be strongly emphasised that Tourism Industry can change the face of Socio-economic condition of Mizoram in a decade with proper planning and initiative.

CHAPTER – 11

PROPOSED STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN


The Proposed Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development of Mizoram as detailed in the Chapter – 6 will be implemented according to a well designed Strategy and Action Plan. The general guidelines are discussed hereunder:


PROPOSED STRATEGY:

1) Formation of the Tourism Council at the State Government level to oversee the implementation and progress of the Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development. This should include a senior representative of Village Councils. This may also include a senior representative of the Department of Tourism, GOI

2) Formation of the Steering Committee at the Secretariat level to work out the detailed project development plan and delegate its implementation. This should include representatives of Village Councils and Women

3) Formation of the Co-ordinating Committee at the Tourism Department level to obtain all the approvals from the central and state government and work out detailed implementation plan and supervise the project work

4) Appointment of Professional Consultants to prepare the Master Plans and the Detailed Feasibility Reports (DFR) for specific projects

5) Appointment of Professional Consultants to work out detailed Project Plans and Estimates for various projects according to the DFR

6) Appointment of Agencies to implement the Projects according to the detailed project plans, guidelines and specifications

7) Regular supervision, monitoring, reporting and documentation of the progress of various projects

8) Quarterly assessment of the Projects

9) Completion reports of the Projects

10) Appointment of Agencies to manage the completed Tourism Projects

11) Implementation of the Phased Development according to the Perspective Plan

12) Regular supervision, monitoring, reporting and documentation and assessment of the management progress of various Tourism Projects Annual Fiscal Assessment of the Project Work

13) Annual Fiscal and Technical Audit of the Project Work through Professional Consultants

14) Annual Overall Assessment


PROPOSED ACTION PLAN:

1. Technical approval of the Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development by the Central and State Governments

2. Organisation of a Seminar (3 / 5 days, in Mizoram) for the detailed presentation of the Perspective Plan followed with discussion, brainstorming and strategic action to launch the Tourism Development Project. The participants will include all those involved in the planning and implementation process and also the stakeholders i.e. tourism related entrepreneurs, voluntary organisations and local people. This will be organised by the Mizoram Tourism within 3 months of the approval.

3. Formation of all the advisory, controlling, supervising, co-ordinating and implementing committees should take place within 3 months of the approval and the committee members will be the participants of the abovementioned seminar. These committees would have met at least once before the seminar.

4. The committees will finalise the prioritisation of the projects for the first five years and initiate the further action for the implementation of those projects. This decision should be taken within 6 months of the approval.

5. The appointments of Professional Consultants for the individual projects, which have been prioritised by the committees. This process should be completed within 6 months of the approval so that the Consultants commence the work of preparation of the Master Plan and the DFR in the 7th month

6. The Consultants complete and submit the Master Plan and the DFR of the respective Tourism Projects within 12 months of the approval. These reports will be prepared with close intermittent interaction with the Tourism Department.

7. The Committees will approve the Master Plan and the DFR of various projects and initiate further action to make financial provision for the implementation and also to appoint the Consultants to prepare the detailed Project Plans and Estimates. This action will be taken within 15 months of the approval.

8. In the meanwhile, the committees will form Working Groups within the Tourism Department to co-ordinate and implement action on the specific heads e.g. Finance, Programmes, Publicity, New projects, Up-gradation and Maintenance, Liaison, Administration etc. These Working Groups will be delegated with certain authority and responsibility for the implementation of the approved work.

9. The Working Groups will be also given the responsibility of certain projects within the Perspective Plan, which could be implemented in-house by the Tourism Department. The implementation action on such projects will commence within 6 months of the approval.

10. The Consultants will complete and submit the detailed Project Plans and Estimates within 18 months of the approval. The Committees will assess and initiate these projects for implementation within 24 months of the approval.

11. The Agencies will be appointed for the implementation of the projects. The Project works will commence immediately and shall be completed within 36 months of the approval.

12. The Committees will continue regular monitoring and assessment in consultation with the Professional Consultants. The Project Works will be phased out so that they are manageable for the annual progress and also are within the budgetary provision.

13. The routine work and activities of the Tourism Department will continue through the Working Groups of the Tourism Department. This work will also be regularly monitored and assessed by the Committees and Consultants.

14. The Committees will carry out annual Fiscal and Technical audit of the Project Work in progress. Necessary modifications and corrective actions will be taken based on these reports. The prevailing circumstances from time to time may also compel certain modifications in the strategy and action plan.

15. The further progress of the Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development will continue with the similar strategy according to the phase wise development plan as detailed in the Chapter – 12.

CHAPTER – 12 PROPOSED PHASED DEVELOPMENT
The Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development of the State of Mizoram is envisioned for the next 20 years. Such a large and broad visionary plan requires to be phased out in a systematic manner for its realistic detailed planning and implementation. The biennial phased development is proposed starting from the approval of the Perspective Plan. General guidelines for such a Phased Development is discussed hereunder:

1. Year 1 & 2: Preliminary administrative planning for the implementation of the Perspective Plan and commencement of the implementation process, Up-gradation of the existing infrastructure, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design, Research etc., Preparation of the Master Plan and DFR for five prioritised projects, Preparation of the detailed Project Plans and Estimates for the five prioritised projects, Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, Rural Tourism – I, Urban Tourism – I, Staff Training.
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 10.00, Publicity – 3.00, Human Resource – 3.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 4.00, Product Development – 20.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus
Total – Rs. 50.00 Crores

2. Year 3 & 4: Zakhawthar / Tiau River / Rih Dil Lake Project, Tourism Festivals, Up-gradation of the existing infrastructure, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, Staff Training, New Tourist Lodges
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 10.00, Publicity
– 3.00, Human Resource – 1.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 10.00, Product Development – 30.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 64.00 Crores

3. Year 5 & 6: Eco-tourism / Wildlife / Adventure Tourism Projects,
Handicraft / Agriculture Centre at Thenzawl, Up-gradation of the existing infrastructure, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, Staff Training, New Tourist Lodges Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 5.00, Publicity – 1.00, Human Resource – 1.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 5.00, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus
Total – Rs. 32.00 Crores

4. Year 7 & 8: Tlabung / Khawthlang Tuipui River Region Project, Defence Tourism, Landscape Design, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, New Tourist Lodges
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 1.00, Publicity – 1.00, Tourism Infrastructure – 1.00, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 23.00 Crores

5. Year 9 & 10: Cultural Tourism at International / Interstate Junctions, Geography / Astronomy Centre at Tropic of Cancer, Landscape Design, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, New Tourist Lodges
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Publicity – 0.50, Tourism Infrastructure – 1.00, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 22.00 Crores

6. Year 11 & 12: Water Tourism, Regional Nature Parks, Privatisation Process, Landscape Design, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Publicity – 0.50, Tourism Infrastructure –0.50, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 21.50 Crores

7. Year 13 & 14: Heritage Tourism, Tourism Circuit – Heritage, Privatisation Process, Landscape Design, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 20.50 Crores

8. Year 15 & 16: Tourism Circuit – Wildlife, Privatisation Process, Landscape Design, Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Product Development – 10.00, Misc. – 5.00 thus Total – Rs. 15.50 Crores

9. Year 17 & 18: Tourism Circuit – River tourism, Privatisation Process, Landscape Design, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, Staff Training
Approx. Investment: Basic Infrastructure – 0.50, Product Development – 5.00, Misc. – 10.00 thus Total – Rs. 15.50 Crores

10. Year 19 & 20: Tourism Circuit – International Border / Interstate, Privatisation Process, Landscape Design, Publicity, Signage and Graphic Design etc., Computerisation, Booking Agents, Information Centres, Tourism Clubs, Staff Training Approx. Investment: Product Development – 6.00, Misc. –
7.00 thus Total – Rs. 13.00 Crores

NOTE: The planning process will continue throughout since the projects will be further phased out according to the budget availability. Up-gradation process will continue for the first five years. The other activity-based projects will continue throughout.

CHAPTER – 13

BLOCK ESTIMATE & FEASIBILITY

The Block Estimate is worked out to give overall idea of the financial involvement of this Perspective Plan. However, it is just indicative and could vary based on the circumstances, fluctuations, inflation and further amendments as per the details of the Project. The estimate does not include recurring costs.

Table 21: Block Estimate

S.No. Item Approx. Qty. Rate Amount (In Lakhs)
I BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE
1 Up-gradation of Infrastructure: Average built up area per T. Lodge – 800 Sq. M. X 15 Nos. 12000 Sq. M. 2500 300
2 Up-gradation, Construction of roads (2 lane) up to the tourists destinations / infrastructure 50.00 Kms 4000000 2000
3 Up-gradation / maintenance of
Vehicles – 5 Jeeps & 2 buses 10 years 1000000 100
4 New vehicles – Jeeps, Mini buses & maintenance 10 Nos 1000000 100
5 Landscape & Environment Design 50 Sites 600000 300
2800
II PUBLICITY / MARKETING
6 Signage & Hoardings 200 Nos 50000 100
7 Publicity, Literature etc. 20 years 1000000 200
8 Computerisation & Information Technology 20 years 2000000 400
9 Information Counters 20 Nos 500000 100
10 Programmes, Activities 20 years 500000 100
900
III HUMAN RESOURCE / RESEARCH
11 Documentation & Research of
Cultural Heritage 3 years Lump sum 100
12 Capacity Building, Staff Training 20 years 2000000 400
500
IV TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE
13 Cultural Centres in Metro cities 5 Nos 10000000 500
14 New Wayside Toilets / 20 Nos 1000000 200

Amenities
15 New Tourist Lodges 15 Nos 10000000 1500
2200
V PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
16 Urban Tourism 2 Cities 100000000 2000
17 International Coll. Projects 2 Nos 100000000 2000
18 Tourism Festivals – 2 nos 20 years 1000000 200
19 New Large Projects 15 Nos 50000000 7500
20 Tourism Circuits 4 Nos 10000000 400
12100
21 Total 18500
22 Unforeseen 10 % 1850
23 Contingencies 5 % 925
24 Inflation 10 % 1850
25 Administrative Expenses 10 % 1850
26 Consultancy Fees 10 % 1850
27 GRAND TOTAL 26825
SAY APPROX. 27000


THE BLOCK ESTIMATE: RS. TWO HUNDRED SEVENTY CRORES ONLY FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT:
The Block Estimate shows the total Perspective Plan Outlay for 20 years is approximately around Rs. 270 Crores only.

After looking at the item heads and also the strategic approach following points need specific mention:

1. The items 1 to 5 covering the Basic Infrastructure amount to Rs.28.00 Crores, which is approx. 10.37 % of the total cost

2. The items 6 to 10 covering the Publicity and Marketing amount to Rs. 9.00 Crores, which is approx. 3.33 % of the total cost

3. The items 11 & 12 covering Human Resource Development & Research amount to Rs. 5 Crores, which is approx. 1.85 % of the total cost

4. The items 13 to 15 covering Tourism Infrastructure, some of which is in the pipeline and awaiting approval amount to Rs. 22 Crores, which is approx. 8.15
% of the total cost

5. The items 16 to 20 covering new innovative Tourism Product Development amounts to Rs. 121 Crores which is approx. 44.81 % of the total cost

6. The items 25 & 26 covering Administrative and Consultancy expenses amount to Rs. 37.00 Crores, which is approx. 13.7 % of the total cost

The major item in this Plan is the new innovative Product Development projects, which takes about 44.81 % of the total outlay. Considering the strategy already mentioned in the earlier chapters for these projects, it is clear that these projects will be collaborative projects, likely to be sponsored by various other departments and funding agencies. The Mizoram Tourism will have to invest its time and preliminary expenses for the preparation of the detailed proposals, which will be about 20 % of the cost of these projects i.e. 8.96 % of the total cost. This could be manageable within the resources provided by the state and also assistance provided by the central government.

The Publicity & Marketing activities take about 3.33 % of the total cost which is also manageable within the resources of the state government complemented with other sponsorships.

The costs of Basic Infrastructure including up-gradation of existing infrastructure, creating new service infrastructure and new projects (already in the pipeline and awaiting approval), which is about 10.37 % of the total cost amounting to approx. Rs. 28.00 Crores over the period of 20 years could be within the budgetary provision of the Ministry of Tourism, GOI. Under the present allocation, the special provision for the 8 states of Northeast region is Rs. 14.80 Crores i.e approx. Rs. 1.85 Crores per state.

Thus the proposal of the Perspective Plan as worked out looks economically feasible. It is also envisaged that there will be average 10 % annual increase in the tourist traffic due to these overall efforts. It may boost further more after 5 / 10 years. The overall increase by 100 % in the next 10 years will itself make the Mizoram Tourism a profit-making department. At present level also, they have almost managed to cover the recurring costs.

We feel that the Perspective Plan will not only be economically feasible but also will make the Tourism Development in Mizoram very sustainable.

CHAPTER – 14 CONCLUSION
Mizoram Tourism has over a short span created substantial tourism infrastructure in this remote and rugged region in spite of a lot of difficulties. The efforts are really commendable.

However, these efforts are not sufficient since the Department is totally dependent on the central assistance for the creation of this infrastructure. The state assistance is just bear minimum enough to cover the recurring costs marginally. The approach for the tourism development has also remained monotonous.

Mizoram is fortunate to have natural beauty as a major asset for the tourism. The sites selected for the Tourist Facilities are also picturesque and deserve merit.
However, that is not enough to attract large tourism and make the development sustainable.

The proposed Perspective Plan for the Tourism Development in Mizoram takes into consideration all these facts and recommends new and innovative complementary concepts without too much of financial liabilities. Mizoram Tourism will get a tremendous boost due to these innovative large projects, which have varied character and could attract tourist from varied interests. It is also possible to attract tourists to Mizoram at multiple times because of these diverse activities and attractions.
Wonderful nature, lush green hills, traditional music and smiling faces of Mizo people will be there all the times as an interesting backdrop for the new proposals. This will make Mizoram Tourism unique.

Mizoram state, like the others in the Northeast Region, has to deal with various difficulties, infrastructure hurdles and socio-political problems. These are beyond the control of one single state. It will take sometime to resolve these issues, when tourism in the region will start growing. The Perspective Plan envisages this and attempts to make the Tourism Department act like a catalyst to augment the tourism potential of the state. Over the years, tourism will be a community activity in Mizoram with the Mizoram Tourism taking a role of the initiator and facilitator.

We feel confident that Mizoram Tourism will bring in the Flamboyant Sunrise over Mizoram in the near future.

APPENDICES

APPENDIX – a

GUIDELINES TO BE FOLLOWED BY STATE GOVTS / UTS FOR PREPARATION OF 20 YEARS PERSPECTIVE PLANS

i) A perspective plan with a time frame of 20 years needs to be developed for developing sustainable tourism giving year-wise phasing of investment having regard to the resources available. Department of Tourism shall provide Central financial assistance for this purpose subject to the maximum of Rs.20.00 lakhs.

ii) The Plan should indicate short-term and long-term plans, targets and ground realities.

iii) The Plan should indicate all activities to be undertaken by different agencies clearly indicating the time frame for each activity.

iv) The Plan should be able to assess the existing tourism scenario in the State/Union Territory with respect to existing traffic levels and inventory of:

* Natural resources;
* Heritage and other socio-cultural assets;
* Quantitative/demographic factors like population, employment, occupation, income levels etc.
* Services and infrastructure already available.

v) The Plan should review the status of existing development/investment plans of schemes for the development of tourism in the region.

vi) The Plan should list and evaluate existing potential tourist destinations and centres and categorise them on the basis of inventory of attractions, infrastructure availability, degree of popularity, volume of traffic flow etc.

vii) The Plan should analyse and categorise existing/potential destinations and centres, as a stand-alone destination, part of a circuit and/or as major attractions for special interests groups, etc.

viii) The Plan should assess the existing infrastructure levels at identified destinations/centre in terms of quality of roads/transportation facilities, civic amenities, enroute transit facilities, boarding and lodging facilities etc.

ix) The Plan should be able to broadly assess traffic flow to identified destinations & centres for assessment of infrastructure requirements taking into account past growth trends, suggested linkages and integration, future expected developments including likely investments by the State and investment climate/incentive for the private sector, etc.

x) The Plan should attempt and arrive at an indicative cost configuration of likely investment on infrastructure development under different heads and to prioritise investment needs by drawing up a phased investment plan covering the next 20 years.

xi) The Plan should identify the existing as well as new tourism projects including projects for expansion/augmentation, up gradation of facilities and services destinations & centres, which have potential for development.

xii) The Plan should undertake product conceptualisation cum feasibility exercise inter-alia for identified projects covering aspects like locational evaluation, schematic product planning & conceptualisation including quantification of individual project parameters, assessment of overall investment levels and of project viability cum feasibility study exercises etc.

xiii) The Plan should prepare an action plan for implementation of identified potential development schemes/projects/products and for development of infrastructure in conformity with the policy objectives & guidelines provided by the concerned state/central agencies/departments and the requirements of national development and funding agencies. The overall development plan to also take into accounts WTO’s Bali declaration on tourism development.

xiv) The Plan should include Project-wise potential for employment generation; a reasonable percentage of potential employment is to be reserved for women.

xv) The Plan should indicate the actual and the projected number of domestic and foreign tourist arrivals for each proposed tourist place.

xvi) Prioritise the scheme on the basis of employment potential of the project and the tourist arrivals at the proposed place.

xvii) An inventory of existing infrastructure facilities (including paying guest facility) is to be made; after which, the proposed infrastructure needs to be split up into various segments concerning different State Government Departments, such as PWD, Forest, Culture, Handicrafts etc., and dovetailed with the Tourism Plans.

xviii) Since the Perspective Plan would be used for external assistance, it would be desirable to suggest State tourism projects to foreign funding agencies for financial assistance; each project has to be properly scrutinised and finalised accordingly.

xix) Other sources of funding such as loans from the Financial Institutions, the Tourism Finance Corporation of India (TFCI) etc., need to be explored. Besides, proper incentives need to be suggested for private sector participation.

xx) Further the available institutional machinery in the State to oversee/coordinate the development of tourism infrastructure has to be specifically suggested.

xxi) Facilities for performance by local artists; cultural troupes should be built into the perspective plan.

xxii) Cultural complexes can be suggested with the financial help from the State Department of Culture and later made economically viable on pattern of Dilli Haat.

xxiii) Handicraft shops should be suggested at various tourist places; these could be run by women.

xxiv) Perspective plan should include potential developing health resorts at/near the tourist places. Yoga classes, nature cure facilities, ayurvedic system of medicines should be available at these places to attract tourists.

xxv) Consultant preparing the perspective plan should be asked to give an executive summary of the plan along with the report.

xxvi) The perspective plans should incorporate attractive packages/schemes to attract private sector investment.

xxvii) It is necessary that the environmental issues are dealt with in sufficient details and environmental impact assessment studies made in respect of all new projects.

xxviii) The perspective plans should include carrying capacity studies, instruments of spatial and land use planning, instruments of architectural controls for restoration of old properties and construction of new ones in old towns and cities, strategy for local community participation and protection of cultural identity, awareness programmes for local participation and local commitment to the project.

xxix) Measures necessary for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts and rehabilitating the tourist places already environmentally damaged should be incorporated in the perspective plans.

xxx) The perspective plan should include strategy for privatisation of the tourism related properties owned by the State and the State Tourism Corporation.

APPENDIX – b

QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME:

DESIGNATION:

OFFICE ADDRESS:



PHONE NO. E-MAIL ADD:

A Potential identification:

1. Name 5 Places of Tourist Interest in your State



2. Name 5 Places of Tourist Interest in your neighbouring States?



3. How many places of the above have you visited?



4. Categorise the above places under following heads: Archaeological
Pilgrimage Nature Adventure Leisure Health

B Information & publicity:

5. How did you come to know of these places?
Newspaper Television Internet

Travel Agent Relatives Tourism Office


6. Where did you get detailed information regarding the above places? Travel Agent Relatives Tourism Office


7. Do you think the information available was enough? If not, what was lacking?




8. Which festival/cultural programme is arranged by Dept. of Tourism?


9. Did you go on a tour through Travel Agent? If yes, give the name

10. Were the services offered by the Travel Agent satisfactory?



C Accessibility:

11. How will you rate these tourist places on the basis of their road / railway / airways linkages?
Good Average Bad

12. Rate the quality of vehicles / mode of transport available:
Good Average _ Bad _

13. Did you experience any hazard disrupting your travel? If yes, which?



14. Did you have to complete any entry formalities? If yes, how many days did it require for processing?


15. Did you travel by any vehicle of the Dept. of Tourism?



D Services:

16. Which of the following facilities was available en-route to your tourist destination?
Toilet Food _ Phone Medicines


17. How do you rate the quality?
Good Average _ Poor

18. At which place did you utilise transit accommodation during your travel?



19. Did you find any difficulties for Senior Citizens or Physically Handicapped persons during travel? If yes, elaborate.


20. Were tourist guide services and on site tourist information available?




E Hospitality:

21. Where did you stay during your travel / tour?
Pvt. hotels Dept. of Tourism hotels Relatives & friends


22. How was the quality of facilities available? Good Average Poor

23. How was the service?
Good Average Poor

24. Where did you prefer to eat during your stay?
At lodging facility outside eateries/restaurants

25. What type of food did you prefer?
Local food traditional food

26. How was the quality of food?
Good Satisfactory Poor

27. Was generator facility available in case of electricity/power failure?


28. Did you participate in any food festival? If yes, elaborate.


29. Were first aid/medical facilities available at the facilities? Yes No Not aware

30. Were recreation facilities available for children?


F Security:

31. Did you feel insecure during your travel or destination?


32. Did you have to go through security checks? If yes, where?


33. Have you experienced any theft or robbery?


34. How do you find nature of security at the tourist place? Good Average Poor

35. Did you see any police station or police outpost in the vicinity of tourist destination?


G Recreation:

36. Did you participate in any festival organised by the Tourism Dept. or local people?


37. What was the quality of the festival?
Good Average Poor


H Souvenir & Gifts:

38. Did you carry any souvenirs with you? What type?


39. Did you visit any State Emporium to see or buy traditional crafts?



I Sustainability:

40. Will you visit the state again?


41. Will you recommend the visited tourist destinations to the others?


42. Rate your tour expenses as:
Inexpensive moderate very expensive

43. Did you experience any difficulties for children, women, senior citizens, and handicapped persons? If yes, elaborate:



J Environment:

44. Did you visit any National Park or Sanctuary?


45. Did you experience use of solar energy or any alternate energy sources in your travel/tour?


46. How was the garbage / sewage disposal systems at various tourist destinations?

Poor------------- Average--------------Good----------------

K Finance:

47. Did you carry Credit Card, Travellers Cheques, cash for expenditure?


48. Were ATM easily available? Did you avail of this service?


49. Did you travel on LTC facility?


50. Did you acquire a holiday loan for travel? If yes, which bank?


50. Did you closely interact with local people?


51. Did you have any language problem? If yes, which area?


52. What is your preference for tourist destination?
Archaeological Pilgrimage Nature Adventure Leisure Health


53. What is your approx. annual budget per person for travel?
Up to Rs. 10,000/--------- up to Rs. 50,000/--------- above Rs. 50,000/------------

APPENDIX – c


FORMAT FOR INTERVIEWS
The questions will be pertaining to following topics: EXISTING PROPOSED
1 Potential identification
2 Information & publicity
3 Accessibility
4 Services
5 Hospitality
6 Security
7 Recreation
8 Souvenir & Gift generation
9 Sustainability
10 Employment generation
11 Environment friendly measures or Ecotourism practices
12. Human resources and public relations


Potential identification
1. What are the criteria for identifying places as tourist destinations?
2. Are these destinations classified under various categories? If yes, which?
3. Are these destinations classified in conjunction with the Property owners, e.g. Forest Department, ASI, etc.?
4. Are privately owned properties identified as tourist destinations?
5. Are various tourist destinations scrutinized to de-list / upgrade their listing?
6. How many tourist destinations are added every year?
7. Are any special projects undertaken to develop new tourist destinations?


Information & publicity
1. What kind of information is given regarding the tourist destinations?
2. Which information media is preferred?
3. Are different types of media used for various tourist destinations? If yes, how are they categorized?
4. Is there a separate cell for tourism information? If yes,
i) What is the structure of the group?
ii) Is the job privatised and given on consultancy basis?
iii) How is the efficiency / out put of the group quantified?
iv) Are the cells operative in major Indian cities?
5. Any special steps taken to utilize the information technology?
6. At what intervals / frequency is the information updated?

7. Any measures taken to receive feed back from tourist / clients with regards to information given?
8. Any regular events / festivals undertaken by the departments for publicity?
9. Any personalities associated with the publicity campaign?
10. Any regular international fairs / festivals participated in, for publicity?
11. Any promotional awards/ incentives associated with tourism publicity?
12. Any negative features perceived in existing tourism information and publicity?
13. Are there any statistics / data available as regards to the number, composition, age group and various other details of tourist already visited the destinations?
14. Are there any studies undertaken or projections made as regard to future expected tourist?
15. Are there any studies undertaken or data available as regard to potential international tourist or elitist tourist?
16. Which allied government departments or other private sectors promote state tourism?
17. Are there any collaborations with banks / financial institutions to provide for holiday loans to promote state tourism?
18. Are there any identified / short listed tour and travel agents to promote state tourism?
19. Is the Youth Hostel Associations functional and active in the state?
20. Are school, colleges and universities involved in the state tourism and its promotions?
21. What is the number of the international visitors to the state? Is their any data available regarding their purpose of visit?
22. Do Foreign Nationals visit for the purpose of trade / medical facilities / pilgrimage / immigration / family ties?


Accessibility
1. Are all the tourist destinations accessible by good transport links?
2. Are all tourist destinations linked with minimum 2 transportation links?
3. How many destinations are, air linked?
4. Are any of the links disrupted / closed due to natural reasons such as rain, floods etc?
5. To how many destinations is the railway linked?
6. What percentage of roads connected to various tourist destinations can be classified as good roads?
7. Any major cases of road, rail, air, mishaps in the last 5 years, carrying tourist?
8. Any major cases of robbery, dacoity in the last 5 years, with regards to tourist?
9. Do visiting tourists have to complete any entry formalities? Are these relaxed in any special cases?
10. How many days does it require for processing tourist permissions?
11. Are nationals from any country, restricted from entering the state?
12. Does the department of tourism own any vehicles, purely for tourism transportation?

Services
1. What kinds of public utility services are available en-route to various tourist destinations?
2. What is the maximum distance travelled to reach any tourist destinations?
3. What is the availability of STD, ISD, FAX and Internet facility?
4. What is the maximum capacity of public toilets provided?
5. Are these toilets self-sustainable or funded by the Government?
6. Do eating facilities serve both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food items?
7. Are there fast food counters en-route to major tourist destinations?
8. Which departments provide and maintain major amenities?
9. Do the airports have overnight staying facilities?
10. Do major airports and railway stations have booking facilities for stay and further travel?
11. Are there any privately owned (owned by trusties, NGOs etc.) public amenities?
12. How many privately owned and Government recognized eateries are in function along the tourist roads?
13. Is there Government Control over the quality of food served by the private eateries?
14. How many govt. first aid centres, health clinics are available, enroute to major tourist destinations?
15. What is the source of drinking water in government owned eateries, fast food centres, hotels etc.
16. It their any control over the quality of bottled water / soft drinks available?
17. Are the various facilities / amenities planned by the department barrier free?


Hospitality

1. Are lodging and boarding (L & B) facilities available at every tourist destinations? If no, for what percentage is available?
2. Are there any star category facilities available?
3. Apart from the Government, which major private organizations provide for these facilities?
4. What is the general occupancy rate in government owned facilities during peak and off-season?
5. What is the general occupancy rate in private owned facilities during peak and off-season?
6. Is paying guest facility available with local people, near the tourist destinations?
7. Does every lodging facility have a restaurant?
8. Is both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food served in these hotels?
9. Are the L & B facilities self-sustainable or funded by the Government?
10. What is the minimum staff employed at an L & B facility?
11. Are the water, electricity and other amenities provided by the Government at free / subsidized / general costs?
12. Who takes care of the maintenance of the L & B facilities? And what are the monthly costs?

13. Do all the L & B facilities have first aid facilities and trained personnel to administer first aid?
14. Do all the L & B facilities have television sets?
15. What kind of cuisine is available at the L & B facilities?
16. Are any food festivals planned for tourism promotion?
17. Are any tourist destinations planned entirely on the basis of variety of food available?
18. What are the criteria for identifying locations for setting up new L & B facilities?

Security
1. Does the state required to provide security to visiting tourist? If yes, are the tourists aware of these facilities before embarking on the tour?
2. Any known data of insurgency against visiting tourist?
3. Any known communal out bursts against visiting pilgrims?
4. Any known cases of robbery, kidnap, murder against visiting tourist?
5. What is the gender wise distribution amongst the tourist?
6. Do groups of senior citizens, women and school children travel independently for tourism?
7. Do General Physicians prescribe any kind of vaccinations / medicines before visiting the state?
8. Do insurance companies provide for any special schemes etc. for state travel?
9. How many types of security forces are actively present in the state?
10. Do the Indian tourists have any travel restrictions imposed by the Government for security purposes?
11. Do Foreign Nationals have any travel restrictions imposed by the Government for security purposes?
12. Do Foreign Nationals have any special permits, relaxation of rules with regards to consumption of alcohol etc.?
13. Any specific reasons for which tourist visas are denied to Foreign Nationals?


Recreation
1. What kind of active recreation is available in the urban areas / rural areas in the state?
2. What kind of passive recreation is available in the urban areas / rural areas in the state?
3. Is any recreational activity sold as a part of package tour?
4. Is any recreational activity promoted as state tourism?
5. Does the state tourism sponsor the state sports or sportsperson?
6. Does the state tourism promote any cultural activity?
7. What is the role of Indian Cinema and Theatre in passive recreation?
8. Is a popular Hindi film or local theatre a part of a package tour?
9. Are any recreation facilities provided in the campus of the L & B facilities?
10. Are any tourist destinations planned entirely as relaxation and recreational destinations?
11. Do any recreation activities within the state promote / generate tourism?

Souvenir & Gift generation
1. Does the tourism department have any parting gift / memorabilia for its tourists?
2. Does every L & B have a gift / souvenir shop?
3. Are the state emporiums self-sustainable?
4. Does the state promote any particular activity, art or handicraft through tourism?
5. Does the state have any events, festivals, and fairs for foreign nationals to purchase duty free goods?
6. What percentage of perishable items is purchased by tourist?


Sustainability
1. Do all the facilities provided by the state tourism department are self- sustainable?
2. What percentage of help / subsidy provided by the Central Government for sustainability?
3. What revenue generative activities are undertaken by the department?
4. Which is the most unfeasible aspect of tourism development and management?
5. Which is the lowest revenue generating activity of the tourism department?
6. Which is the highest revenue generating activity of the tourism department?
7. Are any tourism projects privatised to make them sustainable?
8. Are there any programs / courses / workshops for the officers and staff to make the projects sustainable and improve efficiency?
9. Are any planning and designing measures adopted while constructing the L & B facilities so as to make them self sustainable?
10. Are there any schemes to involve the staff in the profit or loss of the project?
11. Are there any projects on the basis of Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis?
12. Have any private parities, organizations shown interest in resort / L & B management?
13. Is the management of any tourist destinations looked after by other government department or any other agency such as Army etc.?
14. Is the monthly remuneration of the staff linked to their performance?
15. Does the department have any management plans for its various assets?
16. Can you suggest any two majors that can help the existing tourism activities become self-sustainable?


Employment generation

1. What is the number of persons directly employed by the department of tourism?
2. What is the number of persons indirectly employed by the department of tourism?
3. Are any NGOs / voluntary organizations supported by the department of tourism?

4. What is the rate of unemployment in neighbouring areas of tourist destinations?
5. Are any village groups / committees directly involved in tourism activities?
6. What is the percentage of women employment, direct and indirect, in the department of tourism?
7. Can you suggest any two tourism related activities that can help in local employment generation?


Environment friendly measures or Ecotourism practices
1. Do the L & B facilities or any other projects of the tourism department utilize alternate sources of energy? If yes, which?
2. Does the department of tourism promote any awareness, research activity in utilisation of alternate sources of energy?
3. Do any projects carry out any recycling process?
4. What amount of waste is generated by the various facilities / amenities of the tourism department and how it is disposed off?
5. Does the department have any project planned on the concept of eco-tourism?
6. What kind of subsidies / incentives are offered by the state government for promoting and utilizing alternate sources of energy?
7. Are there any environment friendly regulations followed by the department while developing various amenities?
8. Can you name any two activities, which can be termed as environment friendly practices?


Human resources and public relations

1. Do the existing staff members of the tourism department have formal training in travel and tourism?
2. Are there any training programs / workshops for staff from non-tourism background?
3. Is there any budgetary provision for staff training?
4. What are the criteria for selection, promotion and transfer of tourism personnel?
5. Do the tourists have any grievances against services offered by the department staff?
6. Does any tourism staff participate in national and international tourism related fairs, events, seminar, conferences etc.?

APPENDIX – d

GENERAL INFORMATION – MIZORAM

1. LOCATION:
Approximately lies between 21 58’ N and 24 35’ N latitude and between the longitudes 92 15’ E and 93 29’ E

2. AREA:
21, 087 Sq. Km.

3. POPULATION:
8, 91, 058 (According to 2000 census)

4. DENSITY OF POPULATION: 42 persons per Sq. Km.

5. SEX RATIO:
921 females per 100 males

6. LITERACY:
95 %

7. CAPITAL: Aizawl (Alt. 1, 132.00 M.)

8. DISTRICTS:
Kolasib, Mamit, Aizawl, Champhai, Serchhip, Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha

9. TRIBES:
Biate, Bawm, Chakma, Gorkha, Hmar, Hualngo, Lusei, Magh, Mara, Paite, Pang, Pawi, Pnar, Ralte, Riang, Thadou, Tlau

10. CLIMATE:
Summer (June – September) – Mean Max. : 30 C, Mean Min.: 20C, Winter (October – February) – Mean Max. : 21 C, Mean Min.: 11 C

11. BEST SEASON: October to March

12. AVERAGE RAINFALL: 2371 mm (1999)

13. MAIN RIVERS:
Langkaih, Teirei, Tlawng (Dhaleshwari), Serlui, Chemlui, Tuirial(Sonai), Karnaphuli, Khawthalangtuipui, Mat, Sazuk lui, Kawrpui lui, Tuichawng, Tuilianpui, Kolodyne, Tiau, Mengpui, Chhimtuipui, Tuisa

14. MAJOR MOUNTAINS:
Phawngpui or Blue Mountain (2157 M.), Lengtang (2141 M.), Surtlang (1967 M.)

15. HIGHEST PEAK:
Phawngpui in the Blue Mountains (2,157 M. above sea level)

16. INTER STATE BORDER: With Assam – 123 Kms With Tripura – 66 Kms. With Manipur – 95 Kms.

17. INTERNATIONAL BORDER: With Myanmar – 404 Kms. With Bangladesh – 318 Kms.

18. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION:
By Air – Lengpui airport (near Aizawl) By Road – Via Silchar in Assam
By Train – Up to Bairabi (goods train), Up to Silchar in Assam (passenger train)

19. LANGUAGES: Mizo, English, Hindi

20. RELIGIONS: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam

APPENDIX – e

TOURIST ACCOMMODATION AVAILABLE AT GOVT. TOURIST LODGES & PRIVATE HOTELS IN MIZORAM (UPTO APRIL 2001)

GOVRNMENT FACILITIES:
S.No. Tourist Facility No. of Rooms No. of Beds
1 Tourist Lodge at Chaltlang (Aizawl) 21 40
2 Tourist Lodge at Champhai 12 22
3 Tourist Home at Lunglei 8 22
4 Tourist Home at Luangmual (Aizawl) 14 40
5 Tourist Lodge at Saiha 9 22
6 Tourist Lodge at Thenzawl 3 6
7 Tourist Lodge at Kolasib 5 14
8 Tourist Lodge at Bairabi 6 18
9 Travellers’ Inn at Vairengte 10 28
10 Highway Restaurant at Thingdawl 2 4
11 Highway Restaurant at Kawlkulh 6 16
12 Highway Restaurant at Chhiahtlang 8 20
13 Tourist Lodge at Hnahthial 10 22
14 Bung Picnic Spot (Aizawl) 2 4
15 Tourist Complex at Berawtlang (Aizawl) 5 10
16 Tourist Resort Centre at Lengpui 3 6
17 Tourist Lodge at Khawbung 7 14
18 Tourist Lodge at Saitual 5 14
TOTAL 136 322

PRIVATE HOTELS IN AIZAWL:
S.
No. Name of the Hotel No. of Rooms No. of Beds
1 Hotel Rajdoot Tuikual 10 23
2 Hotel Ritz Dawrpui 24 45
3 Capital Guest House Zarkawt 15 23
4 Hotel Imperial Zarkazt 33 54
5 Hotel Ahimsa Zarkawt 16 18
6 Chawlhna Hotel Zarkwat 325 50
7 Hotel Chief Zarkawt 21 32
8 Hotwl Zodin Electric Veng 12 19
9 Hotel Royal Dawrpui 14 21
TOTAL 180 285

GRAND TOTAL: 316 607

APPENDIX – f
PROPOSED TOURIST AMENITIES


TOURIST AMENITY COST IN LAKHS
1. Construction of Tourism Dome at Berawtlang near Aizawl 40.00
2. Construction of Tourist Cottages at Champhai 35.00
3. Construction of Tourist Centre at Paithian in Chimptuipui district 15.00
4. Construction of Tourist Cottage at Thenzani 35.00
5. Construction of Wayside Amenities/Public Toilet at Bungtlawng 10.00
6. Construction of Tourist Cottages at sub division 20.00
7. Chapchar Kut Festival 5.00
TOTAL 160.00

PROJECTS PRIORITISED FOR 1999-2000

1. Renovation/Repairs/Up-gradation of Tourist Lodge, Vairengte 8.00
2. Renovation/Repairs/Up-gradation of Tourist Lodge, Bairabi 8.00
3. Renovation/Repairs/Up-gradation of Tourist Lodge, Kolasib 8.00
4. Renovation/Repairs/Up-gradation of Tourist Lodge, Saitual 8.00
5. Renovation/Repairs/Up-gradation of Tourist Lodge, Lunglai 8.00
6. Renovation/Repairs/Up-gradation of Tourist Lodge, Chhiahtlang 8.00
7. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Mamit (Re-prioritised) 45.00
8. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Serchhip 50.00
9. Computerisation of Tourist Estt. In State JS(T) indicated that this should be restricted to introduction of information system in TRC/Estt. to begin with 15.00
10. Tourist Lodge at Ngopa in Champhai Dist. 45.00
11. Tourist Lodge at Tuidam at border of Tripura 40.00
12. Tourist Lodge at Vaphai 30.00

APPENDIX – g

PROJECTS PROPOSED FOR 2001 - 2002


PROPOSED TOURIST AMENITY COST IN LAKHS
1. Construction of new Tourist Lodge at Chaltlawng, Aizawl 80.00
2. Construction of 10 (ten) Cottages at Thingdawl 35.00
3. Computerisation of Tourist Establishment in Mizoram 15.00
4. Construction of Tourist Cottages (Typical Mizo village)
at Reiek 70.00
5. Viewing Gallery at Berawtlang 20.00
6. Special Bepoin/Renovation of Tourist Lodges:
Chaltlang, Aizawl 10.00
Saitval 10.00
Tourist Home, Tuangmual 10.00
7. Construction or Tourist Lodge at Brangchalkawn near Lunglei 35.00
8. Construction of wayside Amenities at Pangzawl 25.00
9. Construction of Tourist Cottages and Cafetaria at Palak Lake 50.00
10. Construction of at Serkawr 20.00
11. Construction of Tourist Cottage at Saipum 20.00
12. Adventure Sports:
Purchase of Euro Sport Equipments 25.00
Purchase of Boat for Palak Lake 5.00
13. Fairs & Festival celebration of Sharchar Kut 10.00
14. Publicity/Publication of Tourist Folders 10.00
TOTAL 450.00

APPENDIX – h

PROJECT SANCTIONED DURING 2001-2002
(Rupees in lakhs)


Sr.
No.
Name of Project Sanctioned Amount Amount Released
1st Instalment
1. Cafeteria & Tourist Huts at Palak 40.00 12.00
2. Tourist Cottage, Saipum 16.00 4.80
3. Wayside Amenities, Pangzawl 20.00 6.00
4. 10 Nos. of Tourist Cottage, Thingdawl 28.00 8.40
5. Tourist Lodge, Hrangchalkawn 28.00 8.40
6. New (Annexe) Tourist Lodge, Chaltlang 64.00 19.20
7. Tourist Lodge, Chaltlang 64.00 19.20
8. Renovation of:
a) Tourist Lodge, Chaltlang 5.00 1.50
b) Tourist Lodge, Saitual 5.00 1.50
c) Yatri Niwas, Luangmual 5.00 1.50
9. Viewing Gallery, Berawtland ----- 4.52
10. Typical Mizo Village, Reiek ----- 16.80
11. Water Sport equipments, Palak ----- 0.75
12. Water Sport equipments, Rengdil ----- 0.50
13. Computerisation of Tourist Establishment 12.00 6.00

APPENDIX – i

ON GOING PROJECTS UNDER CSS IN MIZORAM
(Amount figures in lakhs)

Sr.
No. Name of the project Year of sanction Sanctioned Amount Amount already released by Govt. of India Amount to be released by Govt. of India Remark
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Tourist Lodge, Lawngtlai 1993 20.72 18.00 2.72 70%
completed
2. Tourist Lodge,
Khawbung 1994 22.07 20.00 2.07 Completed
3. Tourist Lodge, Kamalanagar 1994 13.25 6.50 6.75 70%
completed
4. Tourist Lodge, Sangau 1995 18.68 15.00 3.68 70%
completed
5. Tourist
Lodge, Lengpui 1996 32.90 26.00 6.90 85%
completed
6. Tourist Lodge, Beraw 1996 27.52 13.50 14.02 60%
completed
7. Tourist Home, Lunglei 1996 28.74 23.00 5.74 80%
completed
8. Tourist Home, Hnahthial 1996 16.16 12.84 3.32 Completed and inaugurated
on 20.5.99
9. Tourist Cottage, Lengpui 1997 34.70 27.00 7.70 98%
completed
10. Picnic Cottage,
Rungdil 1997 11.48 9.00 2.48 90%
completed

11. Cafeteria & Tourist Hut, Reiek 1998 40.00 32.00 8.00 75%
completed
12. Tourist Lodge, Vawmbuk 1998 38.45 11.50 26.95 Being started
13. Wayside Amenities, Diltlang 1998 20.00 6.0 14.00 Being started
14. Wayside Facilities, Chhumkhum 1998 20.00 6.00 14.00 Being started
15. Wayside Amenities, W.Phaileng 1998 20.00 6.00 14.00 Being started
16. Wayside Amenities,
Bungtlang 1999 10.00 3.00 7.00 Being started
17. Tourist Cottage, Thenzawl 1999 31.41 10.00 21.41 Being started
18. Tourist
Cottage, Rajmandal 1999 18.06 5.40 12.66 Being started
19. Tourist Cottage, Champhai 1999 31.40 10.00 21.40 Being started
20. Tourist Cottage, Phaithar 1999 15.00 4.50 10.50 Being started
21. Tourist Home, Berawtlang 1999 40.00 12.00 28.00 Being started
22. Prayer Hall,
Berawtlang 1999 22.30 7.50 14.80 Being
started


APPENDIX – j

STAFF REMUNERATION SCALES & FACILITIES PROVIDED


Sr.
No. Designation No. of Posts Scale of Pay Facilities Provided
1. Director 1 Rs.14, 300-400-18,300 Allotted 1 vehicle
2. Joint Director 1 Rs.12, 000-375-16,500 Allotted
1 vehicle
3. Dy. Director 3 Rs.10, 000-325-15,200 Allotted 1 vehicle each
4. Superintendent 1 Rs.8, 000-275-13,500 NIL
5. Tourist Officer 1 Rs.6, 500-200-10,500 -do-
6. A.T.O. 1 Rs.5, 500-175-9,000 -do-
7. Inspector of Statistics 1 Rs.5, 500-175-9,000 -do-
8. Assistant 2 Rs.5, 500-175-9,000 -do-
9. U.D.C. 2 Rs.5, 000-150-8,000 -do-
10. L.D.C. 3 Rs.4, 000-100-6,000 -do-
11. Steno – Grade-III 1 Rs.5, 000-150-8,000 -do-
12. Receptionist 6 Rs.4, 500-125-7,000 -do-
13. Asst. Receptionist 5 Rs.4, 000-100-6,000 -do-
14. Driver-I 1 Rs.5, 000-125-7,000 -do-
15. Driver-II 4 Rs.4, 000-100-6,000 -do-
16. Driver Rs.3, 050-75-3950-80-
4,590 -do-
17. Guest Operator 1 Rs.3, 050-75-3,950-80-
4,590 -do-
18. Peon/Mail/Cook/ RA-4 7 Rs.2, 650-65-3,300-70-
4,000 -do-
19. MUSTER ROLL EMPLOYEES
a) Skilled-II Worker 17 @ Rs.117/- per day
b) Semi-skilled Worker 16 @ Rs.94/- per day
c) Unskilled Worker 45 @ Rs.84/- per day

TOTAL POST OCCUPIED 159

APPENDIX – k



TOURIST DATA FOR YEARS 1999-2000 TO 2001-2002




YEAR DOMESTIC TOURIST FOREIGN TOURIST TOTAL
1999-2000 26,690 191 26,881
2000-2001 29,137 276 29,413
2001-2002 27,417 197 27,614





APPENDIX – l

PROJECTIONS OF TOURISTS FOR 2002-2003





PROJECTED FIGURE FOR 2002-2003
DOMESTIC TOURIST FOREIGN TOURIST TOTAL
35,000 400 35,400











APPENDIX – m


PROPOSED SCHEMES FOR PRIORITISATION UNDER CSS DURING 2001 – 2002 FOR TOURISM DEPARTMENT,
MIZORAM




I. Development of Tourist Infrastructure:
Rupees in lakhs
1. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Sakawrdai 50.94
2. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Serkawr 23.31
3. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Zokhawthar 50.94
4. Construction of Tourist Lodge at N. Vanlaiphai 50.94
5. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Khamrang(s) 31.21
7. Construction of Viewing Gallery at Khawbung 6.04
8. Construction of Tourist Lodge at Farkawn 31.74

II. Expansion
1 Bung Tourist Complex 20.98
2 Cafeteria & Tourist Complex at Berawtlang 3.59
3 Tourist Lodge at Saiha 11.23

III Development of Eco-tourism
1 Reiek: Construction of Viewing Gallery, Foot Path, Rest Huts etc. 30.36
TOTAL 311.25

APPENDIX – n
LATEST PROVISIONAL POPULATION FIGURES OF DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS IN MIZORAM STATE

SR.NO. DIST. HQRS. MALE FEMALE TOTAL PERSON
1. Aizawl 1,73,930 1,65,882 3,39812
2. Lunglei 71,353 65,802 1,37,155
3. Champhai 51,869 49,520 1,01,389
4. Lawngtlai 38,425 34,625 73,050
5. Mamit 32,766 29,547 62,313
6. Kolasib 31,874 29,103 60,977
7. Saiha 31,127 29,702 60,823
8. Serchhip 28,445 27,094 55,539






















AT A GLANCE

TOTAL POPULATION 8,91,058
MALE 4,59,783
FEMALE 4,31,275
LITERACY RATE 88.49
AREA IN SQ.KM. 21,087.00

APPENDIX – o

TOURIST ARRIVAL STATISTICS COLLECTED FROM TOURIST LODGES UNDER TOURISM DEPARTMENT AND A FEW PRIVATE
HOTELS IN MIZORAM FROM 1987 – 2002 (UPTO FEBRUARY 2002)

YEAR DOMESTIC FOREIGN TOTAL

1987 – 1988 413 NA 413
1988 – 1989 1,148 NA 1,148
1989 – 1990 2,988 NA 2,988
1991 – 1992 16,336 11 16,347
1992 – 1993 14,642 14 14,656
1993 – 1994 18,555 109 18,664
1994 – 1995 15,659 26 15,685
1995 – 1996 20,227 146 20,373
1996 – 1997 24,873 53 24,926
1997 – 1998 27,917 113 28,030
1998 – 1999 25,231 141 25,372
1999 – 2000 26,690 191 26,881
2000 – 2001 29,137 276 29,413
2001 – 2002 (Up to Feb. 2002) 25,104 184 25,288






















(Data for 1990-1991 not available)

APPENDIX – p

ROAD DISTANCES STARTING FROM AIZAWL WITH NEIGHBOURING STATE AND TOWNS IN MIZORAM



Sr. No. From Destination Distance in Km.

1. Aizawl To Silchar 180
2. Aizawl To Shillong 420
3. Aizawl To Guwahati 550
4. Aizawl To Sairang 23
5. Aizawl To Lengpui (Airport) 43
6. Aizawl To Thingdawl 75
7. Aizawl To Kolasib 85
8. Aizawl To Vairengte 120
9. Aizawl To Kawlkulh 138
10. Aizawl To Champhai (via Kawlkulh) 192
11. Aizawl To Saitual 76
12. Aizawl To Tamdil (via Saitual) 83
13. Aizawl To Thenzawl 145
14. Aizawl To Vantawng (via Thenzawl) 145
15. Aizawl To Chhiahtlang 100
16. Aizawl To Serchhip 112
17. Aizawl To Lunglei 235
18. Aizawl To Lawngtlai (via Lunglei) 323
19. Aizawl To Saiha (via Lawngtlai) 388

APPENDIX – q CAVES IN MIZORAM

S. No. Location Name of the Cave
1 Champhai Zote Mura Puk – 6 nos
2 Farkawn Lamsial Puk, Far Puk, Kungawrhi Puk
3 Vangchhia Ralven Puk
4 Biate Mura Puk
5 Sazep Lallula Puk
6 Samthang Lallula Puk
7 Lianpui Khamsen Puk
8 Reiek Khuangchera Puk
9 Pukzing Pukzing
10 Luangpawn Chalthanga Puk
11 Blue Mountain Tialpari Puk

APPENDIX – r

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE EXPENSES – MIZORAM


PLAN EXPENSES
S.
No. Title Budget Estimate Expenditure
1 Office Expenses Rs. 3,00,000/- Rs. 11,33,948/-
2 Other Charges Rs. 11,50,000/- Rs. 11,62,780/-
3 Materials & Supply Rs. 15,00,000/- Rs 12,79,635/-
NON-PLAN EXPENSES
1 Office Expenses Rs. 15,00,000/- Rs. 15,15,527/-
2 Other Charges Rs. 11,30,000/- Rs. 11,10,860/-
3 Materials & Supply Rs. 1,00,000/- Rs. 1,00,310/-

APPENDIX – s
HYDRO ELECTRIC PROJECTS IN MIZORAM
I. BAIRABI PROJECT
Capacity 80 Mega Watt
Catchment Area 2740 Sq. Km.
Location Lat. 24 09’ 25” N Long. 9232’ 20” E
Height 62 M.
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 82 M above msl
Storage at FRL 2106 Million Cubic Meter (MCM)
Length of submergence 70 Km

II. TURIAL PROJECT
Capacity 60 Mega Watt
Catchment Area 1861 Sq. Km.
Location Lat. 24 21’ 50” N
Long. 92 53’ 20” E
Height 77 M
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 94 M above msl
Storage at FRL 1400 MCM
Length of submergence 85 Km

III. TUIVAI PROJECT
Capacity 210 Mega Watt
Catchment Area 2860 Sq. Km.
Location Lat. 23 53’ 14” N
Long. 93 12’ 55” E
Height 155 M
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 404 M above msl
Storage at FRL 745 MCM
Length of submergence 51 Km

IV. SERLUI-B PROJECT
Capacity 12 Mega Watt
Catchment Area 397 Sq. Km.
Location Lat. 24 20’ 15” N
Long. 92 46’ 15” E
Height 51 M
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 82 M above msl
Storage at FRL 539 MCM
Length of submergence 53 Km

V. KOLODYNE PROJECT (Stage I)
Capacity 120 Mega Watt
Catchment Area 852 Sq. Km.
Location Lat. 22 49’ 46” N
Long. 92 49’ 46” E
Height 148 M
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 390 M above msl
Storage at FRL 594 MCM
Length of submergence 46 Km

APPENDIX – t


EXCERPTS FROM ANNUAL REPORT 2001-02 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

REGENERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

[National River conservation Directorate, Ganga Action Plan Phase I & II, Yamuna, Gomti and Damodar Action Plan, National River Conservation Plan, Common Effluent Treatment Plant, Industrial Pollution Control, National Lake Conservation Plan, National Afforestation and Eco-development Board]


National River Conservation Directorate

The National River Conservation Directorate, which functions under the Ministry, has been entrusted with the charge of implementing the River Action Plans. The River Action Plans were undertaken based on surveys conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) which identified 27 grossly polluted stretches of major fresh water sources in the country, through the implementation of pollution abatement schemes. The important works being taken up under the National River Action Plan include:

* Interception and diversion works to capture the raw sewage flowing into the river
through open drains and divert them for treatment.

* Sewage treatment plants for treating the diverted sewage.

* Low cost sanitation works to prevent open defecation on riverbanks.

* Electric crematoria and improved wood and help in ensuring proper cremation of bodies brought to the burning ghats.

* River Front Development works such as improvement of bathing ghats etc.

* Other minor miscellaneous works.

National River Conservation Plan

The National River conservation Plan was launched in 1995 to cover 23 major rivers in 10 States of the country. Under this action plan pollution abatement works are being taken up in 57 towns. Of these four are in A. P., three in Jharkhand, one in Gujarat, eight in Karnataka, five in Maharashtra, 11 in M. P., four in Orissa, six in Punjab, two in Rajasthan and 13 in Tamil Nadu.

Out of 215 schemes of pollution abatement sanctioned under this action plan so far, 69 schemes have been completed. About 2455 million litres per day (mld) of sewage is targeted to be intercepted, diverted and treated. Out of the approved cost of Rs.1,
830.56 crore, the expenditure incurred by States totals to Rs.193.70 crore.

After the launching of the NRCP in 1995, it was decided to merge the Ganga Action Plan Phase-II with NRCP. A notification to this effect has also been issued. With this, the present approval cost of NRCP as a whole stands of Rs.3,329.42 crores covering pollution abatement works in 152 towns along polluted stretches of 27 rivers spread over 16 states.

National Lake Conservation Plan

A proposal for conservation and management of 10 polluted urban lakes was put up for consideration of Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs earlier but the Committee only approved the proposal for Dal Lake Conservation Plan ‘in
principle’. The Ministry also posed the project for external assistance for implementation of the National lake Conservation Plan to various Donor Agencies. None of the external funding agencies evinced any interest in the project. The Detailed Project Report of Dal Lake Conservation Plan however has been prepared by AHEC, Roorkee and sent to the State Government of J&K for their concurrence. A proposal for conservation of three small lakes namely, Powai (Maharashtra) and Ooty and Kodaikanal (Tamil Nadu) using bio-remediation technology at an estimated cost of Rs.14.99 crore was approved by the Government on 31.05.2001.
The budget estimates for the three approved lakes is as follows: Powai : Rs.6.62 crore
Ooty : Rs.1.95 crore
Kodaikanal : Rs.6.33 crore


Keeping in view the decisions of NRCA taken during its 10th Meeting to give similar impetus to NLCP and NRCP, it is proposed to enlarge the scope of work under NLCP by taking up the remaining identified lakes along with new proposals on lakes received from different state Government during the X Plan.

National Afforestation and Eco-development Board

National Afforestation and Eco-development Board (NAEB) was established in August 1992 in the Ministry of Environment and Forests as a sequel to the formation of the separate Department of Wastelands Development in the Ministry of Rural Development and the transfer of National Wasteland Development Board to that Department. The NAEB is mainly charged with the responsibility of promoting afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country with the special focus on degraded forest areas and lands adjoining forest areas, national parks, sanctuaries and the other protected areas like the Western Himalayas, Aravallis, Western Ghats, etc. The mandate of the NAEB is:

* To evolve mechanism for ecological restoration of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands through systematic planning and implementation, in a cost effective manner;

* To restore through natural regeneration or appropriate intervention the forest cover in the country for ecological security and to meet the fuel wood, fodder and other needs of the rural communities;

* To restore fuel wood, fodder, timber and other forest produce on the degraded forest and adjoining lands in order to meet the demands for these items;

* To sponsor research and extension of research findings to disseminate new and proper technologies for the regeneration and development of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands;

* To create general awareness and help foster people’s movement for promoting afforestation and eco-development with the assistance of Voluntary Agencies, Non-Governmental Organisations, Panchayati Raj Institutions and others and promote participatory and sustainable management of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands;

* To coordinate and monitor the Action Plans for afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and eco-development; and

* To undertake all other measures necessary for promoting afforestation, tree planting, and ecological restoration and eco-development activities in the country.

Integrated Afforestation and Eco-Development Project Scheme (IAEPS)

This is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme intended to promote afforestation and development of degraded forests and adjoining lands by adopting an integrated approach and management of these areas on a watershed basis with people’s participation. This scheme has also been extended to include 100% centrally sponsored Coastal Shelterbelt plantations after Orissa Cyclone of 1999 as a thrust area. The revised Ninth Plan allocation for the scheme is Rs.247.00 crores with a physical target for treating 2.27 lakhs ha. of degraded areas. A total of 160 projects

including 13 for Coastal Shelterbelt plantations and 31 for Forest Development Agency projects have been sanctioned so far to the Sates in the Ninth Plan with a total project cost of Rs.310.25 crores. Expenditure during 2001-02 (as on 15.01.2002) was Rs.57.63 crores.

Conservation and Development of Non-Timber Forest Produce including Medicinal Plants (NTFP)

Under this 100% centrally sponsored scheme, financial assistance is provided to the State Governments for increasing production of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) including Medicinal Plants. It has a special focus on tribal population for whom NTFP is an important source of livelihood. The revised Ninth Plan allocation for the scheme is Rs.80.50 crores. A total of 75 projects have been sanctioned so far to the States in the Ninth Plan at a total cost of Rs.100.14 crores. Expenditure during 2002- 02 (as on 15.01.2002) was Rs.19.77 crores.

Bamboo and Medicinal Plantation Projects

Recently, bamboo and medicinal plantations have been identified and declared as one of Thrust Areas of the Ministry. Though such species are planted as part of mixed plantations taken up under the ongoing NTFP scheme, projects solely for Bamboo and Medicinal plantations are now being sanctioned separately under the scheme. A total of 21 projects with an outlay of Rs.20.69 crores for covering an area of 30,163 ha. under bamboo plantations and 18 projects with an outlay of Rs.8.60 crores for raising medicinal plants over an area of 5,285 ha. have been sanctioned during the Ninth Plan. During 2002-02 an amount of Rs. 6.58 crores for bamboo plantation and Rs. 2.35 crores for medicinal plants have been released to the State Governments as on 15.01.2002.

Shifting Cultivation (Jhum)

Taking cognisance of the aggravation caused in terms of soil erosion and depletion of natural resources due to shifting cultivation (Jhum) in the North Eastern Region, an inter Ministerial Task Force has been constituted in the Ministry to evolve a holistic and integrated approach for sustainable management of Jhum affected lands. The Task Force had organized a two-day workshop during 11-12 October 2001 at Shillong, wherein Government representatives of North Eastern States, academicians, NGOs had participated in the deliberations.


EDUCATION, TRAINING AND INFORMATION

[Forestry education, training and extension, Wildlife education, training and extension, National Museum of Natural History, Fellowships and Awards, Environmental Education, Awareness and Training, Centres of Excellence, Environmental Information System]
Grants-in-Aid to Professional Societies

Financial assistance is provided under the scheme to professional societies and appropriate institutions, museums and science centres for developing activities and projects in the field of environment as well as to develop exhibition galleries and educational programmes relevant to ecology, environment and wildlife. Revised guidelines of the scheme were framed and widely circulated to all concerned.

During the year, various proposals, received from several organizations in the country were considered and suitable financial assistance was provided to those organizations for their proposals conforming to the objectives of the scheme.

Income Tax Exemption under Section 35 CCB of the Income Tax Act, 1961

Ministry continued to recommend to the Central Board of Direct Taxes for Income Tax exemption under Section 35 CCB of the Income Tax Act, 1961 for the programmes related to the conservation of natural resources or of afforestation undertaken by Associations or Institutions.

Financial Assistance for Publications

Ministry continued to provide one time grant to professional societies, voluntary organizations, institutions etc. for printing of publications aimed at promoting environmental education and awareness.

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION

Environmental Information System (ENVIS)

In the last Second Monitoring Committee Meeting held on 21.02.2002 the following 21 Thrust Areas have been identified by the Committee for setting up EMCB-ENVIS Nodes through out the country under the project:

* Urban Municipal Waste Management
* Environmental Biotechnology
* Conservation of Ecological heritage and Sacred Sites in India
* Coastal Regulation Zone Management
* Environmental Audit
* Promotion and Maintenance of Renewable Energy Sources
* Environmental Law
* Medicinal Plants
* Marine Eco-systems
* Bamboo Conservation
* Coastal Shelterbelt
* Microorganisms and Environmental Management
* Eco-labelling and Promotion of Eco-Friendly Products
* Environmental Problems in Tea Gardens
* Cold Desert Eco-system
* Biomedical Waste management
* Island Eco-system
* Wetland Eco-system

* Natural Disaster Management (like earth-quake, cyclone, floods, glaciers).

Global Environmental Issues (like climate change, ozone depletion, green-house gas effect, etc.)

* ENVIS also continued to function as a National Focal point (NFP) and a Regional Service Centre (RSC) for South-Asia sub-Region Countries for INFOTERRA network, a Global Information Network of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). As NFP and RSC of INFORTERRA, the ENVIS network provided information to several queries received from the various sub-region countries during the year.

* ENVIS also continued close liaison with various other national information systems in the country like National Information System on Science & Technology (NISSAT), Bio-Technological Information System (BTIS), etc., for exchange of environmental information and to avoid duplication of efforts in the field of environment and its associated areas.


INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION

[Commission on sustainable Development, World Summit on Sustainable Development, United Nations Environment Programme, Global Environmental Facility, UNDP, UNDP/GEF Small Grants Programme, India-Canada Environment Facility, Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, World Bank Aided Projects]

India-Canada Environment Facility (ICEF)

The India-Canada Environment Facility (ICEF) is a joint initiative of the Government of India and the Government of Canada created by the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the two Governments on October 20, 1992 for the purpose of undertaking projects related to the environment.

The funding is provided by the Canadian International Development Agency. It is managed jointly by representatives from the two Governments (India and Canada). The primary focus of ICEF is to develop natural resources and enhance the environmental managerial capacity of Government/Non-government/community organisations to undertake and to manage environmentally sound development in land, water and energy sectors in India.

While projects approved by ICEF so far have focused on watershed management, future projects will concentrate on water quality and energy fields. So far 20 projects have been approved for funding under the ICEF with a total outlay of Rs.162.56 crores. The Joint Project Steering Committee is co-chaired by Joint Secretary (International Cooperation) from the Indian side and by Counsellor, Canadian High Commission.

LIST OF REGIONAL OFFICES / ENVIS CENTRES / CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE / AUTONOMOUS / ASSOCIATED AGENCIES ETC. OF THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS


Regional Office:

Sr.
No. Regional Office Communication Linkages Area
1. Shri Promode Kant
Chief Conservator of Forests (C)
Regional Office (NEZ) Upland Road, Laitumkhrah Shillong –793 003 Tel : (0364) 227673
Fax: (0364) 227673 Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Manipur; Meghalaya; Tripura; Nagaland; Mizoram and Sikkim


Regional Centre for Eco-Development Programme:

Sr.
No. Regional Office Communication Linkages Area
1. Prof. R. S. Tripathi, Co- ordinator
Co-ordinator Regional Centre for NAEB,
North-Eastern Hill University Shillong –793 014 Tel : (0364) 231626
Fax: (0364) 231919 Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Manipur; Meghalaya; Tripura; Nagaland and Mizoram

APPENDIX – u


GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE UPGRADATION OF EXISTING TOURIST INFRASTRUCTURE

The Dept. of Tourism, Government of Mizoram, has developed various infrastructures for tourism throughout the State. The development of this facility was carried out with financial help from the Central Government. The maintenance of the infrastructure, its working, staff requirements & their salaries are however the sole responsibility of the State Government. In general the status of most of the facilities is satisfactory but they definitely need up-gradation and enhancement.

The department has developed various facilities such as:

1. Wayside Amenities
2. Restaurants / Cafeteria
3. Tourist Lodges
4. View Points / Galleries

The wayside amenities and tourist lodges are developed under different titles / nomenclatures, but with very little difference from each other. It is necessary to distinctly classify these facilities and to identify their necessity & role in tourism infrastructure. Feasibility studies for necessity of the infrastructure seem to be inadequately done. Moreover certain guidelines need to be formulated, so that the existing facilities can be upgraded according to them. These will also help in development of the new facilities.

Mizoram falls in the category of very high seismic zone. Necessary Structural and Architectural precautions are required to make the structures earthquake resistant.
The existing facilities need to be upgraded on various fronts, such as: 1.Structural up-gradation
2.Toilet Renovation 3.Plumbing and Sanitation 4.Electrification
5.Doors & Windows 6.Flooring
7.Plastering & painting 8.Interior Design 9.Environmental measures
10. Surrounding areas
11. Recreation facilities
12. Communication facilities
13. Management up-gradation
14. Staff accommodation

The details of each factor are as under:

1. Structural up-gradation

The structures are mostly RCC framed, with partition walls of brick and bamboo mats. However high rainfall and humid conditions have weakened them to certain extents and need rectification in following areas:

• Anti termite(biological) treatment for plinth
• Waterproofing for plinth areas (damp proofing)
• Waterproof plastering for external walls
• Leakage rectification
• Proper rainwater harvesting or disposal
• Roof overhangs or window chajja repair
• Repair and waterproofing of overhead tanks
• Plinth protection for all structures

2. Toilet Renovation

Common toilet facilities for dormitories and attached toilets for rooms, both need up-gradation in the following areas:

• Layout & internal design for maximum comfort & utility
• Non-slippery ceramic tiling for floors and dado
• Sanitary fixture in working conditions
• Non- leaking taps
• Hot water supply for showers & washbasins
• Clean & easy to maintain buckets, mugs, toilet paper holders, soap cases, etc. to be provided
• Mirrors to be provided above wash basins.

3. Plumbing and Sanitation

The water supply and drainage systems at the tourist facilities:
• Non-leaking, G.I. water supply pipe system
• Proper overflow system for tanks
• Water supply to all taps
• Proper connection to geysers for efficient use of water
• All drainage pipes to be laid to proper slope
• All drainage pipes to be connected to septic tanks, in working conditions
• Location of septic tank and soak pit to decided as per slopes available
• Plantation to be carried out near soak pit areas
• Accumulation or stagnation of water to be avoided anywhere in the campus
• Surface water drainage to be planned properly

4. Electrification

The electric supply at the facilities is satisfactory. The rooms have non-concealed wiring system. Following improvements need to be done:

• Proper planning and redesign of the layout
• User friendly location of switches
• Proper necessary illumination of outdoor areas
• Proper management control to ensure energy conservation
• Stand by generator sets
• Alternate / complementary solar system

5. Door & Window

Security is a major tourist concern and hence the door and windows need to be maintained properly.

• Proper alignment of door and window frames with the walls and sealing of joints.
• Proper shutters in good condition, either polished or painted
• All fittings and fixtures should be of standardised design & in working condition
• Windows to have MS lightweight grills
• All balcony doors to open out in the balcony
• All windows to have clean curtains with proper standardised rods or pelmets
• The proportion of keys and key chains to be user friendly

6. Flooring

The flooring of various rooms to be treated differently as per use and traffic

• Reception lobbies and dining areas to preferably have polished stone flooring. Mirror polish to be avoided
• Kitchen areas to have stone flooring with dado of ceramic tiles. All wash areas to have ceramic tiling
• Local flooring materials such as pigmented PCC / IPS to be maintained properly
• Individual rooms and dormitories to have marble mosaic, stone or any local material flooring. The choice should be made depending upon budget availability and maintenance possible.
• Use of ceramic tile flooring in living areas to be avoided
• Use of wall to wall carpets should be restricted to deluxe suites / VIP rooms only

7. Plastering & painting

The external surfaces should be properly treated and maintained for a longer life of the structure.

• Waterproof plastering to be done
• Waterproof cement painting to be done for external surfaces
• All steel works to be painted in enamel paints

8. Interior Design

The interiors should be planned for maximum wear and tear and for minimum maintenance.

• The layout should be functional and user friendly
• Local materials and technology should be given preference
• The design could be standardised but should also incorporate local crafts and techniques
• The upholstery should be simple
• Undue ornamentations should be avoided.
• Stress should be on maintaining cleanliness
• Light fixtures to be of simple design and maintenance free
• Built-in furniture to be preferred wherever possible
• Various fittings and fixtures to be of standard design and make
• The style of interiors should have local influence

9. Environmental measures

Various environmental measures should be incorporated within their existing set- up of the tourist facilities. These could be the following:
• Use of solar energy water heating systems
• Rain water harvesting
• Recycling and use of waste water for gardening
• Developing a kitchen garden
• Use of solar lights for outdoor areas
• Avoid plastic and use cloth / jute bags etc.
• Use of recycled handmade paper in stationery
• Separation of garbage and conversion into manure by composting

10. Surrounding areas

The surrounding areas to be developed for the use of people

• Parking areas to be well demarcated and visually screened with plantations
• Outdoor dining areas to be well developed and maintained
• Gardens to be well landscaped and maintained especially for the use of children
• If pets such as cats, dogs, rabbits are being maintained by the staff then their proper care should be ensured
• Outdoor activities should be encouraged
• Television rooms, card rooms, etc should be encouraged in semi covered (verandah) areas
• Jogging tracks, yoga grounds, meditation areas should be provided in natural ambience without any built structures


11. Recreation activities

Various recreation activities should be provided for tourist:

• Cultural programmes in association with local groups or students could be arranged
• Local food festivals could be arranged
• A small workshop in local handicrafts on once a weekly basis can be arranged, especially during peak season
• The premises could have a simple badminton / tennis court, carom and card rooms.
• Tourist facilities in sanctuaries / national parks should discourage television

12. Communication facilities

The tourist lodges should provide for various communication facilities:

• Each lodge should have a PCO / STD / ISD facility. Internet facilities should also be provided.
• A provision for a post box on the premises should also be made.
• The contacts of local medical facility, chemist, courier services, etc. should be kept available
• In case if the tourist lodges do not have their own transport vehicle, then state transport buses connecting to major towns should have a mandatory halt at the tourist lodge.
• Similar arrangements can also be made with local taxi service providers

13. Management up-gradation

One of the major factors that need up gradation is the local staff. It could cover following aspects:

• Short term training programmes
• Strict adherence to rules and regulations
• Service staff training and monitoring
• Dress codes for staff – Managerial / Attendants / Service etc.

14. Staff accommodation

Staff accommodation should be provided near the facility.

• Staying of staff members in one of the rooms should be discouraged
• The caretakers residence should be near the reception areas
• Other accommodation should be near the service areas and away from the public places

APPENDIX – v

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TOURIST FACILITIES & INFRASTRUCTURE

Most of the tourist infrastructure created does not follow any system or procedure in any of its development. As a result most of structures do not bear a strong identity or link amongst themselves. Moreover they fall short on many fronts such as excessive capacity or the designs are standardised on typical PWD patterns.

Mizoram falls in the category of very high seismic zone. Necessary Structural and Architectural precautions are required to make the structures earthquake resistant.

Following are few guidelines / procedures for development of the various facilities provided by the department. They could be categorised as under:

1. Definition
2. Role of various tourist facilities
3. Feasibility study guidelines
4. Site selection criteria
5. Brief for design
6. Guidelines for architectural design
7. Guidelines for construction methods
8. Guidelines for Interior design and execution
9. Guidelines for Landscaping and signage
10. Guidelines for Environmental design


A. WAYSIDE AMENITIES:

1. Definition: It can be defined as a minimal facility located en-route to any major tours or tourist destination, providing basic toilet, eating & emergency staying facilities.

2. Role: Wayside amenities have become an important facility today, especially when road transport has become much faster. They have in a way replaced motels. They are especially preferred in undeveloped terrains, where various services are not generally available.

3. Feasibility study Guidelines

• Study of tourist traffic for previous 3 years to justify the development of infrastructure to be provided
• Study of private lodging and boarding facility available in the vicinity and their quality of service
• Study to determine the income group of frequent travellers
• Study to determine the communication system available

• Study to determine the no of beds capacity required
• Preparation of brief and design of the infrastructure
• Estimation of construction budget and running costs for first 5 years
• Estimation of staff requirements and their remuneration
• Revenue generation and breaking even points
• Strategy for privatisation
• Incentives for private development in case if departmental development is not feasible


4. Site selection criteria: For selection of sites for wayside amenities following criteria should be fulfilled.

• The site should be located a major road (National highway or State highway) connecting two or more tourist destinations
• It should preferably be on the major road and easily accessible
• There should no other resting facility available at nearby distance
• Basic facilities such as water and electricity should be available
• The site should be aesthetically pleasing
• It could be near an undeveloped village

5. Brief for design: The Wayside amenities should be designed with following brief.

• Toilet facilities for both men & women, catering for a 40 persons bus- load. The toilets should have urinals, W. C.’s, bathrooms, washbasins
with mirrors & dry areas for changing. Accessories such as toilet paper, tissues, napkins should be provided.
• Solar water heating system for toilets and kitchen
• Drinking water fountains fitted with water purifiers. Design of water fountains should be such that use of cups/glass should be avoided.
• Both toilet facilities & drinking water fountain areas should have adequate numbers of dust-bins/garbage cans.
• A fast food counter serving selected few snacks and beverages & dining area.
• A small food & beverage counter for selling of dry or packaged food products and packaged/bottled water, cold drinks etc.
• Two twin bedded non A. C. rooms with attached toilets having minimal furniture, clean linen.
• One 6 bedded non A. C. dormitory without attached toilet, having minimal furniture & clean linen.
• Pay phone booth having PCO, STD & ISD facility.
• First aid facilities.
• Small residential quarters for Manager.

6. Guidelines for architectural design

• The architectural character should be in harmony with the existing vernacular architectural style
• It should site specific and follow the natural levels / slopes of the land
• Layout design should provide for enough parking space, separate wheel chair access, service entry etc.
• The planning should be climate specific and designed accordingly for best human comfort without mechanical means
• The structure should be maximum ground + one storey high
• Use of terraced roof should be avoided and if necessary utmost care to be taken for it’s waterproofing.
• Location of overhead water tanks should be considered while massing of various built forms and they should be suitably incorporated in the overall design.
• Various ancillary systems such as solar water heating, their functional requirements should be planned in the design itself.
• There should be sufficient roof overhang for wall protection
• Location of doors and windows should be such that it gives maximum protection from rain (having chajja or opening onto a verandah / balcony) and at the same time allowing for cross ventilation
• Layout and design of toilets should be of international standards and special attention should be given to materials, their durability and low maintenance
• Waterproofing and drainage should be planned properly taking into account existing land gradient
• Septic tank and soak pit should be located away from the bore well
• Built – in furniture should be incorporated in the planning itself
• Use of local materials should be planned in design itself
• Painting scheme should in harmony with the character of the building and the site


7. General Guidelines for construction technology / methods

• If the site conditions demand a stilted structure an RCC framed structure should be planned
• All foundation pits and plinths to be given neem anti-termite treatment
• The external walls should be one brick thick masonry upto 1.0m height above plinth or alternatively totally in brick. In case of parapet walls, the above space should be in bamboo mat partitions.
• Internal toilet walls should be in half brick thick masonry
• All masonry work to have 18mm thick external sandfaced plaster and 12mm thick neroo plaster
• Externally the structures to be painted in waterproof cement paint and internally

8. Guidelines for Interior design

• Plan the interiors of the structure during architectural planning stage
• Furniture for rooms and dormitories to be preferably of built-in type
• Furniture for reception area and dining could be moveable type. It could be in bamboo or cane reflecting local craftsmanship
• Materials used should be durable and of low maintenance
• Conceptually the interiors could be based on local culture of the tribes, local materials, textiles and handicrafts


9. Guidelines for Landscaping and signage

• The tourist facility development should be undertaken as an integrated work of built and non-built areas
• Screening plantation to be provided along road and parking areas
• Preference to be given to indigenous plantation
• Landscaping should be as per existing land gradient. Major land works and shifting of soil should be avoided
• It should make use of existing natural features such as undulations, water streams, boulders, etc.
• Plantation should be carried out to make optimum use of sunlight, wind etc.


10. Guidelines for Environmental design

• Orientation of the layout should optimise use of sunlight and wind direction
• Solar passive features should be planned to allow maximum sunlight, while minimising adverse thermal effects
• Windows and shading devices should be planned to minimise mechanical ventilation
• Solar energy water heating systems to be integrated in the planning process
• Segregation and recycling of organic and inorganic wastes to be planned within the development
• Rain water harvesting methods to be adopted
• Waste water from kitchen and toilets should be utilised in the purpose of gardening
• Local building materials to be preferred

APPENDIX – w


LIST OF VOLUNTARY ORGANISATIONS IN MIZORAM



1. Young Mizo Association

2. Mizo Women’s Association

3. Mizo Senior Citizens’ Association

4. Mizo Students’ Association

5. Hmeithai Association

6. Youth Hostels Association of India, Mizoram

7. Games & Sports Association

8. MUP

9. VDP

10. MHIP

11. The Centre for Environment Protection (CEP), Aizawl

APPENDIX – x

CHECKLIST FOR TRANSPORT FACILITIES

(Numbers in brackets refer to the appropriate paragraphs in the Guidelines)

Conceptual Planning:

Development brief prepared. (1.75. 5.39).

Discuss with planning authority (District or Borough Council, or unitary authority, whether the development is consistent with the Structure Plan or Unitary Development Plan. (1.65)

Discuss with highway authority (county or borough council, or unitary authority, for local roads; Highway Agency for trunk roads, including motorways, in England; Welsh Office or Scottish Development Department respectively for trunk roads in Wales and Scotland) what improvements to the highway network will be needed to handle traffic generated by the development. (1.48, 1.83).

Discuss with the Passenger Transport Executive, or the Transport Co-ordinating Officer of the county or borough council or unitary authority, whether the development can be served by existing public transport routes, whether extensions or diversions to existing routes might be appropriate or whether a new service could be justified. Also discuss the outline locations of parts of the development within the site for ease of access by public transport. (1.49 to 1.52, 1.82, 5.5)

Can other developments be located to generate extra public transport ridership, or can the public transport be routed through existing developments to produce extra ridership) (1.75 to 1.79).

Discussion with planning authority possible Developer Contributions that may be required under Section 106. (5.52 to 5.57)

Is land reclamation or earth-moving involved ? If so, discuss implications for public transport access with the Passenger Transport Executive or Passenger Transport Co- ordinating Officer. (1.41)

Outline Planning:

Public transport supply
Has liaison been established with Passenger Transport Executive / local authority Transport Co-ordination Officer? (6.4)

Has traffic implications been discussed with highway authority? (6.4)

Map and list public transport services near the proposed development. Can any serve the development:
i) without modifications?
ii) by diverting or extending an existing service?

If a new or modified service is required, has its commercial viability been established by discussion with the PTE/TCO (2.20 to 2.25)

Layout (developments served by bus)
Will the bus service proposed be attractive to users of the development (6.5 to 6.15)

Are the entry and exit points for the development compatible with the local bus network? (6.9)

Does the proposed road layout allow buses a direct route through the developments? (6.8 to 6.14)

Can buses enter and leave the development without traffic delays? If not, consult the highway authority on junction designs and bus priority measures to avoid delays. (6.42, 7.32 to 7.57)

Check bus stop locations for operational efficiency and safety. Conduct initial safety audit of bus stop locations and links to surrounding highways. (6.27 to 6.31)

Does the bus route terminate in the development? If yes, has a bus turning point and standing place been provided? (6.32 to 6.35)

Does the footpath network feed directly to bus stops? (6.3, 6.5, 6.16, 7.8)

Are entrances to buildings close to bus stops? If not, can building locations or orientations be changed to improve access? Are any destinations more than 400 m from a bus stop? Are car parks between bus stops and final destinations? (6.20 to 6.26)

Can passengers get to and from bus stops without crossing major roads? If not, are safe crossing facilities provided? Initial safety audit of pedestrian routes. (6.24, Fig. 6.7)
Has space been left for accessible bus stops and bus shelters? (7.10 to 7.14, 7.22 to 7.28)

Layout (developments served by rail)

Will there be a rail station within the development? If yes, has development been discussed with the Rail Regulator, Railtrack and the local Train Operation Companies (contact through the PTE or TCO)? (1.55 to 1.62)

Will the train service proposed be attractive to users of the development? Does the footpath network feed directly to the station? (6.3, 6.5, 6.16, 7.8)
Are entrances to buildings close to the station? If not can building locations or orientations be changed to improve access? Are any destinations more than 800 m from the station? Are car parks between the station and final destinations? (6.20 to 6.26)

Can passengers get to and from the station without crossing major roads? If not, are safe crossing facilities provided?

Is parking required at the station to attract other passengers to improve the viability of the train service?


Developers contribution and general

What Developer’s Contributions will be required under Section 106? (5.52 to 5.57)

Conduct initial accessibility audit of footpaths, bus stops and/or railway station for the Disability Discimination Act 1995 (7.7, 7.4)


Detailed Planning
Developments to be served by bus

Does road network provide space for buses?

i. Lane width 3.65 m on bus routes (but see 6.53 to 6.60 for residential developments).
ii. Space for swept path at junctions. (Figures 6.10 and 6.11)
iii. Turning point for terminating bus services. (6.32 to 6.35)
iv. Standing space for terminating buses (6.32 to 6.35)
v. Space for any bus priority measures. (7.32 to 7.57)
vi. Road structure strong enough for axle loads of buses. (11.5 tonne)

Bus stops

i. Will bus stops be needed or will bus service be “hail and ride”? (6.23)
ii. Confirm stop locations are close to final destinations for passengers.
iii. Check stops are not isolated, windswept, near waste ground or other open space that would be perceived as hazardous by passengers.
iv. Can buses use stops without being delayed by other traffic?
v. Do stopped buses pose hazards for other traffic?
vi. Is it possible to use bus boarders or kerb-side stops? Are bus bays inevitable?
vii. Sight lines for buses and other traffic. (6.27)
viii. Safety audit of bus stop location and design.
ix. Drainage designed to minimise puddling at bus stops. (7.15 to 7.17)
x. Kerb height 125 mm at bus stops. (160-180 mm at bus boarders)

Bus stop furniture

i. Can bus stop flag be mounted on lamp standard or bus shelter? (7.25)
ii. Check with PTE or TCO for preferred type of shelter, and possibility of free supply by advertising company. (7.28)
iii. Check footway width two metres minimum past the shelter. (7.22)
iv. Check space for ramp or lift from accessible bus. (7.24)
v. Check street lighting satisfactory for stop. (7.25)
vi. Check planned provision of information at stops. (7.29 to 7.31)
vii. Name of stop visible to passengers within the bus? (7.29)

Footpaths

i. Check routes from buildings to stops are direct and less than 400 m.
ii. Check footpaths well overlooked with good sighlines for users.
iii. Check footpath lighting.
iv. Check footpath gradient preferably not steeper than five precent.
v. Footpath surfacing prevents pudding; cross-fall or camber of two percent for drainage.
vi. Footpath width two metres, with narrowest pinches at obstructions not less than one metre.
vii. Check signage for pedestrians to and from bus stops.
viii. Possibility of shelter from weather along footpaths.

Pedestrian safety

i. Check safety of pedestrian crossings at all major roads.
ii. Conduct safety audit of pedestrian travel in development

Traffic management

i. Do buses require priority measures within the development? If yes, identify problems needing solutions, list possible measures to solve problem select most appropriate solution. (7.32 to 7.57)

ii. Ensure space is available for priority measures.
iii. Do buses require priority measures entering or leaving development? If yes, liaise with highway authority to identify problems needing solution, list possible measures to solve problem, select most appropriate solution.
vi. Do local buses carry transponders? Check with PTE/ICO to ensure systems on development compatible with any local equipment (7.51)
v. Are traffic management measures needed to discourage car use? (7.58 to 7.62)

Bus service

i. Contract local bus operator through the PTE or TCO. Agree service to be provided when development occupied and timetable for service introduction.

General

i. Audit accessibility of footpaths, bus stops and planned bus services.
ii. Check plans for public transport information in buildings on development.

Developments to be served by rail

Footpaths
i. Check routes from buildings to station are direct and less than 800 m.
ii. Check footpaths well overlooked with good sightlines for users.
iii. Check footpath lighting.
iv. Check footpath gradient preferably not steeper than five percent.
v. Footpath surfacing prevents puddling; cross-fall or camber of two percent for drainage.
vi. Footpath width two metres, with narrowest pinches at obstructions not less than one metre.
vii. Check signage for pedestrians to and from station.
viii. Possibility of shelter from weather along footpaths.

Pedestrian safety

i. Check safety of pedestrian crossings at all major roads.
ii. Conduct safety audit of pedestrian travel in development.

Rail service and traffic management

i. Liaise with Rail Regulator and Train Operating Company on rail service.
ii. Liaise with Railtrack on station design.
iii. Decide on need for additional parking at station.
iv. Are traffic management measures needed to discourage car use by travellers to development?
General
i. Audit accessibility of footpaths, station and planned train services.
ii. Check plans for public transport information in buildings on development.

PUBLIC & SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT ASSESSMENT


Site Ref :


Date

Form ST6

Short Title : H




Proposed
Land use

Adur Chichester Mid-Sussex Arun Crawley Worthing

RAIL STATION
Services :

Distance


BUS ROUTES Nos:
Operators :
Frequency Daytime:
(Buses per Evening:
Hour) Sundays
Funded by All?
WSC Part?
Distance :






CYCLING AND WALKING


SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS
Bus Shelters……………………… Rail improvements………...………
Evening Services ……………….. Bus Priority ……………………….
Sunday Services…….…………… Ped. / Cycle Improvement ………..
Daytime Services ……..………… Travel-Wise Plan…………..………
Altered Routeing………………… Planning Agreement………...………

PARKING
Provide Secure, Convenient, Covered Cycle Parking

1 Per Bed Space 1 to every 4 Employees/Customers Other

Cars / Lorries / Buses ………………………………………

RECOMMENDED :

Is Accessible to Public Transport

Is not Accessible to Public Transport (Reason for Refusal)

Is not accessible to Public Transport But could be made so by a Planning Agreement

OTHER


Signed :
……………………………….

FLOW CHART FOR ASSESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT, WALKING AND CYCLING









A Typical Bus Operator’s Checklist

(Based on the Checklist for the Audit of Bus Services into / around Heathrow)

ROUTE No. (One sheet per route. Complete both sides)

1. Status within tender procedure

2. Route length

3. End-to-End journey time Peak
Off-peak

4. Vehicle type Make/age/number in fleet

Percentage low floor (cost for 100%)

Capacity (i) Seated (ii) Standing Luggage space (high/medium/low)

5. Bus stop / waiting environment
Number of stops / Percentage with timetables Number of shelters
Percentage with good facility Illuminated
2/3 way enclosed Seating Undersized

Security issues (cctv / alarms / etc)

6. Vehicle tracking
Percentage of fleet with AVL / timescale / cost

Percentage of route with real time displays / timescale / cost

7. Bus priority
General need for bus priority (high/medium/low) Status in any bus priority programme / estimated cost Reliability of route as a whole
Percentage of miles lost through congestion

8. Driver
Customer service / attitude

Percentage with uniforms / appearance

9. Patronage
i) Total patronage per route.
ii) Percentage of patronage to / from Heathrow area.
(Users to / from A4 (between Hatch Lane, Compass Centre and Harlington Corner), Hatton X, Southern Perimeter Road, all terminals) – see Connections Map for area).
iii) Percentage year on year changes for (i) above – note any major route changes).
iv) Percentage year on year changes for (ii) above – note any major route changes).

10. Cost of operation

Gross annual cost of operation Total cash revenue
Total off-bus revenue. Net annual deficit.
The above data is for planning purposes only.
It will be kept confidential within the Heathrow Area Transport Forum.
It will be used to prioritise services and corridors which are in most need of support. It will benchmark a patronage base for monitoring change.
It you have any additional comments, notes or suggestions please feel free to comment.


Please use only one form per route. Where routes bifurcate (74/5; 436/441; 555/6/7) Please use separate forms for the separate legs

APPENDIX – y

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT QUESTIONS

Single-purposism, as we have seen, tends to create projects that harm the environment. Instead, we should design projects with as favourable an environmental impact as possible. This is the objective of environmental impact design.

The questions about impact in this appendix have been grouped, as general and sectoral questions, similarly to their discussion in the book. Clearly, they overlap and the list is incomplete. It needs to be elaborated. As land-users, we tend to take an interest in the environmental consequences of our neighbours activities and to resent questions about our own. We are aggrieved when public goods are damaged and delighted when the supply is augmented. If damage is unavoidable, we expect compensatory measures. Environmental compensation, delivered at the point of impact, is economically more efficient than financial compensation. It goes to the people who have suffered a loss. We should, by asking questions, audit the impact of development projects on public goods.

* when a landowner applies for planning permission, a building licence or authorization from an environmental quality regulator;
* when public money is to be spent on a project, so that society can obtain the maximum social benefit at the minimum social cost.

The questions can be used to carry out a public goods audit of proposed development projects.

PART 1 – General questions
Objectives Is it a single-objective project or a multi-objective project?

Planning process Have the affected landowners and land-users helped to generate the plan?

Impact on public goods Will the existing stock of public goods be increased or decreased?

Compensation If existing public goods will be damaged, what environmental compensation it proposed?

Relationship to local plans Does the project design contribute to local plan objectives for improving the stock of environmental public goods (natural, social and visual)?

Urban design How does the project design relate to local urban design objectives?

Sustainability Does the project design contribute to sustainability objectives?

Transport How will the project encourage the use of self-powered transport and public transport?

Vegetation Will the project design increase or reduce the quantity and diversity of plant life?
Surface water Will the surface-water runoff from the site be increased or reduced?

Landform How does the project design relate to the habitat potential plan for the locality?

Habitats How does the planting design relate to the habitat potential plan for the locality?

Greenspace Is the project design compatible with the objectives of the local greenspace plan?

Recreation It the project design compatible with local recreation objectives?

Air How does the project design relate to air quality objectives?

Scenic plan Is the project set in an area of low, medium or high scenic quality? How will the scenic quality be affected by the project design?

Spatial quality How does the project design relate to the local plan for spatial quality?

Skyline How will the local skyline be affected by the project design?

Zoning what landscape character zones overlap the site?

General character How does the development project respond to the Genius of the proposed character designed to be designed to be identical to, similar to or different from that of its surroundings? What is the value of the SID Index for the projects?

Detailed character How does the development project respond, in detail, to the character of its surroundings (e.g. architectural style, plant materials, construction materials etc.). Are the design details intended to be identical, similar or different?

Nature Has the project been designed with nature or against nature?

Language What does the project ‘say’, in the language of the environment?

Archetypal patterns What extension will be made to larger-scale Alexander patterns? What provision will be made for smaller-scale Alexander patterns?

Material colour Will the colour relationship with local construction and plant materials be one of similarity, identity or contrast?

Planning information system Has the project design been checked against the historical records and development plans in the local planning information system?


PART 2 : Sectoral quations
PUBLIC OPEN SPACE

Access Is the open space designed to be bounded or unbounded?

Character Will the predominant character be that of a man-made or a natural area?

Use What provision will be made for specialist activities in the public open space?

Colour What is the most appropriate colour to symbolize the intended character of the public open space?

Planning How will the public open space relate to adjacent land-uses?

Historic conservation How does the present design reflect previous designs for the site?

Nature conservation How does th public open space contribute to wildlife, water and air-quality objectives?

Markets will there be a provision for the sale of goods in the public open space?

Management will the management of the open space be funded with national, regional local or community finance, by a public-private partner-ship or by a private organization? Has creation of a non-profit community trust been evaluated?

Ownership Will there be a direct relationship between the ownership and the control of the public open space?

Greenways In what sense will the open space be “green”? For what types of traffic will it be a “way”?

RESERVOIRS
SID index Is the reservoir designed to be similar to or different form its surroundings?

Reservoir fringe land will the waterfront land be urban, agricultural estuarine, recreational or natural?

Urbanization Is it appropriate to design the reservoir in conjunction with a new settlement?

Reservoir margin What physical and biological works will be carried out before the land is inundated (e.g. to create beaches at water level and habitats beneath water level)?


Recreation How will the reservoir improve opportunities for outdoor recreation?


Swimming What provision will be made for outdoor swimming?

Habitat creation How will the reservoir contribute to creation of new habitats?

Scenery How will the reservoir improve the scenery?

Archaeology Has the land to be flooded been considered as an underwater archaeological reserve?


MINERAL WORKINGS
Quality Will the landscape be at least as useful and as beautiful after mining as before?

Plant and machinery How will adverse side-effects be mitigated? What beneficial side-effects are planned?

Mineral operation What harm will be done? How will the landform be adapted to produce a beneficial end-result?

Phasing Is there a phasing plan for the completion of mineral workings and the establishment of after-uses?

Character at surface level, will the post-mining and pre-mining landscapes be similar, identical or different?

After-use Has consideration been given to planning for a range of possible after- uses?

Landownership Should the community help acquisition? Will the land pass into public ownership when the extraction process is complete?

AGRICULTURE
Character Should the existing character of the agricultural land be conserved, or should a different character be developed?

Public goods What public goods are produced? What public goods could be reproduced? Who will pay for the public goods? Should the landowner receive a wage or a rent for the public goods provided?

Mapping From which points of view has the agricultural land been mapped?

Strategic reserve Will the farm provide a strategic reserve capacity for food production? If land goes out of production, how long would it take to bring it back into production?

Conservation Will the farm contribute to water conservation, historic conservation and scenic conservation objectives?

Recreation Will access to the countryside be improved?

Food Will the supply of wild food and non-industrial food be improved?

Geography Has the supply of public goods been considered in relation to their local, regional national and international availability?

Implementation What arrangements have been made to implement a farm landscape plan?

Ownership Will any easements or common rights be purchased or pass into public ownership for another reason?

Finance Will the public benefit from money spent on agricultural production subsidies?

FORESTRY
Character Will the forest be beautiful and productive? Will it have sparkling streams, bright pools, dark swamps, open glades, black groves and many animals?

Internal land-relationship How many land-use objectives have been incorporated into the forest design plan?

External land-use relationships How has the forest design been integrated with the pattern of surrounding land-uses?

Myth Have any myths or stories been incorporated into the forest design?

Land cover Which parts of the forest will be wooded and which will be open land?

Food What wild food will be produced within the forest?

Wildlife How will wildlife benefit from the forestry operations?

Ancient woods What areas have been set aside to become ancient woods?

Roads Have recreational, aesthetic and conservation objectives been considered in the design of forest roads, rides and fire breaks?

Public participation How will the local community help to design and manage the forest?

Silviculture Which silvicultural systems will be used? Will any of the forest land be clear-felled or managed by selection forestry?

Management Will forestry objectives receive different priorities in different compartments of the forest?

Landscape plan Will the forest landscape plan be published, discussed with community groups, deposited in local libraries and exhibited on note boards?

RIVERS AND FLOODS
Drainage Will the volume and rate of surface-water runoff from the site be increased or reduced?

Flooding Which areas of town and country will be allowed to flood and with what frequency?

Detention Will any special measures be taken to detain surface water within the development site boundary?

Infiltration Will surface-water infiltration be increased or reduced? What special techniques will be employed?

Roof vegetation Will the roofs of new buildings be vegetated? If not, why not?

Pavements Will porous paving be used in the development? If so, will there be an adverse impact on water quality?

Riverworks What is the intended use and character of the reach where the works will take place?

Recreation What provision will be made for outdoor swimming, boating and other recreational activities?

Coastal works What is the intended use and character of the coastal area where the works will take place? It is project design sigle-purpose or multi-purpose? Are the works designed in the context of a coastal landscape plan?

TRANSPORT
Colour What is the most appropriate colour to symbolise the intended character of the routeway?

Names Will the proposed route be a road, a ride, a highway, a lane, a track, a footpath, a speedway, a bridleway, a street, an avenue or an autoroute?

Multi-mode sharing To what extent will traffic modes share the paved surface? To what extent will traffic modes be segregated?

Cycling Will a provision be made for cycling and cycle storage? Will the use of cycles and the safety of cyclists be monitored?

Transport interchanges Have modal interchange points been integrated with other land-uses? Do they make provision for cycle storage? Have they been designed as attractive multi-functional spaces?

Conservation Will historic transport routes be conserved?

Alignment Has the route alignment been adapted to its context? Was it produced using standard criteria from a design manual?

Phasing What provision has been made for future changes in the route’s use and character?

Margin details Does the treatment of walls, fences, banks, drains and vegetation relate to local traditions, or to an innovatory landscape plan?

URBANISATION
Location Where will planned urbanization do the least harm and the most good? Can it be designed in conjunction with other land-uses?

Size Will the eventual settlement size be small, medium or large?

New settlements What is the best location for the new settlement from the point of view of the local community? Should a local referendum be held to choose sites for urbanization?

Community involvement How will the future community be represented in the planning and design process?

Topography How will the urbanization relate to the existing topography?

Regional identity How will the settlement respond to the character of the local climate, local design tradition and local materials?

Public open space Which land is best suited for designation as public open space?

Earthmoving Is there an earthmoving plan for the urbanization process?

Water How will the pattern of surface-water drainage be affected? Will new water bodies be created?

Trees Will the urbanization have an advance tree-planting programme?

Circulation What will be done to contribute to a sustainable transport network?

Finance If the urbanization benefits from public infrastructure investment, how will the public gain a return from this investment?

APPENDIX – z


ASSESSING A BUILDING FOR ACCESS FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

Assessing a building for access for disabled people has been called an access audit. This is often the first part of the process of improving provision in an existing building, and can, if done correctly, be the start of an ongoing project that will last the lifetime of the building.

This chapter is designed to illustrate the nature of an access audit and the features that should be looked for in such an audit. Sections cover the areas that should be examined and the ways of commissioning an audit on a building.

What is an access audit?
An access audit will examine an existing building against predetermined criteria designed to measure the ‘usability’ of the building for disabled people. Usability will range from getting in and getting around to getting out. Depending on the measurement criteria, the assessment will examine how much of the facilities can be used independently by disabled people. A through audit will look at more than just physical mobility and disability. It will also examine use of the services by people with sensory disabilities and mental disabilities. The limit of what is to be assessed will depend on the frame of reference of the project. All inclusive audits will examine printed material and publicity, staff attitudes and the physical and management issues within the building .

Beginning a project
Before deciding to conduct an audit of a building it is important to have a clear understanding of the following:

* The purpose of the audit

* What the criteria for measurement will be and what will be assessed

* The expected outcomes and their format

* Who is to carry out the audit

* The reporting of the results

* The follow-up procedure and evaluation of progress.

The management of audit information and the construction of the project are key factors in success of a project.

What are the purposes?
Most access audits are launched with only a vague idea of what they are intended to achieve, high expectations of what they will achieve, and a lack of perception of the management procedures involved in implementing the changes that are required. Audits are conducted for three main reasons:

1. Comparative surveys; to gather data on the accessibility of the building or facility to build a comparative table of accessibility of buildings. Projects such as the Audit Commission were designed for this type of collection. This enables a statistical comparison of service provision across a region, and also a longitudinal approach to service provision over time.

2. Analytical surveys; to gather data which indicates the accessibility of a building for publication in reference works, directories and guides for disabled people will use to decide where they should go for services. The data is then disseminated through organizations such as Artsline, which provides a telephone enquiry service for disabled people in London to find details of entertainment and more recently, restaurants.

3. Adaptive surveys; to gather information which is designed to generate change. These audits measure area of inaccessibility and generate recommendations for improvement. Good audits of this nature will also prioritise the improvements and make detailed recommendation. These recommendations may indicate a cost associated with the change and the optimum timescale. This type of audit can be used to generate a ‘master plan’ for change.

Collection of the same information can be used for all the above objectives, but the intended out come will determine how the information is collected, the process and by whom it is collected.

Who should do the audit?
Research that we carried out for the Arts Council of England in 1993 indicated that the most successful audits and surveys were undertaken by a mixture of disabled and able-bodied audit teams using questionnaires designed primarily by disabled people. Success is taken to mean that the data collected were accurate and detailed, and represented the difficulties that a disabled person would encounter.

Audits carried out by these groups will often fall into the first two categories of the Comparative and Analytical Survey types. In order to produce the Adaptive Survey the surveying and reporting team should be experienced in the design of building for disabled people and the processes required for their implementation. They will also

need to assemble their cost recommendations from a knowledge database of products and costs of installation and building work. It is likely therefore that this type of group would include disabled people and Architects experienced in adaptive work.

DIY audits
There are guidance documents and books on conducting your own surveys and audits. Packs, such as those from RADAR and the Centre on Accessible Environments and All Clear Designs will certainly give a large amount of information to the newcomer to the field, as will questionnaires designed by The Access Officer’s Association for compliance with the Audit Commission surveys of public buildings. However, these guides and questionnaires will result in a mainly mechanistic understanding of access, and are useful only for the most cursory investigation of a building’s difficulties or potential.

Kits of questionnaires and measuring devices – for measurement of door-opening forces, lighting level and ramp gradients – can be purchased from organizations such as All Clear Designs.

The other approach is to attend courses on auditing procedure, such as those run by the Centre of Accessible Environments and longer-term (one year) courses such as the ‘Environmental Access’ course run by the Architectural Association.

However, where a thorough assessment of the building is needed it is normally better to employ the services of professional organizations and consultants who are experienced in this area. The Centre on Accessible Environments has an Architectural Advisory Service, based on a register of architect members with experience of access; some of whom will have experience of auditing. The Centre also has experienced auditors who will carry out assessment. A condition of registration is that the organization will give you one hour of their time free to visit the building in question and provide you with advice on how they would proceed. (They may charge travel expenses). The Arts Council of England has also compiled a directory of consultants in disability and the arts, called Off the Shelf and Into Action. The directory breaks down groups by services offered and by geographic region and is available from the Arts Council of England for approximately £ 15.

Local access groups are extremely useful in having local knowledge as well as a wide range of experienced disabled people. Some local groups are known to the planning departments of the local council, the Social Services Department and may be in the Yellow Pages.

Assistance can also be gained in the first instance from Access Officers. There are normally based in the planning department or the Chief Executive’s office of the local council. An Access Officer is given the task of implementing equal opportunities where they relate to disabled people, across a council’s services. They are an extremely good source of advice on access questions, and should be one of the first people to be consulted.

It is recommended that up to three organizations are contacted to help formulate a strategy. The strategy should be drawn up into a brief, and this can then be issued to gain comparative tenders. Most briefs of this nature will ask for the experience of the organization, measurement methodology and the criteria against which they will be measuring the building, with the output format and the likely outcomes of the survey.

Accessing facilities
Access audits fall into two different categories :

1. Audits that assess the presence of facilities for disabled people.

2. Audits that are designed to assess how well the facilities in the building will
work for disabled people.

The main types of access audits are illustrated in Figure 3.1

The first type of audit is frequently carried out by questionnaire on a ‘ticking’ basis –
i.e. the question is asked ‘Is there an accessible toilet?’ The response is entered into a tabular reporting procedure to show the presence or absence of such a facility.

The second type of audit involves a visit to the building where the nature of the facility and how well it will work for disabled people are measured. This nature of the assessment is vital to the success of an access audit. Important distinctions can be made, which a simple recording procedure cannot show. For instance, the difference between a Disabled Toilet and an Accessible Toilet lies in their layout and their ability to be used. Pure recording of the facilities will probably result in a tick for the presence of a disabled toilet, if there is a toilet with the wheelchair user symbol on the door. However, due to the poor design and layout of many of these toilets facilities, many would fail the assessment as being an Accessible Toilet because they are unusable by disabled people.

The simple recording process is unlikely to point out areas in which the facilities can be improved, other than the complete lack of facilities. The assessment of the working of the building can generate sensitive suggestions for improvement, where the improvement can be made by the ‘fine tuning’ of the building.

A description of a facility which does or does not work for disabled people will highlight the difficulties. It should also refer to the solutions required to improve the situation.

Feasibility’s studies
Feasibility studies take the information from the access audit and use the data to propose detailed architectural changes which will improve the access area noted in the audit document.

Assessment criteria
Second only to the decision to measure the working of the building is the choice of a commonly accepted criterion for measurement of the building. The reason that acknowledgement of the presence of a toilet marked with a disability symbol is not sufficient is that not all toilets are built to the same standard.


Who are disabled people?
The audits targeted group of user must be clarified at the outset. The majority of access audits carried out appear to concentrate on wheel chair use, yet this group represents only 4 per cent of the disabled population. The other 96 percent are people with mobility difficulties, sensory difficulties (such as visual disability and deafness) and learning disabilities. Most disabled people cannot be placed neatly into categories. The nature of disability is that the majority of disabled people have multiple disabilities, with the largest groups of disabled people being in the population aged over 55 years. At current estimates this group of people are 17 percent of the population, a figure which will rise to 19 percent by the year 2025.

The target group to assess therefore ranges from wheelchair users to those who may have reduced vision and who exhibit a degree of mental confusion.

Standards and specifications
With the definition of the disabled population it is important to clarify the areas of the building that will be assessed and the criteria for assessment. It is clear that the current legislative and standards documents are not comprehensive enough. Both Part M of the Building Regulations (1991) and BS 5810 are heavily biased towards the needs of wheelchair users, hardly considering sensory disabilities, and paying no reference to people with learning difficulties.














Figure 3.1 : Types of access audits available



















































The other difficulty with using documents such as Part M and BS 5819 is that they are description of minimum acceptable specifications which may allow use by disabled people (in wheelchairs). The standards make no reference to the ease of use of the facilities, not the selection and use of the fixtures and fittings required to use them.

What to assess

Attitudes

Not surprisingly, the attitudes of a building management, front-line staff and management may have more impact on disabled people using a building than the physical aspects of the building. A building that is completely accessible but staffed by people who are not welcoming, helpful and understanding of the issues around disability is likely not to be frequented by disabled people.

Assessing attitudes of the people operating a building is notoriously difficult to do. It is easier and fairly indicative to carry out a Training Audit to assess the level of disability equality training, customer care and any other specialist training that the staff may have had.

Publicity / printed material
The design of publicity and marketing information such as leaflets and posters must be sensitive and appropriate to the target market. Use of language, images and media must be accessible, including literature particularly aimed at young people with learning difficulties. It should also be noted that there is a requirement for the production of publicity in formats that include large print, tape and Braille.

Content
Content of publicity material in terms of language, images and portrayals can be assessed for their impact and appropriateness to groups of disabled people.

Layout
The layout and typographic elements contained in the publicity material determine its accessibility to people with visual and cognitive disabilities. Requirements do not necessarily prevent designers from production exciting and satisfying products.

Physical aspects
The physical aspects of a building form the core of an access audit. Areas which should typically be covered include:

Physical access

* Transport, parking, entrances, entrance matting, ramps (design, platforms, handrails, gradients and lighting)

* Doors – automatic (operation control, safety devices, operation procedure) and manual (closing forces, clear opening widths, vision panel and door furniture)

* Lighting – levels, location, glare and location of control switches.

* Short-rise lift platforms – location, size, operation, buttons and alarms

* Wheelchair stair lifts – location, type, controls and size

* Lifts – size, voice enunciation feedback, buttons, lighting and alarm telephones

* Floor finishes (carpet pile, colours, non-slip and visibility)

* Stairs – nosings, handrails, finishes and light levels

* Reception desks / box office desks

* Acoustics and acoustic treatment of spaces

Decoration

* Colours of wall, floor, ceiling and other features

* Contrasts and visual mapping

* Use of colour to distinguish and code areas

Fire escape / evacuation

* Training, escape / evacuation lifts, design of places of refuge (BS 5588 Part 8, to allow access to floors other than the ground floor) and their use, evacution procedures, evacuation routes, ‘Evac’ chairs, fire alarms (visual, tactile and auditory), fire extinguishers, automatic building protection

* The design, location and lighting of signs

* Visual fire alarm warning

* Alarm procedures and alarm / emergency response cards

Sanitary facilities

* Toilets – location, size, alarms (and alarm procedures), fittings (colours, types, location and maintenance), taps/sinks, water temperatures, doors (size, door furniture, signage and automation), sanitary disposal and light levels

* Showers – size, types, fittings, layout, floor surface, temperature, pressure and lighting

* Changing areas – location, facilities, floor surfaces and light levels

Wayfinding

* Directional signage – size, typefaces, raised lettering, heights, colours, textual and graphic, location, layout, arrows and light levels

* Maps and guides – tactile and taped

* Door / floor signs and other markings (warning)

Communications equipments

* Telephones – minicom systems, inductive couplers, alarm systems and induction loops

* Computers – information technology to assist disabled people, such as text magnification for people with a visual disability

* Tannoy and paging system

* Front of house – induction loops on box office and meeting rooms

* Alarms and alarm procedures

Refreshment / recreational facilities

* Restaurants, bars, tea bars, rest rooms, kitchen and vending areas (machines, etc.) (these are assessed under similar areas to the physical access section)

* Shops and shopping areas – size, layout cash desk, price list and labels

Health and safety

* Signs, first-aid rooms (rest room), first-aid kits and training

How to report

The report format of an access audit is crucial to the success of the proposed outcome. These were illustrated earlier in Figure 3.1

It is important to locate the team supervising the audit in a department of the company, council or authority who have an understanding of the issues involved in the audit and, more importantly, of the implementation of change. It will be this group that takes the information that has been collected in the auditing procedure and develops it into an implementation plan.

Conclusion
It is important to have a clear idea of what is being assessed and the purpose of the assessment before any work begins. The purpose of the assessment will determine the areas that are to be assessed, the reporting format and the composition of the report’s targets.

There are many consultants who can advise and carry out surveys of this nature or support internal groups undertaking their own surveys. The role of disabled people in the design of assessments and carrying them out cannot be overstressed

APPENDIX – aa

INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS WORLDWIDE AND BY REGIONS
1991-2000*

(Arrivals in Millions)

Region 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000*
WORLD
Arrivals
%Change
462.7
--
500.9
8.3
515.7
3.0
550.3
6.7
550.3
0.0
597.4
8.6
618.2
3.5
626.5
1.3
650.4
3.8
698.8
7.4
AFRICA
Arrivals
%Change
16.2
--
18.0
11.1
18.5
2.8
18.9
2.2
20.1
6.3
21.8
8.5
23.2
6.4
24.9
7.3
26.5
6.4
27.6
4.2
AMERICAS
Arrivals
%Change
95.5
--
102.3
7.1
102.1
-0.2
104.8
2.6
108.9
3.9
115.2
5.7
116.6
1.3
119.5
2.5
122.2
2.3
129.0
5.5
EAST ASIA
/ PACIFIC
Arrivals
%Change

56.4
--

64.2
13.8

71.2
10.9

76.8
7.9

81.4
6.0

89.0
9.3

88.3
- 0.8

88.0
- 0.3

97.6
10.9

111.9
14.7
EUROPE
Arrivals
%Change
282.9
--
302.3
6.9
309.9
2.5
334.8
2.5
323.4
3.4
353.7
9.4
371.1
4.9
373.7
0.7
380.2
1.7
403.3
6.1
MIDDLE EAST
Arrivals
%Change

8.4
--

10.5
25.0

10.5
0.0

11.1
5.7

12.4
11.7

13.3
7.3

14.3
7.5

15.1
5.6

18.2
20.5

20.6
13.2
SOUTH ASIA
Arrivals
%Change

3.3
--

3.6
9.1

3.5
- 2.8

3.9
11.4

4.2
7.7

4.4
4.8

4.8
9.1

5.2
8.3

5.8
11.3

6.4
10.3
SHARE OF INDIA
(in the world tourist arrivals)

0.36

0.37

0.34

0.34

0.39

0.38

0.38

0.38

0.38

0.38
* Provisional
SOURCE : World Tourism Organisation.

APPENDIX – bb

INTERNATIONAL TOURIST RECEIPTS BY REGIONS
(BILLION US $)


1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000*
WORLD
Receipts
% Annual Change
276.9
--
315.4
13.9
321.9
2.1
354.09
10.3
406.2
14.5
436.5
7.5
439.7
0.7
442.5
0.6
455.4
2.9
475.8
4.5
AFRICA
Receipts
% Annual Change
5.0
--
6.8
36.0
6.8
0.0
7.5
10.3
8.1
13.6
9.2
13.6
9.4
2.2
9.9
5.3
10.3
4.0
10.7
3.9
AMERICAS
Receipts
% Annual Change
76.7
--
83.8
9.3
89.11
6.3
93.2
4.6
99.7
7.0
110.6
10.9
116.9
5.7
117.2
0.3
122.4
4.4
136.4
11.4
EAST ASIA
/ PACIFIC
Receipts
% Annual Change

40.4
---

47.9
18.6

53.9
12.5

63.8
18.4

74.5
16.8

82.3
10.5

75.7
- 8.0

70.7
- 6.6

75.2
6.4

82.5
9.7
EUROPE
Receipts
% Annual Change
148.5
----
169.1
13.9
163.8
- 3.1
181.8
10.5
212.8
17.6
222.2
4.4
224.5
1.0
231.7
3.2
233.1
0.6
231.5
0.7
MIDDLE EAST
Receipts
% Annual Change

3.8
---

5.1
34.2

5.7
11.8

6.4
12.3

7.6
18.8

8.2
7.9

9.2
12.2

8.8
- 4.3

9.8
11.4

9.7
- 1.1
SOUTH ASIA
Receipts
% Annual Change

2.3
---

2.8
21.7

2.7
- 3.6

3.1
14.8

3.5
12.9

3.8
8.6

4.0
5.3

4.3
7.5

4.6
7.0

5.1
10.9
SHARE OF INDIA
(in the world tourist
receipts)

0.67

0.67

0.66

0.66

0.64

0.65

0.66

0.67

0.66

0.67
* Provisional
SOURCE : World Tourism Organisation.

APPENDIX – cc

ESTIMATED DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN TOURIST VISITS DURING


State / U.T. 1998 1999 2000 Prop. To the Total (%)
Domestic Foreign Domestic Foreign Domestic Foreign Domestic Foreign
Northern Region Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi,
Chandigarh
Total 53209461 2068655 57544888 2185037 63122040 2279383 30.0 37.6
Southern Region Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Pondicherry, Kerala, Lakshdweep,
Andman & Nicobar
Total 75814874 1179194 84612529 1270304 94601776 1313562 45.0 21.6
Eastern Region Bihar Orissa, Sikkim,
W. Bengal
Total 15694536 314609 16462734 309412 17594801 310638 8.4 5.1
Central & Western Region Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,
Daman & Diu, Goa
Total 22947345 1974337 3148379 2063782 33305811 2153438 15.9 35.5
North East Region Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland, Arunachal
Pradesh
Total 529784 2909 567284 3570 1489112 11788 0.7 0.2
G. Total 168196000 5539704 190671014 5832105 210113540 6068809 100.0 100.0

APPENDIX – dd
DISTRIBUTION OF APPROVED HOTELS AND ROOMS IN NORTHEAST INDIA
S. No. State / Place
5*D
5*
4*
3*
2*
1*
Heritage
Unclassified
Total
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar

--
--

--
--

--
--

--
--

--
--

--
--

--
--

1
10

1
10
Total (No. of Hotels)
(No. of Rooms)
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
1

10
1

10
Assam
Dibru Garh Guwahati Jorhat Kaziranga Sibsagar Silchar
Tinsukia
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
2
154
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
3
160
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
1
38
1
38
2
54
1
31
--
--
1
29
1
44
1
20
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
-- 1
53
--
-- 1
18
--
--
--
--
--
--
1
38
8
421
1
31
1
18
1
29
1
44
2
58
Total (No. of Hotels)
(No. of Rooms)
0

0
0

0
2

154
4

198
7

216
0

0
0

0
2

71
15

639
Manipur 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Meghalaya
Shillong
--
--
--
--
1
50
2
75
--
--
1
40
--
--
--
--
4
165
Total (No. of Hotels)
(No. of Rooms)
0

0
0

0
1

50
2

75
--

--
1

40
0

0
0

0
4

165
Mizoram
Aizawl
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
1
28
1
28
Total (No. of Hotels)
(No. of Rooms)
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
1

28
1

28

Nagaland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sikkim
Gangtok
--
--
--
--
3
104
1
29
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
4
133
Total (No. of Hotels)
(No. of Rooms)
0

0
0

0
3

104
1

29
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
4

133

APPENDIX – ee


SOURCES OF INFORMATION

The major sources of information, which influenced the tourists to visit India, were friends and relatives, general books, travel agents / tour operators, travel guides etc.


S.
No.
Country of Nationality No. of Tourists Reporting Different Sources of Information
Tele- ision Adv. Daily/ Magazine Advt. Travel Journal Travel Shows Exhib. Travel Guides General Books Friends and Relatives Travel agents/ Tour Oper. India Office Others
1 Austrialia 1 7 5 8 11 11 14 11 4 32
2 Canada 4 2 6 3 6 6 13 5 3 12
3 Germany 9 12 16 7 22 29 20 8 6 48
4 France 8 11 5 5 22 18 20 14 3 25
5 Italy 5 4 5 4 9 14 18 10 8 21
6 Japan 2 3 2 2 13 10 15 7 2 22
7 Malaysia 1 0 1 4 2 1 2 0 0 3
8 Netherlands 5 4 5 2 9 14 17 3 1 16
9 Oman 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1
10 Singapore 3 4 0 1 0 3 4 0 1 8
11 Spain 1 2 3 2 7 6 9 4 3 6
12 Sweden 0 2 5 2 8 3 4 8 0 10
13 Switzerland 3 3 3 2 7 11 13 11 2 3
14 Thailand 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
15 UAE 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
16 U.K. 38 56 78 63 134 116 147 160 35 151
17 U.S.A. 12 22 17 12 42 51 67 33 9 88
18 Others 23 30 19 23 44 71 79 33 13 106
Total 115 162 170 141 336 365 445 309 90 553

APPENDIX – ff


THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE ACTION PLAN ON TOURISM


The National Wildlife Action Plan makes the following points on the issue of Tourism:

1. Tourism demands must be subservient to and in consonance with the conservation interests of Protected Areas (PA) and wildlife

2. Eco-tourism must primarily involve and benefit local communities

3. Develop national guidelines on tourism within PAs. Ways of benefiting local people directly by tourism should be specified in the guidelines

4. Develop tourism management plans for each PA. Also conduct surveys of existing accommodation and tourist facilities within PAs

5. The Wildlife Institute of India should develop impact assessment techniques and standards that can be used by PA managers to evaluate the negative impacts of tourism on soil, water resources, vegetation, animal life, sanitation or waste disposal and cultural environments

6. Develop stringent standards of waste disposal, energy and water consumption and construction plans and materials used therein

7. A ceiling of the number of tourists and tourist vehicles permitted to enter the PA should be specified. The PA managers must be empowered to use their discretion in closing off certain areas of the PA, for example, an area where a tiger has littered

8. Set up State and Union Territory eco-tourism advisory boards that will regulate tourism activities. Representatives of local people living near PAs, local NGOs and PA managers to be a part of these boards to develop and regulate tourism activities

APPENDIX – gg

LIST OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT COLLABORATION

Ministry of Agriculture- Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region

Ministry of Commerce & Industries- Agricultural & Processed Food Products Exports Development Authority (APEDA), Industrial Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)

Ministry of Communication & Information Technology- National Information Centre (NIC), Department of Tele Communication (DOT)

Ministry of Defence- Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), GREF

Ministry of Environment & Forests- Central Zoo Authority (CZI), Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Medicinal Plant Board, Forest Development Agencies (Joint Forest Management Committees & Eco-development Committees)

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare- Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homeopathy

Ministry of Home Affairs- Northeast Council (NEC)

Ministry of Human Resource Development- Department of Education, Department of Women & Child Development

Ministry of Information & Broadcasting

Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources- Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA)

Ministry of Road Transport & Highway

Ministry of Rural Development- Council of Advancement of People’s Action & Rural Technology (CAPART), National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD)

Ministry of Science & Technology- Department of Science and Industrial Research, Institute of Himalayan Bio-resources Technology (IHBT)

Ministry of Small Scale Industries & Agro & Rural Industries

Ministry of Textiles- Handloom Export Promotion Council (HEPC), Handicraft & Handloom Export Corporation (HHEC)

Ministry of Tourism & Culture- Archaeological Survey of India, National Culture Fund, Department of Tourism

Ministry of Tribal Affairs Ministry of Water Resources
Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports

APPENDIX – hh

LIST OF INSTITUTIONAL FUNDING AGENCIS FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT


Indian Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs):

Infosys Foundation Pirojsha Godrej foundation Reliance Foundation
J.R.D. Tata Trust
Tata Sons Ltd. & various Trusts Wildlife Trust of India
K. Mahindra Foundation


International Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs):

Aga Khan Foundation
Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada Asian Cultural Council
AT & T Foundation Aurora Foundation Environmental Trust Ford Foundation
Foundation for Deep Ecology Gates Foundation
Global Conservation Fund (Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation) Goldman Environment Foundation
International Fund for Animal Welfare Kellog Foundation
MacArther Foundation
National Geographic Foundation
Paul Getty Allen Forest Protection Foundation Paul Getty Trust
Smithsonian Institute The Asia Foundation The Carnegie Foundation
The Rockfeller Foundation
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), International

International Government Agencies:

Department of Environmental Research & Social Sciences, Germany German Ministry of Development Co-operation
National Environment Research Council (NERC), UK Netherlands Development Organisation
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (Earth & Life Science) Swiss National Foundation, Switzerland
The Research Council of Norway (Environment & Development)
The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agriculture & Spatial Planning, Sweden
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) United Kingdom Department of International Development
United States Department of Fish & Wildlife US Global Change Research Programme, USA


Inter Governmental Organisations (IGOs):

Conservation International
Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) Department for International Development (DFID), UK Environment Programme of European Commission Environment Protection Agency, USA
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
India Canada Environment Facility (ICEF)
Indo-Dutch Programme on Alternatives in Development (IDPAD) Indo-Norwegian Environment Programme (INEP)
International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (IBRD)
International Relations Council (Social Science & Humanities Research), Canada International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Japanese Bank for International Co-operation (JBIC) National Natural Science Foundation of China Overseas Development Administration (ODA)
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNCF)
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

REFERENCES:

Agarwal A. K. et al, 1991, Political & Economic Development of Mizoram, Mittal Publications
Aier Y., 1973, Folk Tales of Nagaland
Aier Y., 1973, The Nagaland of tomorrow and Her educated youth
Ao M. A., 1968, The Arts & Crafts of Nagaland, Naga Institute of Culture
Ao M. A., 1970, A Brief Historical Account of Nagaland, Naga Institute of Culture Barthew W. B., 1994, A Perspective Plan for Conservation, Management and Development of Land Resources for 2000 A.D., Ministry of Agriculture
Bhatia A. K., 2002, Tourism Development – Principles & Practices, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi
Bhatia A. K., 2001, International Tourism Management, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi
Bhattacharjee P. K., 2001, Provisional Population Totals-Paper 1 & 2, Controller of Publications, New Delhi
Bhattacharya S., 1992, From Jhuming to Tapping, Dept. of Welfare fro Sch. Tribes, Tripura
Carson L. H., 1927, Pioneer Trails, Trials and Triumphs, Reprinted (1997) by Dept. of Art & Culture, Mizoram
Cater & Lowman, 1994, Ecotourism-A Sustainable Option?, John Wiley & Sons, UK Central Young Mizo Asson., 1994, Constitution of Y. M. A., Aizwal, Mizoram Chatterji N., 1979, Monoliths & Landmarks of Mizoram, Tribal Research Institute, Aizawl
Das J. N., 1986, Study of the Land Systems of the Northeastern Region, Law Research Institute
Das P., 1997, Wild Edible Plants of Tripura Tribes, Tribal Cultural Research Institute & Museum, Tripura
Dev Varman S. B. K., 1971, A Study over the Jhum and Jhumia rehabilitation in Tripura, Dept. of Welfare of Sch. Tribes and Sch. Castes, Govt. of Tripura
Dev Varman S. B. K., 1986, The Tribes of Tripura, Directorate of Research, Tripura Debbarma K., 1994, Tribal Folk Medicine of Tripura, Tribal Research Institute, Tripura
Dept. of Agriculture, Mizoram, 1999, Agriculture Handbook of Mizoram, Govt. of Mizoram
Dept. of Agriculture & Minor Irrigation, Mizoram, 2001, Statistical Abstract, Directorate of Agriculture and Minor Irrigation
Dept. of Art & Culture, 2000, Various brochures, Govt. of Mizoram
Dept. of Environment & Forests, Mizoram, 2001, Handbook cum diary, Linkman Publications, West Bengal
Dept. of Environment of Forests, Mizoram, 2000, Wildlife Series- brochures, Wildlife Division, Mizoram
Dept. of Tourism, GOI, 2001, National Tourism Policy – 2002, Ministry of Tourism & Culture
Dept. of Tourism, GOI, 2002, Annual Report, 2001 – 2002, Ministry of Tourism & Culture
Dept. of Tourism, GOI, 2001, Tourist Statistics – 2000, Ministry of Tourism & Culture

Dept. of Tourism, GOI, 2002, Tourist Arrivals in India, Highlights – 2001, Ministry of Tourism & Culture
Dept. of Tourism, Nagaland, 2001, Tourism Policy – 2001, Govt. of Nagaland Director of Art & Culture, 1989, Mizoram District Gazetteers, Govt. of Mizoram Director General, MOT, 1998, Ecotourism in India, Policy & Guidelines, Ministry of Tourism, GOI
Directorate of Animal Husbandry, Mizoram, 1997, Report on 16th Quinquennial Livestock Census of Mizoram, Govt. of Mizoram
Directorate of Economics & Statistics, 2000, Census of Government Employees, Govt. of Mizoram
Directorate of Horticulture, Mizoram, 2001, Horticulture of Mizoram at a Glance,
Govt. of Mizoram
Elwin V., 1959, The Art of the Northeast Frontier of India Elwin V., 1969, The Nagas in the Nineteenth Century, OUP Epao V., 1991, From Naga animism to Christianity
Faulkner et al, 2001, Tourism in the Twenty-first Century, Continuum, London Fischer C E C, 1978, The flora of the Lushai Hills, Tribal Research Institute Ganguli M., 1984, A Pilgrimage to the Nagaland, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Gokhale A M et al, 1985, The Use of Alder Tees, Education Dept., Nagaland Govt. of Mizoram, 1988-, Administration Reports (1987 - 88, 1988 – 89)
Govt. of Mizoram, 1989, Mizoram District Gazetteers, Dept. of Art & Culture Govt. of Mizoram, 2001, Mizoram Information Booklet, Dept. of Information & Public Relations, Mizoram
Govt. of Mizoram, 2001, Report of Integrated sample survey for estimation of Production of Milk, Egg and Meat for the year 2000-2001,Directorate of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary, Mizoram
Govt. of Nagaland, 19 , Nagaland District Gazetteers
Govt. of Tripura, 1975, Tripura District Gazetteers, Dept. of Education, Tripura Govt. of Tripura, 1992- TUI, Journal on Tribal Life & Culture, Tribal Research Institute
Guha Thakurta S. N., 1999, India – The Land & People – Tripura, National Book Trust
Iralu K. D., 2001, How then shall we live?, Iralu, Kohima
Jamir A. M. T., 2002, General knowledge – Naga Hills to Nagaland, Jamir, Kohima Holden A., 2000, Environment and Tourism, Routledge, London
Horam R., 1998, The Genesis of the Naga Political Movement, Mrs. Horam, Manipur Inst. of Highways & Transportation, 1999, Guidelines for Planning for Public Transport in Development, HQ Design & Print, England
James Holmes-Siedle, 1996, Barrier-free Design, A manual for designers & Managers, Butterworth Architecture, Oxford
Khutsoh W., 2000, Tourism scenario and its potentiality in Nagaland, Khutosh, Guwahati, Assam
Laiba M. T., 1992, The Geography of Manipur, Public Book Store, Imphal, Manipur Lalchuailova, 2001, Aizawl Guide Book, Tribal Research Institute, Mizoram Lalchungnunga, 1994, Mizoram: Politics of Regionalism & National Integration, Reliance Publishing House
Luikham R., 1983, Folk Lore & Tales of the Nagas, Emmanuel Publishers, New Delhi Long J., 1850, Analysis of the Rajmala, Tribal Cultural Research Inst. & Museum, Tripura

Lorrain R., 1912, Five Years in Unknown Jungles, Lakher Pioneer Mission, London, Reprint (1988) by Tribal Research Institute, Mizoram
MoEF, GOI, 1994, Handbook of Environmental Procedures & Guidelines, ENVIS Nagaland Board of School Education, 2001, Nagaland (Text book for classes 9 & 10) Nath N. C., 1999, Sri Rajmala, Vol I – IV (Translation), Tribal Research Institute, Tripura
North Eastern Council, 2002, Statistics of North Eastern Region, NEC North Eastern Council, 1995-, Journals of the North Eastern Council, NEC
Planning & Programme Implementation Dept., 2001, Draft Tenth Five Year Plan (2002- 2007) & Annual Plan (2002-2003), Govt. of Mizoram
Prakash Singh, 2001, Kohima to Kashmir, Rupa & Co., New Delhi Ramkrishnan P. S., 1992, Shifting Agriculture & Sustainable Development – An Interdisciplinary Study from Northeastern India, UNESCO
Saigal J. R., 2000, Pakistan Splits – The Birth of Bangladesh, Manas Publications Sangkima, 1992, Mizos: Society & Social Change, Spectrum Publications Sapuchangkija et al, 1992, Orchids of Nagaland, Forest Department, Nagaland Sen S., 19 , Tribes of Nagaland
Seth P. N. et al, 2000, An Introduction to Travel & Tourism, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi
Singh D., 1996, The last frontier – People and forests in Mizoram, TERI
Singh K. S. et al, 1994, People of India – National Series, Anthropological Survey of India (ASI)
Singh K. S. et al, 1994, People of India – State Series, Nagaland, ASI Singh K. S. et al, 1995, People of India – State Series, Mizoram, ASI Singh K. S. et al, 1996, People of India – State Series, Tripura, ASI Singh L. I., 1987, Introduction to Manipur, Singh I. S., Imphal, Manipur
Singh P., 1995, India – The Land & People – Nagaland, National Book Trust
Tribal Research Institute, 1993, Guide to Mizoram, Part I-IV, Dept. of Art & Culture Tyagi D. K., 1997, Tribal Folk Tales of Tripura, Tripura State Tribal Cultural Research Institute & Museum
Thansanga R. et al, 1999, Soils of Mizoram, Directorate of Agriculture, Mizoram Telem I. K., 2002, General Knowledge of Manipur, Telem S., Imphal, Manipur Tom Turner, 1998, Landscape Planning & Environmental Impact Design, UCL Press, London
Upadhyaya K. K., 1986, Development Problems & Prospects of Mizoram, Inter India Vidyarthi L. P., 1993, Art & Culture of Northeast India, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. of India
Young G., 2001, Indo – Naga war – A journalist account (1961), Gase Publications, Viphuora

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF TOURISM AND CULTURE
DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM MARKET RESEARCH DIVISION





20 YEARS PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE STATE OF MIZORAM

(January 2003)
CONSULTANTS ‘THE DESIGNERS’
‘BRINDAVAN’, 227, RAJ MAHAL VILAS EXTN. II FIRST MAIN ROAD
BANGALORE, KARNATAKA – 560 094
PHONE: 080 – 3417366, TELEFAX: 080 – 3417283
E-MAIL: < the_designers@vsnl.net >, < ulhasrane@vsnl.net >

News Portal, Glarepost

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • YouTube

© 2020 by GLAREPOPST.