Arunachal Pradesh Tourism Policy

Tourism Development Plan Arunachal Pradesh February 2010






Prepared by:
Heritage Tourism Division Supported by:
Indian National Trust for Ministry of Tourism
Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) Government of India
New Delhi New Delhi


Submitted to Ministry of Tourism, Government of India February 2010







Prepared by

Heritage Tourism Division
Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH)



Consultant
Afro-Asian Development Consortium




Acknowledgments:

INTACH would like to extend their thanks to the following persons:


1. Mr. Sanjay Kothari, Additional Secretary, Department of Tourism, Government of India

2. Dr. R.N. Pandey, Addition Director General, Department of Tourism, Government of India

3. Ms. Bandhana Deori, Secretary Tourism and Urban Development, Government of Arunachal Pradesh

4. Mr. A.K. Singh, Director Tourism, Government of Arunachal Pradesh


4. Mr. Ashok Madhukar, Principal Advisor, Afro-Asian Development Consortium


5. Mr. Rajiv Chawla, Consultant


6. Mr. Arun Gupta, Advisor, INTACH




Acknowledgments Contents
Executive Summary Preface

Contents



Page No.


Chapter 1 Present Tourism and Future Trends
Global Scenario 34
National Scenario State Scenario
Arunachal Pradesh Tourism Policy- 2003
Chapter 2 Development Paradigm
Development Perspective 52
National Tourism Policy Development Approach and Strategy Development Matrix
Chapter 3 State Profile
Natural Resources 66
District Profiles:
- Places of Tourist Interest
- Tourist Facilities and Accommodations
Tawang
West Kameng East Kameng Papum Pare Kurung Kummey Lower Subansiri Upper Subansiri West Siang
East Siang Upper Siang
Lower Dibang Valley Dibang Valley
Lohit Anjaw Changlang Tirap
People and Culture (Livelihood and Lifestyle etc.) Festivals

Handlooms and Crafts
Handlooms- Present Scenario
Strategy for development of Handlooms Crafts
Strategy for development of Crafts Products and By-products
Development Strategy for Cane and Bamboo
Carpets
Chapter 4 Tourism Promotion Tourism Market Overview Proposed Marketing Strategy Public Relations
Present Marketing Efforts Marketing Objectives Tourist Circuits Promotion Programme
Tourist Information Services Network Strategy
Sales Promotion
Other promotional issues
111
Chapter 5 Human Resource Development for Tourism
Human Capital and Tourism Industry
HRD Tourism Sector of Arunachal Pradesh Important Issues for HRD Planning
Formal and specialized Education Scope for HRD
HRD Initative
Capacity Building through Formal Education Training Courses
125
Chapter 6 Strategic Approach
India Northeast Region Vision 2020 Arunachal Pradesh State
Tourism Sector – Capital Intensity Tourism Sector – Force Multiplier
Tourism Development – Economic Activity Economic Growth Targets
Tourism Growth Targets Projected Tourist Arrivals
Projected Tourist Arrivals per capita Environment
The Road Ahead
Create new Infrastructure and Markets Brand Build Up
134

Chapter 7 Strategic Direction Strategic Directions Role of Technology Demand Driven
INTACH Hospitality Field Survey Plan Development Process Tourist’s Planning Process Tourism Perspective
Sustainable Tourism
Tourism Sector – Enabling Policy
145
Chapter 8 Strategic Initiatives
The Role of the State
159
Tourism – A strategic sector for development of Arunachal Pradesh
Past Development Initiatives and Current needs The Missing Links: Skills
Tourism Growth Planning Strategic Initiatives Proposed Growth Driver Projects
Demonstration Projects – Tourism Sector
Growth Driver Projects – Strategic Start Up Projects Investment Strategy
Growth Driver Projects – State Initiative Projects Resource Mobilization – Funds
North-eastern Council Schemes
North-eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited Government of Arunachal Pradesh – Schemes
Banks
Financial Institutions Institutional Investors Equity
Investment Workshop
Ministry of Tourism – Extract of Specific Schemes Resource Mobilization – Private Sector
Resource Mobilization – Human Resource Development Implementation Plan
Sustainability
Cost Recovery and Risk Management
Chapter 9 Key Achievements
Employment Generation
230
Key Achievements Direct (Tangible) Key Achievements Direct (Intangible) Key Achievements Indirect

Appendix A Agreement between INTACH and Ministry of Tourism, Government of India Appendix B Outline for Development of Tourism Plan for Arunachal Pradesh

Tourism Development Plan - Arunachal Pradesh Executive Summary

Tourism is service-oriented sector which has made rapid strides globally in terms of gross revenue and foreign exchange earnings. The tourism industry generates more employment opportunities (particularly in remote and backward areas) as well as develops necessary infrastructure like roads and telecom in the economy.
The tourism sector stimulates other economic sectors through its backward and forward linkage and cross-sectional synergies with sectors like agriculture, horticulture, poultry, handicrafts, transport and construction. It contributes to the national integration; preserves natural and cultural environment; as well as enriches social and cultural lives of the people. It has the capacity to create substantial job opportunities, particularly for unskilled and semi-skilled workers as well as to alleviate the poverty in the country.
Tourism gives a financial incentive to preserve architectural heritages and helps the survival of art forms, crafts and culture. It is a composite of service providers, both public and private, which includes travel agents and tour operators; air, rail, and sea transportation operators; guides; owners of hotels and guest houses and inns, restaurants and shops; etc.
The state has very low volume of tourism both of domestic and overseas areas. The most important determinant of foreign tourist arrival has been the permit system to enter the State. The tourist traffic is directly related to determine of infrastructure in the State and upliftment of the local communities to handle tourist traffic. Arunachal Pradesh Tourism Policy – 2003 emphasizes:

- Citizen Government Partnership
- Public – Private Partnership
- Tourism Investment Policy
- Government’s own initiatives
To develop tourism industry as an Engine of Growth and harness its potential for the benefit of the people of Arunachal Pradesh.
The Department for Development of North Eastern Region (DONER), regional bodies like the North Eastern Council (NEC) have the mandate to accelerate the pace of socio-economic development in the North Eastern Region as well as to synergies the efforts of the Central and State Governments for balanced growth of the region.
Arunachal Pradesh is endowed with splendid natural beauty, flora/fauna and rich cultural heritage, which are prime assets for tourism to take place but one finds development in tourism sector as not taken place in State. Keeping in mind the requirement to provide economic opportunities to the local communities as also the need to preserve the fragile eco-system and the ethnic identity of the people, tourism development plan has been designed to achieve both eco as well as cultural sustainability.


We have adopted the development paradigm enunciated by Mahatma Gandhi. We have suggested the development of tourism to be linked with the local community through their mobilization and organization. Mahatama Gandhi mobilized and organized the Indian society to achieve political rights, thereby getting freedom from the British Yoke.
Sustainable tourism plan for Arunachal Pradesh has been prepared to strengthen primary sector (agriculture and allied activities) and secondary sector (manufacturing and mining) for rapid inputs and raw materials in order to improve overall productivity of the economy. The development of the tertiary sector in turn gives a fillip to the primary as well as the secondary sectors from the respective sources to the production centers and from the production centres to the warehouses/wholesale/terminal markets.
The focus is given to local community mobilization for the development of tourism awareness, brand development through tourism promotion, setting up tourist city center, wayside amenities, accommodation, city tours and tour packages. INTACH proposed product portfolio for the plan - Cultural, Nature/Eco, Rural, Adventure, Wildlife and Forest, Leisure and Wellness Tourism for the State.
Natural and cultural heritage of the State are main resources for development of tourism through which proper destination and product planning. Trekking, mountaineering, wildlife tourism, river rafting and other water sports as well as its peaceful retreats can be promoted under such pristine natural environment.
The built resources (indigenous architecture) such as archaeological and historical sites and monuments as well as unique ethnic living heritage (socio-cultural), ethno medicine of the state expressed through festivals and handicraft are strong factors to attract tourist around the globe. It has been identified that the State is not well connected with other States of India; roads are to be improved and there is no adequate way side amenities and accommodation at the places of interest of the State. Two lanes of the road should be built to provide better infrastructure in encouraging the tourism of the State.
There are about 82 (Indo-Mongoloid) tribes inhabiting different part of the Arunachal Pradesh speaking different dialects and major sub-tribes are only fourteen. The communities of the State excel in textile weaving, carpet making, cane and bamboo work, wood carving, ivory and pottery work. All the communities make their own clothing. Each ethnic group has a distinct style and fashion reflected in the shape and size of the dresses besides found in the fabric, colour, embroidery ornament and head gears etc. Most of the tribes also prepare, favour and use traditional medicines for themselves. Each district has its own festivals.
The acne and bamboo craft strengths of the State offer an exciting and feasible starling point for the development of entrepreneurial attitudes essential for the overall development of the State supported by the tertiary sector initiatives. Mask carving is now a declining art. Few masks are stored in villages and a mask is replaced only when broken. With a decline in custom, few craftsmen have remained, restricted to Kameng.

Tourism to Arunachal Pradesh needs to be promoted by an aggressive and well coordinated marketing strategy and to be successful as a Brand in the market place. The State can be a strong contender for hosting international events on Cultural and Heritage tourism, Eco-

tourism, Adventure tourism. Tourism linked activities and programmes of regional associations, like, SAARC, BIMST-EC and SAARC Adventure Camp held in Darjeeling in West Bengal can be held in Arunachal Pradesh, which has immense potential for adventure tourism. The proposed tourism Board should take up these issues with the Ministries of Tourism, Culture, Youth Affairs and Sports and the External Affairs of the Government of India for organizing such events.
Arunachal Pradesh has diverse attraction for the development of tourism to identify strategic circuits for which effective marketing strategies are required to be worked out for promotion of tourism. The product portfolio offered for promotion of the State tourism conceived seven broad categories of tourism typologies viz. Cultural, Nature/Eco, Rural, Adventure, Wildlife and Forest, Leisure and Wellness Tourism. Marketing involves several activities – establishing the marketing objectives; formulating the marketing strategy; preparing and implementing the promotion programme; and providing tourist information services. Marketing planning can be done for both international and domestic tourists and a combination of these.
Arunachal Pradesh being unexplored State, connectivity and accommodation are important factor, which need to form part of tourism product so that people are informed. Fairs and festivals, tribal games, handicraft, sunrise experience, border flag meeting etc. should be linked with accommodation so that tourism product could have a meaning for people to come and stay at various locations in the State. Tourists are required a line permit through State Department of Home, therefore, it deters them visiting the State. This may be looked into and tourists need not be asked for the inner line permit.
Major cultural activities focusing around the religious festivals, like, Dance, Musical nights, Open-air Evening Cultural programmes should be organized where the tourists’ participation should be encouraged. There should also be a system of awarding Prize to the participations. Some other events specific to Arunachal’s tradition and culture should also be organized.
Marketing of Arunachal Pradesh as a tourist destination is fairly at a low key with low promotional visibility. Print media, electronic media and event based promotions, like, festivals, fairs and exhibitions are included in marketing efforts. Eco-tourism in the different geo-climatic zones of the State should be emphasized promoting the tourism of the State.
Tourism as a major engine for growth and to harness its direct and multiplier effects for employment and poverty alleviation in an environmentally sustainable manner, human resource development constitutes a key area in tourism planning. This increases productivity and efficiencies in the hospitality functions and to provide sustainable employment opportunities in the areas where options for other gainful avocations are limited.
Specialized and professional manpower are required for different sub-sector of the travel and hospitality industry related to tourism. Employment opportunities (direct and indirect) will be generated in the tourism sector. A well designed plan for capacity building and manpower training local, regional, national and international experiences will help make tourism development successful.

An efficient manpower base would help in promoting the economic, social, cultural and the environment objectives. Awareness, training, education, research and management activities for different stakeholders groups will be incorporated in the development of human resources. Manpower training may be provided through formal education system as well as tailor-made

workshops and awareness programmes. Major service providers from the formal education system to the tourism industry in the State will be tagged with the main course of action for tourism development. For example, Rajiv Gandhi University has started three years back 1-year
P.G. Diploma in Hotel Management and Tourism.
Human Resource Development initiatives for promoting and developing education programmes can enhance awareness about nature conservation and sustainable use, local and indigenous cultures and their relationship with tourism. Capacity building through formal and specialized training should be a part of the planning exercise.
Various types of vocational courses should be organized on different tourism related subjects for various stakeholders, like, tour operators, taxi, operators, hoteliers, guides, personnel in the hotel and catering services and media.

Strategic Plan
Tourism Sector

The tourism sector provides incentives to foster the quality of environment, generates more employment opportunities (particularly in remote and backward areas) as well as develops necessary infrastructure facilities like roads, telecom and medical services, in the economy

Tourism Sector Growth

• Foreign Tourists: This segment shows a CAGR of 13% for tourist arrivals and CAGR of approximately 25% in terms of foreign exchange earnings. These numbers also show better realization per tourist of 2400 US Dollars in 2007 from 1780 US Dollars in 2004 a CAGR of approximately 10.5%.
• Domestic Tourists: The numbers of domestic tourists in India have also grown phenomenally over this period from 366.23 million in 2004 to an estimated 462 million in 2006. It has further grown to 526 million in 2007 giving a CAGR of more than 11%
Contribution of the Tourism Sector

• India: The contribution of tourism in GDP of the country has been 5.90 per cent in 2003- 04, while employment in tourism sector (both direct and indirect) has been 41.8 million in the same year, thus accounting for 8.78 per cent of total employment in the country.
• Arunachal Pradesh: The following table shows the sustained, positive and reassuring growth of the tourist traffic in Arunachal Pradesh over the 3 year period from 2006 to 2008 after the sudden jump in the tourist traffic in 2004. The foreign tourist arrival, about 2 % of all tourists, has also shown a very high growth rates: 50-75% over the same periods though the numbers are small.

Tourist 2006 2007 2008 CAGR
(2004 base year)
Arunachal
Domestic 80137 91100 89292*2 22.47%

Arunachal -
Foreign 706 2212 3020 50%-75%
Arunachal
Total 80843 93312 92392 22.5%

Strategic Approach

“Tourism Development is an “Economic Activity with Social Impact”

Tourism Growth Targets

Tourism, as a growth driver for the state and direct impact on the trade sector, needs to contribute at least to the regional average of 13% and we would like to set a target of 10% for this sectors contribution to GSDP. We are taking a conservative and sustainable approach for target setting and planning for the increase at:

• CAGR of 15% in the numbers
• CAGR of 10% in the spend per tourist.
In order to achieve these targets we will have to:

• Build the Brand and facilitate tourist
• Improve activities and opportunities for the tourist to spend
Projected Tourist Arrivals

Tourist 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Domestic 118087 135800 156171 179596 206536
Foreign 3994 4593 5282 6074 6985
Total 122081 140393 161453 185670 213521

The Road Ahead

The tourism development plan to achieve the above key objectives and have a significant impact in the medium term of 3-5 years will be based upon the following principle:

• Build Upon the Existing – short to medium term initiatives
• Create New Infrastructure and Markets- medium to long term initiatives
• "Brand Build Up" plan to be launched by the State

Strategic Directions

The Tourism Development Plan is “Need Based” and “Tourist Centric.”

What is the guiding principle?

• Benefit to the state and its people – income transfer and distributive character.
• Sustainable in respect of both tangible and intangible assets.
What is the Plan expected to deliver?

• Initiatives for building the tourism sector for its contribution to the economic growth and employment needs of the state
• Ensure tourism related businesses and investments are viable and sustainable
• Key initiatives for the next 3-5 years
• Competitive approach to the tourism market
• Collaborative effort of all the stakeholders and consultation process between the Government, Industry and the Civil Society for the design, implementation, ownership, participation and achievement of set objectives.
• Sustainable for the protection of the environment and culture of the people

Role of Technology

a) A real time data base is to be created for tracking developments and take corrective action to meet the objectives and targets therein.
b) Enhance the role of affordable and appropriate technology to meet the needs of market access (information & reservations etc), knowledge ( skills etc) and funds (on line payments etc).
Demand Driven - Need Based Plan

In order to maximize our returns we need to address the gaps in the system for the tourism infrastructure and facilities. “TIME” spent provides the opportunity for the tourist to spend some money at the tourist site / destination visited and facilitate the income transfer to the area

Connectivity: Guwahati airport is the gateway for air connectivity has to be well equipped to facilitate high end tourists visiting the state. There is also an urgent need to connect Itanagar, Tawang, Ziro , Passighat etc with by regular air services. Regional airline network would also facilitate regional tour packages and Intra - region movement of the tourists. Currently the tourist is at the mercy of the service provider for the quality of service and the price. The situation is almost the same at the railway station and the bus terminus.


Roads & Facilities: The entry to Arunachal Pradesh on the Guwahati-Tawang sector has to be made impressive as it is the key route and also vital for the Brand development. Bus / Taxi service with air conditioned vehicles and fixed rates have to be introduced for the Guwahati- Tawang sector. Wayside facilities are to be added on all routes as they are inadequate today.

Hotels: A key need is the availability of clean and secure accommodation, more so in the case of eco-tourism and village tourism.. In the current environment the tour operators have to move

full camp sites to cater to the needs of the foreign tourists who are the mainstay of special interest tourism. Itanagar, capital of the state, has to enhance its availability of rooms. Towns on Circuits 1 and 2 need special attention in view of their high tourism potential. The standard of the entire hotel industry in the state needs to be improved. The quality of the hotel and restaurant industry with proper grading is vital. The staff needs to be trained for all the services in the hospitality sector and also given proper attire.

Travel Agents Awareness & Training Program: There is a need for the training of the travel agents in the key areas of the current and emerging market states of India besides the dominant domestic tourist state of West Bengal. The well equipped travel agent can better promote the state as a destination.

Special Interest Groups: Special packages are to be developed for this segment of the tourist market as this attracts mostly the foreigners. The packages besides the eco-tourism, wild life tourism, river rafting would cover community living experience and hospitality in their traditional environments.

Local Participation & Skills Development: for the success of the tourism development and the comfort of the tourists the local community should take the ownership of the facilities and also the skills of the local youth are to be developed for meeting the needs of the tourism sector.

Strategic Initiatives

Role of the State: State plays a crucial role in the development process and with the basic policies in place, the state has now to act as:

• “Agent of Change” beyond the role of a facilitator and a regulator
• Trigger Private Sector, including communities, based investment
• Promote “Public-Private-Community Partnership” for the economic development of the state
• “Participatory Approach” to bring about ownership and sustainability in the development initiatives
• Create an “Entrepreneurial” society to reduce dependence on either Government jobs or grant driven projects for State GDP and employment generation


The need of the hour is to create “Delivery Mechanisms” to deliver the intent of the policy. Need based “Strategic Initiatives” proposed by us are targeted to fill this gap to sustain and enhance the contribution of the tourism sector.

Past Development Initiatives & Current Needs

The Government of Arunachal Pradesh has taken up various initiatives in the past for the development of the tourism sector. These initiatives have included destinations, circuits and wayside amenities and funded, almost all, by different schemes of the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and negligible amount from states own resources. The private sector participation has been at an extremely low profile due to early stage of private sector and

entrepreneurship development in the state. Poor access to credit and land regulations have also been a limiting factor.

Based upon information received from the State Tourism Department, shows the investment trends for the last 5 years have been less than 1% of the state GDP and almost all from the Central Government Grants.

The major driver for tourism during this period has been the air fare eligibility for LTC travelers of the government and public sector employees to travel to the states in the North East. It is expected to keep this incentive till the growth stabilizes and the stimulus may not be required.

The Missing Links:

Infrastructure: In the absence of a State Tourism Strategic Plan, Comprehensive Tourism Policy (current & updated- last made in 2003), Destination Development (facilities at the specific tourist sites) most of the projects are encouraged by the different Grant Schemes of the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and with very little linkages for the tourism infrastructure on a holistic and demand driven basis. The resources are thinly spread and show low quality and capacity to service high paying tourists as well as high end budget tourists as the expectations are way beyond what is being offered.

The current infrastructure does not allow the tourists to spend money for accommodation, at destinations, entertainment, shopping and restricts the income transfer for the benefit of the people in the state. The poor infrastructure and low capacity also inhibits the travel and tour trade to take aggressive stance to promote tourism.

Land: is the most critical issue in the development of the tourism infrastructure. The complex and unresolved issue of land ownership and lease by the private sector is the single biggest barrier to investments by the local or outside the state investors. It also does not allow the projects to access funds from the financial institutions and / or banks, even if they are viable and sustainable.

Connectivity: The most important need of connectivity – telecom and internet for information, communication and confirmations etc is not included in these projects

Roads: Tourism depends on the basic infrastructure of roads and these leave a lot to be desired. In some areas of interest to high paying tourists the roads are almost nonexistent as they are of extremely BAD quality and back breaking. Good quality road connectivity to destinations is a pre-requisite and non-negotiable.

Skills: The need of the “Human Resource Skills” starts at the level of information and facilitation be it at the tourist originating states with needs for holiday or a business visit planning or at the gateways to the state for the tourist (airports, rail heads, road transport stations
- bus & taxi) to reach their destinations in the state for their holiday or business.
Arunachal, being a hill state the dominant means for transport is the road transport system .The bus and taxi drivers are the first ambassadors for the state that interacts with the tourists and the behaviour of help or exploitation decides the impressions the tourist carries. This is important as the word of mouth is the best advertisement and supports all efforts for “Brand” development.

The grossly inadequate and poor wayside amenities and the eating houses (dhabas included) on the route also create a lasting impression for the facilities the state is providing for the tourists. The most common need of a clean and functional toilet is yet to be met. We have to train the people and create a mind set to benchmark their infrastructure and services such that it makes the journey pleasant.

The rash highway driving is full of near misses and does not add to any comfort of the tourist as the fear of an accident is always upper most in the mind of a traveler.

The lack of highway / city information support system leaves the tourist in the lurch.

Current and relevant route and city maps are essential and should be available at all gateways and other visible pick up points at the commonly visited places by the tourist. A special cadre of Tourist Police, well informed and trained will go a long distance to meet this need.

Low cost information leaflets/ brochures etc are required at the destinations / sites on the itinerary of the tourist to enrich the visit and also ensure time is spent at these stops. There is an urgent need for well trained and certified guides at such stops.

We also need to upgrade the skill set of the service providers at these tourist destinations and sites, be it the tea stall, fruit vendor or a handicraft seller.

Tourism Segment Growth Planning

Strategic planning is a dynamic process and it is recommended that the plan be reviewed every 3 years based upon the trends visible in the 2nd year.

Strategic Initiatives proposed are of 2 types:
1. Start Up: Strategic Initiatives that are basic and need to be in place over a reasonable period of time (5 years) and the quality and content updated from time to time based upon baseline studies and feedback. Some of these initiatives, to be taken up on priority, are to trigger private sector and community participation by demonstration effect of the government initial investments, either through central government grant funds, state funds, PPP etc. The following are some examples:
a. Brand Development for the State
b. Information & Facilitation Centers
c. Skills Development & Capacity Building
d. Tourist City Centers
e. Inns/ Guest Houses in low traffic areas
f. Rural Tourism
g. Home Stay-Rural Area
h. Tourism Sector Investment Opportunity Profiles
i. Tourism Cluster Promotion

The state has abundant forest resources with a large variety of flora and fauna. It is recommended that a Task Force be created for the development of “Wild Life Tourism

– Community Based”. Department of Forest would be a key partner and knowledge resource in the Task Force.

2. Tourist Infrastructure Capacity

These initiatives are to be primarily taken by the private sector and the community with appropriate tourism development policy in place. In order to attract investors and facilitate investments the government should pro-actively identify Tourism sector project opportunities and present them on the state web site as well as hold Investor Workshops periodically. This initiative will go a long way in the development of the tourism sector. Land, being a basic need, action should be taken to resolve the issue of participation by outside the state residents in the projects as current land regulations are highly restrictive and do not allow/ encourage participation of outsiders.
A complete review of the land policy needs to be done keeping in mind the local traditional ownership and state of development of local entrepreneurship. Policy should not allow exploitation on the basis of land speculation

Growth Driver Projects

What are Growth Driver Projects and the Need?

Projects which fulfill one or many of the following objectives are Growth Driver Projects and are needed to be initiated by the government or its agencies.

1. Projects with long gestation period for economic recoveries and hence difficult for funding by normal financing channels. They would be driven by grant components and/or long term debt funds with generally have a moratorium of 3-5 years and repayment of 10-15 years thereafter. Such funding is normally not accessible to the private sector. Most of the projects in this category are Infrastructure Projects: access roads to the destinations, destination development in remote areas, projects with low tourist traffic at present but need to be developed for strategic reasons of equitable development of the various regions of the state etc.


2. Projects where benefits are for the larger community and cannot be funded by individual entrepreneurs. Brand Building of the state is one such project which needs to be done by the government as the benefits are not only for the tourism sector but overflows into many areas including Investments in the state in many sectors like education, health care, industry etc

3. Projects for Capacity Building is of a nature for the general benefit of the state and the impact is on a long term basis.

a. Human Resource Skills Development is one such major project at the level of INDIVIDUALS and would benefit other sectors like retail, healthcare, besides travel and tourism. A state wide structured initiative has to be launched for the benefit of the youth and to enhance their employability.

b. Institutional Capacity will enhance the ability within the state to conceive, design, develop and implement programs and projects in the state for the benefit of all. The impact of capacity building is also on the mindset for development of the tourism sector. This would also include the Tourism Department and others within the government and its institutions that contribute to the development of the tourism infrastructure and facilitate the travel and enhance the experience of the tourist. The civil society institutions and the community based traditional institutions will also benefit from these programs and develop participation and ownership for the success of the Tourism Development Plan. The entire travel and tour trade within the state needs to be upgraded to meet the needs of linkages within their trade network in India and the other countries abroad

c. IT Network is a critical need in current times. Information flow and access for planning by individuals, bookings and confirmations, payment gateways etc are to be facilitated by a high speed and reliable IT network within the state linking all the players in the sector. Such a network will make it easy for the foreign travel and tour operators as well as individuals to plan a trip to the state. It will facilitate Brand Build up as well as create an advantage for the state when it is competing with other destinations both within the country and abroad.

4. Information & Awareness Campaigns and setups are Critical Projects that need to be started immediately as other projects are dependent on them. Information centers at the rail, road and air gateways, important states of tourist origin and cities within the state are an example of this need.

5. Demonstration Projects: The most important need of a tourist is affordable, safe and standard accommodation along with rest facilities on the highways as roads are the only means of transportation in the hill areas. Franchised brands provided the credibility needed for the comfort of the motorist and ensured minimum standards and eliminated exploitation. Projects listed below will fill the gap in the tourism needs as well as these will trigger similar private sector initiatives by the demonstration projects acting as demonstrator with multiplier effect.

• Wayside Amenities,
• Inns /Guest Houses
• Rural Tourism, Home Stay etc

6. Transportation: There is a need to connect major centers for the tourist in the state with the gateways for rail, road and air which all happen to be in Assam and Guwahati being the main gateway for all travelers in the North East. Tourist Busses / Coaches / Taxis, both air-conditioned and non air conditioned need to be operated by the Tourism department either directly or in partnership of the private sector, communities, and retired service personnel to connect the gateways. Fixed fares to be charged and published.

7. City Tours: Conducted City tours with proper Guides achieve the twin objective of explaining the local heritage and opportunity for the local community to benefit from the

regulated stops by selling goods and services to the tourists at these stops. It is more organized and transparent way of engaging the tourist’s time during the visit to the state.

8. Package Tours: Ensure hassle free travel for the tourists. The numbers are small in the beginning but over time they are a key to the development of tourism as they take away the uncertainty from the tourists mind and create a better success chance for the state being opted as the destination. Package tours also facilitate in better utilization of the accommodation facilities as overnight stays can be planned for destinations other than the main hubs. This provides an opportunity for exposure to the local art, crafts, cuisine and entertainment thereby engaging the local community.


9. Tourist City Centers

Tourist City Centers, a new Strategic Initiative, are proposed by us to meet the tourist’s needs on a holistic basis within the state. The Tourist City Center is:

• A single point information and facilitation center for the tourist in the city and acts as the center of activity for the entire travel and tour trade in the city and its neighboring area.
• A major feature of the Center is that it provides for good affordable accommodation, food court and shops for meeting tourists needs
• The Center also provides for the exposure to the local heritage, arts and crafts, cuisine and performing arts including entertainment.
• It also provides the base for Guides and City tours as well as day tours to tourist destinations in the area.
• The Tourist gets a 9am to 9 pm exposure and in the process transfers financial resources to the local community for their well being and gainful engagement.

Skills Development & Capacity Building Strategy

The growth in tourism will have to be serviced by a substantial increase in infrastructure, including air-road-rail connectivity, hotels and restaurants. This will need capacity building and skills development, both at institutional and individual levels. Our plan is to train 10,000 people over a 5 year period to create the basic Human Resource for the state. We propose the following areas for skills development and capacity building:

• Institutional: The Policy, planning, implementation, monitoring and sustainability of the individual projects and the entire tourism sector within the state will be dependent upon the pro-active action and the support the sector receives from the various government departments and its agencies, public finance institutions and the community at large.

• Government: Tourism Department, Industry, Forest Department, Local Administration, Police, Roads, Archeology Transport, Panchayat Raj, Rural Development, Local Communities, Employment, Social Welfare, Culture , Minorities, etc

• Public Institutions: Industry and Trade bodies, Travel and Tour Trade, Hotel and Restaurant associations, Transport Sector- bus and taxi operators, NGOs, Community

based organizations, Schools and Colleges, Village Council , Arts & Crafts Promotion Agencies etc.

• Individuals: Individuals across all activities of the tourism sector need to be trained to meet the emerging needs and expectations of the tourists. This will facilitate the states capacity to manage the growing tourism sector both effectively and efficiently and attract both investors and tourists to the state.




Tourism Sector Skills Development Matrix
10000 trained in 5 years













Start Up Projects – Implemented over a 3 year period

Type & Locations Nos Unit Cost
(Rs Crs) Total Cost
(Rs Crs) Remarks Lease / Spin
Off Possibility
Tourist City Centers
a) Flagships
Itanagar
b) Others: Bomdilla / Ziro Passighat
c) Mini City Centers Aalo Mechuka Tezu
Miao
1
12 41.90 Completely Disinvested -leased
out to external
3 5.3 operators including
TDC Proposed
Right to run the
4 3.5 information &
facilitation center
with the
government
Wayside Amenities- & 22 2.75 60.50 Completely
Information and Disinvested -leased
Facilitation Centers out to external
Midways on all Tourist operators including
Circuit highways TDC Proposed
Location Details- Annexure 1 Right to run the
information &
facilitation center
with the
government
Inns/Guest Houses 7 1.98 13.86 Yes- Completely
Accommodation on all Disinvested -leased
circuits out to external
Location Details- Annexure 2 operators including
TDC Proposed
Rural Tourism –
one in the identified rural areas of each circuit: Location Details- Annexure 3 Home Stays – 2 cottages in each village identified in; Location Details- Annexure 4 20


40 0.70


0.15 14.0


6.0 Social Worker part of the project for better understanding Yes-Completely Disinvested -leased out to external operators including TDC Proposed
Adventure Trekking Routes
Location Details- Annexure 5 8 2 16

Adventure- White Water Rafting & River Front Development
Location Details- Annexure 6 5 5 25
Pilot Projects 29
1.Heritage Site - Malinithan 1 5
Preservation, Renovation &
Development 1 15
2. Wellness Tourism-
Flagship Tawang-Tsacha 1 4
3.Eco-Tourism- Flagship
Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary 1 5
4.Hydro-Tourism-Lake
Dollung Mukh
-
Center of Excellence - 1 5 5 Not applicable as
Water Sports- for capacity
Passighat building of the
state
Skills Development 10,000 5.0 Not applicable as
a) Institutional for capacity
b) Individual building of the
state
Information Technology & Communications Network – Capacity Building Management & Security Tourist Facilitation & Online Inner Line Permit
( domestic tourists ) 1 10


Brand Build Up
*Marketing: International
/
National /Regional
*Information kits
*Niche Market Development

1 lot

20
Total 246.26
Add Grand Total Rs 270.89 Each project will
10% crores be funded
contin differently
gency
(Note: The project cost estimates do not include the cost of land)

Pilot Projects
The Start Up Projects also include 4 special initiatives as “Pilot Projects” to reach out to high paying traffic and benefit from emerging opportunities. They are distinct in the tourism resource being developed for the individual pilot project.

1. Heritage Site Malinithan
2. Wellness Tourism-Flagship Tawang-Tsacha
3. Eco-Tourism- Flagship Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary
4. Hydro-Tourism-Lake Dollung Mukh



Type Numbers Unit Cost-
Rs crores Total Cost
Rs Crores
Accommodation 1000 rooms 50 room Hotels-10
25 room Inns -16
10 room Inns-10 7.5
2.5
0.75 75.00
40.00
7.50
Sub-Total 122.50
Transport Sightseeing 20 seat Buses-75 0.15 11.25









Private Sector Investment
New Opportunity & / On Going Projects Sustained

The Growth Driver Projects – State Initiated Projects will create new opportunities to meet the need for the 100,000 tourist increase every strategic plan period. They will also enhance the sustainability of the existing projects and the projects in the various stages of implementation.

Tourism department can take a pro-active action in preparing the pre-feasibility studies / project profiles for these projects to attract investors from outside and also opportunity for the financial institutions and the banks to invest in the state.

The projects needed for tourism infrastructure and to be added every year in the next 5 years to meet the 15% CAGR of domestic tourist arrivals are listed below:

45seat Cars -100 0.05 5.00
Sub-Total 16.25
Food & Beverages Restaurants-10 Fast Food -25 0.50
0.40 5.00
10.00
Sub-Total 15.00
Adventure Tourism River Rafting &
Wildlife Tourism etc 2 5 Sub-Total 10.00
Total 163.75
add 10% contingency Grand Total Rs 180.00 Crs










Note: The project cost estimates do not include the cost of land


Resource Mobilization-Funds

Government of India Central Schemes:. The tourism development program also encourages the state governments to take benefit from the various financial assistance schemes of the Department of Tourism, for the planning of the projects in the state.

The North Eastern Council Schemes: The North Eastern Council is the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the North Eastern Region which consists of the eight States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura.

North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd:. (NEDFi) was incorporated for the development of industries, infrastructure, animal husbandry, agri-horticulture plantation, medicinal plantation, sericulture plantation, aquaculture, poultry and dairy in the North Eastern states of India.

Government of Arunachal Pradesh: The state government will provide the counterpart funds for the development of the tourism sector and its projects from the state budget and also seek support of the Planning Commission during the finalization of the plans

Banks:. It is suggested that we form Strategic Partnership with banks to finance projects in specific regions and/or finance specific region and projects therein. These projects could be of a replicable nature and reduce the effort of evaluating each and every project. The Entrepreneur will only be selected based upon the selection criteria. Credit Guarantee Corporation could also be a Strategic Partner in such cases to provide enhanced comfort to the lending banks.

Banks, by participating in the tourism development plan and funding the projects there under, would also be able to reduce their gap Credit /deposit ratio, priority sector lending targets and also their community responsibility of financing projects in areas from where they collect their deposits.

Financial Institutions: Infrastructure lending Institutions like IL&FS, IDFC and others could be brought in as Strategic partners. However we will need to consolidate the projects under a Program to make them viable in size for these organizations to participate in the funding of the projects across the state.

Institutional Investors: PE funds etc: We are in an early stage to be able to access these investors but in the later period of development they will be a strong driver for growth.

Equity: Equity funds will come from the various promoters and investors in individual projects based upon their shareholding.

Investment Workshops: We propose that the state plans for an Investors Workshop, on an annual basis, after the detailed plans are made and land identified for the project. Invite the investors from other state and also from abroad to participate in large tourism projects. It would be essential to prepare pre-feasibility profiles for each project to be discussed at such events. Lead promoter from the state would also need to be identified to act as the start up partner with the investors from outside.

Resource Mobilization-Private Sector

The private sector projects will have access to the programs and lending schemes of the Financial Institutions and the Banks as they are also on the search for bankable projects to invest their funds.The projects identified and listed are need based and expected to meet the basic lending norms of DSCR and IRR for economic viability and risk management.

The Tourism Policy of the state should include tourism as an “Industry” to facilitate the lending as better conditions are applicable for lending – both for the lender and the borrower.

Tourism sector has land as a basic input in almost all projects and the location can make or break the project. The Tourism Policy should also facilitate availability of Land at affordable prices and at appropriate locations. Tourists will not go to remote areas if they are in city. A land bank should be identified for various

Resource Mobilization - Human Resource Development

Entrepreneurship Development: Development of a vibrant private sector would require the development of “Entrepreneurship” and social acceptance of the Entrepreneur in an environment where “Job Seeking” is a way of life and a stable job – mostly government or its agencies –commands the highest respect in the community.

Skills Development & Employability: We are proposing a skills development plan for 10000 trainees to be covered in the next 5 years in tourism and associated sectors, retail,

healthcare, etc and would provide an opportunity for the youth to pursue a rewarding career in the state.

Managerial Capability: The skills development plan as above would also include the managerial capability development for the implementation and success of the projects under the Tourism Development plan. The availability of good managers locally would also reduce the cost of operations and meet the shortage of good managers across all sectors.

Institutional Capacity-Tourism Department: The most important and urgent need for the success of the Tourism Development Plan is the dedicated and committed staff of the Tourism department and its agencies engaged in the development and implementation of the Plan.





Implementation

a.) 3 Year Work Plan
The Strategic Plan, based upon need analysis and demand gaps, to be relevant efficient and effective needs to be implemented in a time bound manner over a period of 3 years after the preparatory / start up period of 1-2 years depending upon the individual nature of the project. The key features are;

Year 0 - Preparatory Period: Enabling Environment & Tourism Policy, Approvals & Authorizations for the Strategic Plan, Organization and Staff in place, Strategic Partners in place

Year 1 - Start & Build Up: Launch High Priority Projects- State Initiatives, Facilitate launch of Private Sector Initiatives

Year 2 - Mid-Term Review: Rationalize Plan and Policy, Growth Mode & Constraints

Year 3 - The Road Ahead: Develop New Strategic Plan for the next period and identify New Strategic Partners for the growth

b.) Implementation Mechanism: Management Plan
An agency needs to be identified immediately, with adequate powers, for implementation of the projects agreed upon under the “Start Up” plan on an emergency & time bound basis and thereafter follow up plans on an annual basis. It is suggested that a Project Director be appointed with 3 Project Managers, each assigned and directly responsible to the Project Director for the implementation of the 3 components listed hereunder:

Multi Agency Coordination: Government Departments, Strategic Partners, Resource Mobilization

Development Initiatives- non revenue generators: Brand Development, Information & Facilitation centers

Tourism Infrastructure - Revenue generators: Wayside Amenities, City Centers, Inns, Rural Tourism & Home Stay and Adventure Tourism

It is expected that an effective and efficient implementation agency would be able be bring all projects in operational mode within 12-15 months from the date of individual project launch

c.) Implementation Plan: Organization Recommendations-New Structure

It is recommended that a new “Tourism Development Corporation” be incorporated as an independent enterprise to enable the State Government implement its tourism development plan and facilitate development of:
• Public- Private-Community Partnerships
• Participate in “Special Purpose Vehicles” (SPV) to be created for individual / homogenous group of projects
• Lease of existing tourism assets for the development of tourism
• Resource mobilization from Financial institutions etc
• Design, Development , implementation and maintenance of tourism assets

Engineering Wing
The Tourism Infrastructure will require a dedicated Engineering Wing for design, development, implementation and maintenance of the tourism projects in line with the needs for tourism infrastructure which is different from the normal construction activities.

This should be established at the earliest for the implementation of the proposed projects and taking over the ongoing projects for synergy and effectiveness.

Human Resource

A cadre of dedicated and young executives who are tourist friendly needs to be created for the development of tourism in the state. This cadre is to be trained and benchmarked with the best in the country. The existing staff also needs to be trained outside the state to appreciate the needs of the tourists and methods of delivery. It is also recommended that the average age of the employees be below 40 years as the nature of tourism development involves extensive travel etc and a “Will Do” attitude.

Sustainability
Initiatives proposed will be designed and implemented with appropriate technology, skills development and management for:

Economic Sustainability
• Meet the norms for funding by the financial sector and

• Comply with good governance practices

Social Sustainability
• Participation of the local community and direct benefits to the community and the youth employment and income generating opportunities
• Social workers are integral part of the project design for rural tourism and home stays to ensure no side effects of tourism are created

Environment Sustainability
• Projects to be designed with local materials and green technology usage
• Pollution Control and Waste Management practices in place on operation.
Cost Recovery

• The Strategic Initiatives in form of Growth Driver Projects are based upon:
- Lending norms for IRR and DSCR to allow access to funds from banks and financial institutions
• Create opportunity for Public-Private-Partnership models to be created.
• Grant component is only for skills development training for enhanced employability and meeting the needs of skilled human resource for the tourism sector

Risk Management

The Tourism Development Plan success will depend upon managing the following:

Structural Risks

• Tourism Development Policy to be pro-active and play the vital role of a facilitator beyond the normal role of a regulator
• Government of India special encouragement for the North East States for LTC needs to be continued for at least another 5 years if not 10 years to build the nascent tourism in the region.
• Remove procedural hassles which in getting investors and investments
• Structural changes are required for managing TOURIST arrival and the risk factors of infrastructure, connectivity, medical aid &evacuation etc need both lead time and funds.

Operational Risk

• Attitude of the state towards the TOURIST has to be positive, Tourism industry should be recognized as the key driver for inclusive growth in the state and reflected in allocation of funds for the tourism sector in the development plans for the state.
• Security perceptions of the tourist need to be addressed by “Brand Build Up” Good planning will reduce and/or eliminate the risk factors to enhance the quality of experience of the tourist.
• Mandatory training and certification of all the service providers in the tourism sector- transport, accommodation, Food & beverage, guides etc.
• Specify and enforce safety guidelines for all tourist activities

Key Achievements- Direct – Tangible

Employment Generation: The projects required to meet the needs of 100,000 tourists over the strategic plan period will provide an opportunity to create nearly 13000 jobs, at various skill levels.

Targeted Tourism: Tourist with higher disposable income-: Better facilities for the tourists will encourage higher income strata of the society to plan and visit the state.

MICE Destination Development-: Better and adequate facilities will encourage the corporate sector to hold their meetings, conventions and exhibitions in the state

Week End and Same Day Tourism-: A well planned strategy to reach out to this segment of tourist would be in the interest of tourism promotion and income transfer to the state.

Package Tours -“Door to Door”: In order to promote tourism and have an effective utilization plan for the tourism infrastructure we recommend special effort to promote package tours. This would take away the uncertainty in the planning process of the tourist and ensure reliability and credibility. Special attention to be paid to the airline and the railways to develop tour packages jointly and also benefit from the Government of India’s schemes for LTC for the North Eastern states.

Growth Rate in Tourists – 15 % CAGR: Good Infrastructure will help achieve the planned growth rate of 15% in the tourist arrivals. This will assist in increasing the tourism income, better utilization for the investment and reduced seasonality impact.

Opportunity for Spend Increase-10% CAGR: Destination, wayside facilities including access to local arts and crafts etc will provide the tourist an opportunity to spend more time/money.

Skills Development & Employability- 10000 people: The expansion of the tourism sector will create opportunity to absorb and sustain our skills development program for 10000 people/5 years.

Creation of “Tourist City Centers”: Our plan proposes to set up Tourist City Centers which will become the lifeline for the tourists across the state. They would also be the center of activity for the residents and creating ownership and participation in the tourism development initiatives

Key Achievements- Direct - Intangible

Private Sector Participation
The tourism development plan will create new opportunities for the participation of the private sector and assisted by the enabling policy of the government it will open opportunities for development of local entrepreneurship and small and medium enterprises which are expected to form the backbone of the tourism infrastructure for both goods and services

Public-Private-Community Partnership: The local area development strategies for regional development, community participation and ownership for the success of the project along with the design of the project on economically sustainable basis will create an opportunity for the extended partnership of the Public, Private and the Community and open new avenues for investments.

Brand Development: The development of tourism will facilitate creating a brand for the state and encourage investments in the state for its all-round economic development.

Key Achievements – Indirect

Retail Sector: The increased volume of tourist traffic will also facilitate the growth in the retail sector by meeting the demands of the tourist

Crafts and Heritage Products: The tourists buy small gifts for friends and relatives and at the very least some souvenirs’ for themselves. This promotes the sale of local art and craft products and not only creates jobs and income but also facilitates revival and sustainability of local heritage.

Better Transport Facilities: In order to meet the needs of the tourist’s better transport services, not only in terms of quality of vehicles but also improved quality of service will also be available to the community.

Better restaurants for the community: Tourism creates demand for all type of cuisine and trained cooks provide better quality of food. Local cuisine also gets promoted and ingredients are easily available. Eating out opportunities improve the quality of family life and is also part of family entertainment and bonding.

City Center a meeting point for the locals: The new initiative of “Tourist City Center”, in smaller towns, will become the center of all activities for the town and create an environment for the tourists to enjoy and benefit from the local community in understanding their culture and custom.

Improved quality of life in the local area: The improved infrastructure and services in the area will improve the quality of life for the residents. Employment and income generation opportunities will also benefit the youth, the most vulnerable section of the society

Community Ownership- Facilitate the Tourist
The sustained involvement of the local community in the development and operation of the projects and its beneficial impact on their lives will create a sense of ownership and belonging for the residents. This will not only facilitate the tourists but also ensure both economic and social sustainability of the projects in the area.



















Preface

Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and INTACH signed an agreement (Appendix
A) on 28th March 2009 to prepare a tourism plan for Arunachal Pradesh.

The tourism plan will account for :
- Culture (tribal)- traditional festivals and other performing arts
- Heritage and other important places

- Natural precincts, like, rain forest, wild life centuries etc.
- Traditional Crafts
- Museums – Government and privately owned reserved areas which promote tribal villages
- Local knowledge which needs to be spread out for the benefit of local communities and others
A team was constituted with a Strategic Development expert to undertake a tour of Arunachal Pradesh from 1st May to 5th May 2009. The team went to Itanagar and held discussions with the State Government officials along with Secretary Tourism Ms. Bandhana Deori and Director Tourism Mr. A.K. Singh. The discussions were of great help in finalizing the inclusive tourism plan. In Arunachal Pradesh, we also held meetings with the Tour Operators, Travel Agents and the State Government officials during this period. The team went to Ziro and neighboring area from Itanagar to have a feel of the circuit from Itanagar to Ziro and back. The outline prepared by us for “Development of Tourism Plan for Arunachal Pradesh” given at Appendix ‘B’ was explained to them and they promised to send us the details on all aspects mentioned in the outline.

INTACH also conducted workshops with travel and tour operators and a hospitality survey to understand the needs and gaps to be addressed. Our Strategic Development Advisor again visited Itanagar and had extensive discussions with the Secretary, Department of Tourism, the Director, Department of Tourism and also representatives of the people from 16th – 20th February 2010. The strategic initiatives and growth development projects identified were agreed upon.






We have developed a holistic tourism plan, accounting for the tangible and intangible heritage of the state where current status and the need assessment has been taken care of. Discussions with the stakeholders at different stages were held to determine project scopes and activities. We have also accounted for sustainability and the cost recovery. Skills Development and training of the people employed in the tourism sector through setting up training institutes for getting local boys and girls trained in this area of activity.

Our plan has taken into account the long term vision of the State and the tourism perspective as an important component thereof. In order to achieve the key objectives and to bring about a significant impact in the medium term of 3-5 years the Strategic Plan is based on the following principles and to be implemented through identified need based projects.

a. Build Upon the Existing infrastructure
b. Create new infrastructure and markets
c. Brand building up of the state of Arunachal Pradesh

The Strategic Plans, in the future, are to be prepared for similar periods adjusting for the emerging needs and lessons learnt.

The Tourism Plan will also facilitate the preparation of:

• Guidelines to Assess economic viability for each activity we are proposing
• Funding of the various projects suggested in the plan.
• Carrying capacity of various sites in line with the recommendations of various agencies
• Capacity building of the local community so that projects like home-stays, training of guides, craft workshops can be suggested
• Entrepreneurship Development for the beneficial participation of the local community in economic opportunities and employment generation
• Sustainability and preservation of natural and cultural heritage.
• Risk factors for success of the plan and risk mitigation approaches.



State Profile


Arunachal Pradesh, situated in the north eastern part of India is 83,743 sq km in area and has a long international border with Bhutan to the west (160 km), China to the north and north- east (1080 km) and Myanmar to the east (440 km). It stretches from snow capped mountains in

the north to the plains of Brahmaputra valley in the south. Arunachal is the largest state areawise in the north-eastern region.


It is a land of lush green forests, deep river valleys and beautiful plateaus. The land is mostly mountainous with Himalayan ranges along the northern borders criss-crossed with mountain ranges running north-south. These divide the State into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, The Lohit and the Tirap. All these rivers are fed by snows from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets except Tirap which is fed by Patkai Range.


The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called Tsangpo in Tibet, which becomes Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam. High mountains and dense forests have disrupted intercommunication between tribes living in different river valleys. Isolation imposed by geography has led different tribes with several dialects to live and flourish with their distinct identities. Nature has endowed the people with a deep sense of beauty which finds delightful expression in their songs, dances and crafts.









The climate varies from hot humid in the Shivalik range with heavy rainfall. It becomes progressively cold as one moves northwards to higher altitudes. Trees of various species, plentiful climbers and abundance of cane and bamboo make Arunachal evergreen. Tropical rain forests are to be found in the foothills and the hills in the east on the border with Myanmar.

Northern most border is covered with Alpine forests. Amidst the highly rugged terrain, there are green forests and plateaus.


Arunachal Pradesh became a full-fledged State on February 20, 1987. Till 1972, it was known as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA). It gained the Union Territory status on January 20, 1972 and renamed as Arunachal Pradesh. On August 15, 1975 an elected Legislative Assembly was constituted and the first Council of Ministers assumed office. The first general election to the Assembly was held in February 1978.


Administratively, the State is divided into sixteen districts. Capital of the State is Itanagar in Papum Pare district. Itanagar is named after Ita fort meaning fort of bricks, built in 14th Centuary AD. Arunachal Pradesh finds mention in the literature of Kalika Purana and Mahabharata. This place is the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas. It was here that sage Parshuram atoned for his sin, sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhismaka founded his kingdom and Lord Krishna married Rukmini. The widely scattered archaeological remains at different places in Arunachal Pradesh bear testimony to its rich cultural heritage.








Chapter - I

Present Tourism Scenario and Future Trends


Global Scenario

Tourism has always been a major social phenomenon of any society. It is motivated by the natural urge of every human being for new experience, adventure, education, knowledge and entertainment. In order to understand each other's cultures and values as well as to cater several other social, religious and business interests, it has resulted in development of many tourist and infrastructure facilities. This, along with the progress of proper transportation network globally, especially of airways and waterways, has encouraged people to venture out to the foreign lands. It has facilitated the trade and commerce between the different regions of a country and between the different countries. As a result, over the years, it has acquired the status of a key service industry.
Tourism plays a key role in achieving the socio-economic goals of the development plans of a nation. It is an important service-oriented sector which has made rapid strides globally in terms of gross revenue and foreign exchange earnings. It is a composite of service providers, both public and private, which includes travel agents and tour operators; air, rail and sea transportation operators; guides; owners of hotels, guest houses and inns, restaurants and shops; etc. They are involved in meeting the diverse interests and requirements of domestic and international tourists. The tourism industry provides incentives to foster the quality of environment, generates more employment opportunities (particularly in remote and backward areas) as well as develops necessary infrastructure facilities like roads, telecom and medical services, in the economy.
Tourism industry, after the Second World War, clearly marks as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomenon of the past century. It has contributed remarkably to the development of areas, local communities and other assets, like, heritage. In fact, it ranks number two after the oil industry and third in India, next to Gem and Jewelery. The number of international arrivals shown an evolution from a mere 25 million international arrivals in 1950 to an estimated 806 million in 2005, corresponding to an average annual growth rate of 6.5%.



Source: World Trade Organization, World Tourism Organisation

In India, tourism industry holds special position as it not only have potential to grow at a high rate, but also stimulate other economic sectors through its backward and forward linkages and cross-sectional synergies with sectors like agriculture, horticulture, poultry, handicrafts, transport, construction, etc. That is, it can provide impetus to other industries in the country and generate enough wealth to help pay off the international debt. It is the third largest net earner of foreign exchange for the country. The travel and tourism sector contributes to the national integration; preserves natural and cultural environments; as well as enriches social and cultural lives of the people. It has the capacity to create substantial job opportunities, particularly for unskilled and semi-skilled workers as well as to alleviate the poverty in the country.
Another important feature of the Indian tourism sector is the contribution to national integration and transformation of the economic lives of the people. Over 500 million domestic tourists, travelling all over the country each year, help create a better understanding of people living in other regions of the country and the cultural diversity.
Tourism also gives a financial incentive to preserve architectural heritages and helps the survival of art forms, crafts and culture.
Given India's unique endowments of biodiversity, forests, rivers, mountains, historical places, temples and pilgrims, caves, museums, monuments and culture, the industry holds immense strength for obtaining higher growth rate.
The challenges in the sector lie in successfully preserving these in their original form, and making them accessible to domestic and international travelers. India offers various categories of

tourism products, such as adventure tourism; medical tourism (ayurveda and other forms of Indian medications) wellness tourism, eco-tourism; rural tourism; cruise tourism; meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions (MICE) tourism; etc.
Europes’ and Americas’ were the most tourist receiving region between 1950 and 2000. Both regions represent a joint market share of over 95% in 1950 and 76% in 2000 today. Most of the countries link their development with tourism development and it is because of this most of the nations tries to woo more international tourist to their countries and allow their own people to visit different places in the world. India is not an exception to this rule.
National Scenario

1.2.1 Government of India Initiatives

National Tourism Policy, formulated in the year 2002, aims to develop tourism in India in a systematic manner. It envisages a framework, within which the Government helps to create the basic infrastructure and legislative set up for tourism development, while the private sector helps to provide the quality products and offer active support services. The broad objectives of the policy are to:-

• Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth;
• Harness the direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism;
• Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth;
• Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the burgeoning global travel trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination;
• Acknowledge the critical role of private sector with Government working as a pro-active facilitator and catalyst;
• Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage and culture in partnership with States, private sector and other agencies
• Ensure that the tourists to India gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually elevated and 'feel India from within'

International tourism receipts represented in 2003 approximately 6% of worldwide exports of goods and services (as expressed in US$). When considering services exports exclusively, the share of tourism exports increases to nearly 30%.




Tourism Receipts, 1950-2005*
World Africa Americas Asia and
the Pacific Europe Middle East World Africa Americas Asi And the Pacific aEurope Middle East
International Tourism Receipts (US$, billion) International Tourism Receipts (euro/ECU, billion)
1950

1960 2.1

6.9 0.1

0.2 1.1

2.5 0.04

0.2 0.9

3.9 0.03

0.1
1970 17.9 0.5 4.8 1.2 11.0 0.4
1980 104.4 3.4 24.7 11.2 61.6 3.5 75.0 2.4 17.7 8.1 44.2 2.5
1990 270.2 6.4 69.3 46.5 142.9 5.1 212.2 5.0 54.4 36.5 112.2 4.0
1995 410.7 8.5 98.4 80.7 212.2 10.9 314.0 6.5 75.3 61.7 162.2 8.3
2000 481.6 10.5 130.8 90.2 232.5 17.6 521.4 11.4 141.6 97.7 251.7 19.0
2004 634.7 19.2 132.0 129.5 328.5 25.5 510.3 15.4 106.1 104.1 264.1 20.5
2005* 682.7 21.5 144.6 140.8 348.3 27.6 548.7 17.3 116.2 113.1 279.9 22.1

Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) © (Data as collected in UNWTO database November 2006)
* Receipts data are in current US$ and euro (based on the average annual exchange rate for euro or ECU to US$) and can be strongly influenced by exchange


Tourism Sector Growth
• Foreign Tourists

India's share in international tourist arrivals, which was 0.46 per cent in 2004, has increased to 0.49 per cent during 2005; and further to an estimated 0.52 per cent in 2006 and
per cent in 2007. The foreign tourist arrivals have increased from a level of 3.46 million in 2004 to over 5 million in 2007. Similarly, the foreign exchange earnings from tourism have also shown a phenomenal growth from US$ 6.17 billion (Rs.27944 crore) in 2004 to an estimated

US$ 11.96 billion (Rs.49413 crore) in 2007. The share of India in world earnings from tourism registered an increase from 0.98 per cent in 2004 to 1.21 per cent in 2006.
This segment shows a CAGR of 13% for tourist arrivals and CAGR of approximately 25% in terms of foreign exchange earnings. These numbers also show better realization per tourist of 2400 US Dollars in 2007 from 1780 US Dollars in 2004 a CAGR of approximately 10.5%.
• Domestic Tourists

The numbers of domestic tourists in India have also grown phenomenally over this period from 366.23 million in 2004 to an estimated 462 million in 2006. It has further grown to 526 million in 2007 giving a CAGR of more than 11%
Contribution of the Tourism Sector

World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) is the forum for business leaders in the travel and tourism industry. It addresses challenges and opportunities that affect all sectors of the industry globally. WTTC works to raise awareness of travel and tourism as one of the world's largest industries, employing approximately 231 million people and generating over 10.4 per cent of world GDP.
Global

According to the WTTC, tourism in the year 2008 accounted for 9.9 per cent of global GDP, 11.0 per cent of the total world exports and 8.4 per cent of global employment. It is firmly committed to realizing Indian tourism industry's potential for growth and ensuring maximum and sustainable benefits for everyone involved.
Indian travel and tourism industry has been on rise and is gaining popularity amongst travelers all over the world. It is an engine of growth for Indian economy and helps to promote sustained development of infrastructure, such as airports, railways and roads, leading to connectivity of various tourist destinations. Besides, improvement and expansion of existing and new tourism products such as cultural and heritage tourism, rural tourism, adventure tourism, health and healing tourism, etc; promotion of ‘Incredible India’ campaigns; as well as active participation of State Governments therein establish India's competitive advantage in the sector.

This has enhanced the foreign exchange earnings of the country as well as improved its trade relations with other nations. All such measures and incentives, undertaken by public and private sectors, are a source of several investment opportunities in the industry.
Tourism depends on the economic conditions in major tourism generating markets. When economies grow, level of disposable income will also rise simultaneously. A relatively large part of discretionary income will be spent on tourism or on travel, in particular in the case of emerging economies. A tightening of economic situation on the other hand, will often results in decrease of tourism.

Source: World Tourism Organization; International Monetary Fund

Apart from developing socio-economic aspects in a society it also generates good amount of foreign exchange because it’s economic climate during the month of summer every year and lot of tourist can visit Arunachal Pradesh and State their during Summer months to enjoy the pleasant weather of the State. Projection given by World Tour Operator both in terms of foreign arrivals and foreign exchange earned from tourist. The third issue, which is limited to the development of tourism industry, is creation of better employment. There is no doubt that the nation started advancing towards economic growth though agriculture and mining sector contributes less and less to the GDP and the tertiary sector became very important and contributes roughly 2/3rd to the GDP. Tourism contributes in the service sector and therefore, it directly contributes towards the 2/3rd of GDP.

India

The contribution of tourism in GDP of the country has been 5.90 per cent in 2003-04, while employment in tourism sector (both direct and indirect) has been 41.8 million in the same year, thus accounting for 8.78 per cent of total employment in the country.
According to the WTTC the tourism sector over next 10 years will grow as follows:


Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The contribution of Travel & Tourism to Gross Domestic Product is expected to stay the same at 6.0% (INR3,239.4 bn or US$67.3 bn) in 2009 to 6.0% (INR10,274.1 bn or US$187.3 bn) by 2019.
Employment

The contribution of the Travel & Tourism economy to employment is expected to rise from 31,105,000 jobs in 2009, 6.4% of total employment or 1 in every 15.6 jobs to 40,037,000
jobs, 7.2% of total employment or 1 in every 13.8 jobs by 2019.

Growth

Real GDP growth for Travel & Tourism economy is expected to be 0.2% in 2009 and to average 7.7% per annum over the coming 10 years.

Exports

Export earnings from international visitors and tourism goods are expected to generate 6.0% of total exports (INR811.9 bn or US$16.9 bn) in 2009, growing (nominal terms) to INR 2,819.0 bn or US$51.4 bn (4.1% of total) in 2019.

WORLD RANKING
The India Travel & Tourism economy is ranked number:
• 14 in absolute size worldwide
• 144 in relative contribution to national economies
• 5 in long-term (10-year) growth

Tourism industry offers a whole range of challenges and opportunists in the present millennium in developing countries, like, India where tourism is all set to develop. If these

challenges are successfully converted into opportunities, results are imminent and sky would be the limit. It is required to be insured that proper input is supplied to reap the dividends, which are enjoyed by all developing countries. Tourism industry in India is not properly organized. It primarily has a family business to act to this. There are no handful of international players of their sector of tourism market is according to specialization, like, in bound/out bound tour operation i.e. of tour operation and tour travel i.e. of a travel agent but with the increase in pressure of global player this family business is facing a challenge to continue to develop themselves to international standards, they are generally, acquired by or merged with big brothers who do not constitute family business.

The role of information technology has tremendously impacted on tourism industry, particularly, the use of internet by maximum number of people engaged in travel trade. Results of a survey on the increase impact of business productivity and individual habits reveals that 94% of the sample group access internet for online communication, 89% of respondents get flight information through internet and 82% of respondents access net to conduct competitive intelligence, 67% respondence make hotel reservations and 58% purchases online tickets.

The last two segments are likely to increase in India by 20% in next 2-3 years. This shows that one has to keep a pace with the latest changes and technology to work efficiently and effectively. The technology revolution has also made the customers aware of the vast possibilities available to them. This has made him a self-declared king.
Today, it is possible for a tour operator or a travel agent to offer almost entire range of services to a customer under one roof. In other words, customization would be the need of the time with perceived value addition and a higher quality and degree of interaction with customers. On the other side to meet such challenges, travel professionals must possess all the required qualities, energy and contagious enthusiasm. They should have mission to organize for their customers a holiday of their life time. Obviously these travel professionals need to be technology savvy and should have positive considerations with positive attitude.
The tourism comprises a complex set of components, which activate actions of a number of socio-economic variables that have significant impact on the quality of life of the people and over all environment of a region. Tourism industry provides government with tax revenues and spurs economic developments through investments in new infrastructure in various tourism destination including backward areas. In the process to tourism development a number of spin-

off benefits like optimal utilization of local resources of work force, upgrading of human resources etc. accrue to the economy which intern enhances the purchasing power of local community along with rapid monetization of the economy through advancement of trade and commerce. Creation of economic opportunities forms the basis of tourism development in any region or area. The Manila Declaration (1980) of the World Tourism Organization contained altruistic vision of the promotion of tourism worldwide. Recent thrust has been planning for sustainable tourism development.
National Perspective
India, despite being endowed with vast potential in the growth of foreign tourist traffic, particularly, to view the heritage and 5 millennium both Tangible and Intangible, recorded a very low growth after independence in 1947. It is for the first time that in 1995 foreign tourist arrival recorded above 2 million for the whole country and the figure continued to remain almost a little over two million till 2003. There has been a great jump thereafter, In 2004 it was around 31/2 million and then rouse to above 5 million in 2007. The following table depicts that trend in foreign tourist arrivals to India between 1996 and 2007.

Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) In India, 1996-2008


Year FTAs
(in Million) Percentage (%) change over the previou year
1996 2.29 7.7
1997 2.37 3.8
1998 2.36 -0.7
1999 2.48 5.2
2000 2.65 6.7
2001 2.54 -4.2
2002 2.38 -6.0
2003 2.73 14.3
2004 3.46 26.8
2005 3.92 13.3
2006 4.45 13.5
2007 5.08 14.3
2008 2.72 11.1@
(Jan-June) (P)

P: Provisional, @ Growth rate over Jan-June, 2007
Source: (i) Bureau of Immigration, Govt. of India, for 1996-2007
(ii) Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, for 2008





So far as country-wise of tourists to India is concerned, the government source (Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Govt. of India) indicated that in 2002 more than 18 percent of the total tourists visiting India originated from Bangladesh, while the U.K. has the share of about 16.3% tourists, followed by the USA (14.6%) and Sri Lanka (4.5%). Countries less than 4% share includes Canada and France. Countries having less than 3% share include Germany, Italy, Japan and Malaysia. Netherlands and Singapore have less than 2% share each of Switzerland, South Africa and Israel 1% share each.
India’s earning of foreign exchange indicates that the share of the country in the world tourism receipt is almost the lowest till 2003. It is after 2003 when the increase in tourist arrival the receipts have also increased but not phenomenon. The receipts are given in table placed below:-
Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEE) (in US$ Million) from Tourism in India, 1996-2008


Year FEE from Tourism in India (in US$ Million) Percentage (%) change over the previous year
1996 2832 9.6
1997 2889 2.0
1998 2948 2.0
1999 3009 2.1
2000 3460 15.0
2001 3198 -7.6
2002 3103 -3.0
2003 4463 43.8
2004 6170 38.2
2005 7493 21.4
2006* 8634 15.2
2007* 10729 24.3
2008 # (Jan-June) 6385 25.5@

* Revised Estimates, # Advance Estimates, @ Growth rate over Jan-June, 2007 Source: (i) Reserve Bank of India, for 1996 to 2007
(ii) Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, for 2008


So far as country-wise tourist traffic to India is concerned, the government source (Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Govt. of India) indicates that in 2002 more than 18 percent of the total tourists visiting India originated from Bangladesh, while the U.K. has the share of about 16.3% tourists, followed by the USA (14.6%) and Sri Lanka (4.5%). Countries less than 4% share includes Canada and France. Countries having less than 3% share include Germany, Italy, Japan and Malaysia. Netherlands and Singapore have less than 2% share each of Switzerland, South Africa and Israel 1% share each.

India’s earning of foreign exchange indicates that the share of the country in the world tourism receipt is almost the lowest till 2003. It is after 2003 when the increase in tourist arrival the receipts have also increased but not phenomenon.
Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEE) (in Rs. Crore) from Tourism in India,1996-2008

Year FEE from Tourism in India
(in Rs. Crore) Percentage (%) change over the previous year
1996 10046 19.2
1997 10511 4.6
1998 12150 15.6
1999 12951 6.6
2000 15626 20.7
2001 15083 -3.5
2002 15064 -0.1
2003 20729 37.6
2004 27944 34.8
2005 33123 18.5
2006* 39025 17.8

2007* 44360 13.7
2008 # 25825 18.2@
(Jan-June)

*Revised Estimates, # Advance Estimates, @ Growth rate over Jan-June, 2007 Source: (i) Reserve Bank of India, for 1996 to 2007
(ii) Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, for 2008



It may be pointed out that the mode of transportation of foreign tourist to enter India indicates that air continues to be the predominant mode of travel. It constitutes nearly 85% of the foreign traffic. Arrival by sea increases and the share of arrival through land route is roughly 15% comprising tourist from Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan.
Domestic Scenario

Domestic sector plays a very important role in the growth of over all tourism in India. The following table depicts the trend of Domestic traffic in 1995- 2007 in the country during the period of 1996-2007.

Number of Outbound Visits of Indian Nationals, 1996-2007

u

2006 8.34 16.1
2007 9.78 17.3

Source:- Bureau of Immigration, Govt. of India


Number of Foreign Tourist Visits to all States/UTs in India, 1996-2007

Year No. of Foreign Tourist Visits (in Million) Percentage (%) change over the previous year
1996 5.03 8.4
1997 5.50 9.3
1998 5.54 0.7
1999 5.83 5.3
2000 5.89 1.1
2001 5.44 -7.8
2002 5.16 -5.1
2003 6.71 30.1
2004 8.36 24.6
2005 9.95 19.0
2006 11.75 18.1
2007* 13.17 12.1

* Provisional
Note: Figures for Maharashtra & Chhattisgarh have been estimated Source: State/ UT Tourism Departments



Share of Top 10 States/UTs of India

The original distribution of domestic tourist during 2007 show that maximum concentration of tourists is in the Southern region followed by Northern Region and Central and Western Region and Eastern region as a last. The flow of tourists to North East is conspicuously low for a followed reason likewise, arrival of foreign tourists to Northern Region because of Taj Mahal is maximum to 31%, and Southern Region to nearly 3%, Eastern Region share is about 13.5% while that of North East is 0.25%.

Share of Top 10 States/UTs of India in Number of Domestic Tourist Visits in 2007

Rank State/UT Domestic Tourist Visits *
Number Percentage Share (%)
1 Andhra Pradesh 127933333 24.3
2 Uttar Pradesh 116244008 22.1
3 Tamil Nadu 71034651 13.5
4 Karnataka 37825953 7.2
5 Rajasthan 25920529 4.9
6 Uttarakhand 19803280 3.8
7 Maharashtra 19243597 3.7
8 West Bengal 18580669 3.5
9 Madhya Pradesh 13894500 2.6
10 Gujarat 13477316 2.6
Total of top 10 463957836 88.2
Others 62610962 11.8
Total 526568798 100.0
* Provisional
Note: Figures for Maharashtra & Chhattisgarh have been estimated Source: State/UT Tourism Departments



Changes in Tourists’ Destination Preferences

Based on the secondary data available with the North Eastern region (NEC), 2002, it is observed that between mid-90s and end of the decade, interesting permutations occurred in the northeastern states in terms of tourist arrivals. In 1995, Tripura ranked first followed by Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. This scenario underwent a reshuffle between the years due to the changing socio- political and development priorities within the states, which, inter alia, re-positioned the States in tourists’ preference. In 2001, Assam ranked first (from 5th to 1st) followed by Tripura (1st to 2nd), Meghalaya (2nd to 3rd), Manipur (3rd to 4th), Mizoram (4th to 5th ), while Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh retained their rankings at 6th and 7th respectfully. The changing dynamics in the popularity ranking is shown in the Table below:

Change in Tourists’ Destination Preference

Rank State
(1996)

State (2001)

1. Tripura Assam
2. Meghalaya Tripura
3. Manipur Meghalaya
4. Mizoram Manipur
5. Assam Mizoram
6. Nagaland Nagaland
7. Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh
Source: NEC, Shillong, 2002
1.2.16 Popularity Ranking among Foreign Tourists:
The following table presents the popularity ranking among of foreign tourists coming to the North Eastern States.

Popularity Ranking among Foreign Tourists

Rank State (1996) State (2001)
1. Meghalaya Assam
2. Assam Meghalaya
3. Manipur Nagaland
4. Tripura Arunachal Pradesh
5. Mizoram Manipur
6. Nagaland Mizoram
7. Arunachal Pradesh
Source: NEC, Shillong, 2002

Popularity ranking of the northeastern states among foreign tourists shows Assam to be the most sought-after destination, followed by Meghalaya, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. As per knowledgeable sources in the tourism industry of the region, wildlife is fast emerging as the biggest draw for the foreign tourists in Assam, while natural beauty and bio-diversity are the key pull-factors for Arunachal Pradesh.
1.3. State Scenario
Although tourism sector in India is in the process of commendable progress, the potentials of many places are still unexplored. Arunachal Pradesh, which is a treasure house of nature’s beauty, place of Buddhist cult, mystic land of ethnic tribes mingled with legends and myths and the most potential places for adventure tourism is still unexplored for being developed as an ideal tourist destination on the tourism map of the country.

Popularity ranking of the northeastern states finds Arunachal Pradesh as a last state for foreign tourists to visit. However, the major attraction for the State of Arunachal Pradesh among the foreign tourists are its huge potential for adventure sports, particularly river rafting, mountaineering and trekking as also the floral and faunal wealth which draws special interest tourists, despite restrictions imposed through restricted area permit.

The state has a very low volume of tourism both of domestic and overseas areas. However, the foreign tourists’ arrival to North East is itself much lower than the expected place.
1.3.1 Future Trend
The volume of tourists’ to a particular destination is determined by a number of factors, motivation amongst these factors is most important for a traveler to visit a particular destination. Apart from these factors also included visitors yearning to have holiday, to have rest and relaxation, to have entertainment and adventure depending on the inventory of tourist products in

and around the destination in competence their aspiring factors. Moreover, availability of infrastructure facilities comprising with logistic support services also plays a key roles in determining the tourist volume. Tourist demand also depends on individual income and other prices offer by the tourism sector.
The major obstacles for overseas travelers are the element of expenses, inability to get time off, language barriers of security at destination and food problems. The most important determinant of foreign tourist arrival has been the permit system to enter the State. The institutional constraint has been perhaps more stringent than other economic factors affecting tourist visits.
The State of Arunachal Pradesh is devoid of traffic in indispensable volume of tourists, despite having immense potential for being a worthy tourist destination. Therefore, the tourist traffic is directly related to determine of infrastructure in the State and upliftment of the local communities to handle tourist traffic.
Arunachal Pradesh Tourism Policy - 2003 Salient Features
Vision Statement: To develop tourism Industry as an Engine of Growth and to harness its
potential for the benefit of people of Arunachal Pradesh.

Mission Statement:
a. Maximisation of the positive benefits of tourism
b. Introduction of key ideas and actions to guide tourism management and development

Objectives of the Policy
a. Planning for sustainable development of tourism
b. Protection of heritage (Natural, Cultural, Traditional Values)
c. Reduction of poverty and revenue capture by the local community
d. Capacity building and creation of mechanisms in support of small and medium enterprises
e. Formulation of strategies that will exploit opportunities and potential of the State.
f. Development Policies (PWD, Transportation Network) that support and promote the various attractions of the State
g. Securing involvement of the largest number of stakeholders in the decision making, resource allocation and utilisation.
Major Stakeholders: Institutional and Partnership Framework

a. Government of Arunachal Pradesh
b. Government of India
c. Private sector (Organized and Unorganised)

Emphasis on:
a. Citizen- Government partnership
b. Public - Private Partnerships
c. Tourism Investment Policy
d. Government's own initiatives

Chapter – II Development Paradigm

Development Perspective

The development of tourism is recognized as an important process to eliminate poverty, unemployment and to promote a dialogue amongst civilizations and provide different streams of culture to mingle as well as to preserve the environmental goods. Tourism per se, and particularly, for the niche types viz. nature, wildlife, wilderness and eco-tourism provides the right backdrop for disseminating the economic growth particularly, in economically backward areas.

International Perspective

i) WTO
Tourism 2020 vision, the document prepared by World Tourism Organisation (WTO) has forecasted that international tourist arrivals will reach the figure of 1.56 billion by the end of year 2020 out of which 1.18 billion will be intra regional and 0.38 billion would be long haul travelers. South Asia which witnessed positive signs in 2000 with the growth of 11% will record an average growth of 6.2% over the period 1995-2020, compared to the world average of 4.1%. The forecast of WTO is almost working out will till now, particularly when the estimates increases in tourism arrivals from international market.
ii) WTTC

The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) has estimated that the economic value of personal travel and tourism in South Asia would grow at the rate of 7.3% per annum, in real terms which is likely to reach $ 52.2 billion by the year 2013. WTTC has predicted that the over all impact of travel and tourism in South Asia is likely to contribute about 5.3% of their Gross Domestic Product in 2013. This sector will also generate employment to the tune of 36 million by that year. Price competitiveness in the South Asian countries has been identified as the key advantage though for establishing the region as an international destination, much remained to be done in the areas of basic infrastructure development, environmental awareness, adoption of modern technologies, development of human resources in the tourism

sector, liberalization of access regime (for eg Visa, restricted area permit etc.) and social development.
iii) Agenda 21

The agenda 21 and the principles of sustainable development endorsed by 182 Heads of State at the United Nation’s Earth Summit at Rio de Janerio in the early nineties provides an important framework for the travel and tourism industry. The Agenda 21 document for tourism industry emphasizes on the need to protect the natural and cultural resources as also to aim for sustainable development of the communities and countries in which tourism activities take place. Tourism heavily depends upon the natural and cultural resources of a country/region and has an important role to play in this existence for conservation and preservation.
iv) SAARC Declaration

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) recognizes the enormous tourism potential in the region and the possibilities of development of intra regional as well as international tourism. SAARC declaration at the end of the 12th Summit held in Islamabad in January 2004, called for the need to promote South Asia as a Tourist destination and designated the year 2005 as South Asian Tourism Year. The SAARC working group on tourism was established and the fist meeting of the group was held in Colombo on 16th -17th August 2004 where representatives of ASEAN were also present. The working group, while emphasizing on Public Private Partnership, made a number of recommendations, which include, inter-alia, promotion and sustainable development of eco tourism, cultural tourism and natural tourism collaboration in human resource development in tourism sector etc.
v) SASEC Tourism

Under the South Asia Sub- Regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) involving Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal (BBIN) the tourism Ministers of the four countries acknowledged that inter regional travel in the sub regional will assume similar significance as inter regional travel in the future and emphasized upon the need to develop a sub regional perspective in tourism planning. It would realize when the sub region receives more than 300 million international visitors per year with the combined revenue reaching $ 3.5 billion in 2002. The per capita spend of each tourist have been estimated as US $ 1073 per visit. Asian

Development Bank in reflection of its experience in tourism cooperation in the Greater Mekong sub region comprising six countries had carried out a similar tourism development project for the SASEC countries.

vi) BIMST-EC Declaration

As a sequel to the Bay of Bengal initiative for Multi Sartorial and Economic Cooperation (BIMST-EC) Summit Declaration of Bangkok in 2004, the BIMST-EC Tourism Ministers’ Round Table and Workshop was held in Kolkata in February 2005. In its joint declaration at the concluding session of the 3 day deliberations the seven BIMST-EC countries viz. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand agreed to reap the maximum advantage from plethora of heritage, cultural, adventure, eco tourism and MICE tourism products in a sustainable manner and devise attractive and cost effective thematic tour packages connecting different tourist destinations in the member countries. The meet also agreed for a pro-active joint marketing campaign to promote BIMST-EC countries as a composite tourism destination and recognized the need for closer cooperation in transport networks. One of the foundations of BIMST-EC was to encourage Public Private Partnership and to make tourism a catalyst of available synergies for doubling tourism activities in the region in the next five year plan.

vii) The Asian Corridor
The ADB has envisaged an Asian Corridor linking Thailand in the east with Afghanistan in the west with tourism development in the BIMST-EC countries as one of the objectives. With this, the Northeastern region of India will be connected with Myanmar and Thailand by road that will also help in the enhancement of trade. As sub-regional initiative, it is proposed to launch a trilateral highway project linking the three South-Southeast Asian countries for enhancing trade, investment and tourism. The ADB has planned to undertake a joint tourism development plan which will focus on infrastructure, human resource development and harmonization of policies like visas, immigration and other related issues. For this ADB IS likely to set up a regional cooperation fund under BIMST-EC with a corpus of US$ 3 million.
National Tourism Policy
The development perspective for tourism is clearly set out in the ‘Vision Statement’ of the National Tourism Policy of 2002. It outlines the overarching objectives to achieve a superior

quality of life for India’s people through Tourism which would provide a unique opportunity for physical invigoration, mental rejuvenation, cultural enrichment and spiritual elevation. The basic principles for achieving this is through evolving a framework based on Public Private Partnership and community orientation.
Under the new tourism policy, tourism is proposed to be placed in the concurrent list so as to provide a constitutional recognition to the tourism sector.
• Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth;
• Harness the direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism;
• Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth.
• Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the burgeoning global travel trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination;
• Acknowledges the critical role of private sector with government working as a pro-active facilitator and catalyst;
• Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage, and culture in partnership with States, private sector and other agencies and
• Ensure that the tourist to India gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually elevated and “feel India from within”.

DONER/NEC

The Department for Development of North Eastern Region (DONER), regional bodies like the North Eastern Council (NEC) have the mandate to accelerate the pace of socio-economic development in the North Eastern Region as well as to synergise the efforts of the Central and State Governments for balanced growth of the region. Plans are being evolved to undertake more cost-effective joint marketing initiatives aimed at intra-regional and interregional tourist markets as well as market research and analyses for encouraging tourism in the region. Experiences show that destination marketing on a joint / regional basis can be effective and can produce great efficiencies of scale.
Development Approach and Strategy

Arunachal Pradesh is endowed with resplendent natural beauty, flora/fauna and rich cultural heritage, which are prime assets for tourism to take place but one finds development in

tourism sector as not taken place in State. Remoteness of the destinations, under developed tourism products as well as lack of adequate infrastructure and promotion/ marketing strategy have deprived this rich resources from the main stream of national and domestic tourist traffic. Keeping in mind the requirement to provide economic opportunities to the local communities as also the need to preserve the fragile eco-system and the ethnic identity of the people, tourism development plan has been designed to the both eco as well as culture sustainable. The sustainability has been drawn from the development paradigm taken from the ethos propounded by Mahatma Gandhi for attaining freedom for the Indian masses. The special coverage of the plan encompasses the entire State and along suitable sites on different circuits. Based on the resource potential of the State and in the line with the objectives of the new tourism policy of Government of India, the development planning strategy for tourism is based on the following resources:
a) People and Culture
b) Natural Beauty and Solitude
c) Floral and Faunal Diversity
d) Archeological, Historical, Religious sites and Monuments

Development Strategy

The broad strategies to be adopted for the development of tourism in Arunachal Pradesh are given below:
• Development of Linkages and Circulation corridors through Circuit / Extended Circuit and Sub-Circuit Planning
• Augmentation of the existing and Development of new destinations and products
• Emphasis on eco-tourism, nature tourism and rural tourism through community initiatives and partnerships and encouraging small and micro enterprises and promotion of Self Employment schemes.
• Conservation and management of natural resources through promotion of eco-tourism in partnership with local communities
• Market Segmentation and Focused Promotional Strategy
• Promotion and highlighting of the indigenous / tribal culture, lifestyles and the traditional wisdom of ethno-science among the communities.
• Promotion and show casing the rivers, bio diversity, forest and wildlife wealth of the State.

• Utilizing the natural, geo-physical resources viz. mountains, passes, gorges and the water wealth of rivers, high altitude lakes, waterfalls, etc for adventure sports, leisure and recreation.
• Promotion of the religio-cultural, pilgrimage, architectural and built-up resources lying across the State.
• Promotion of Festivals and Tribal Sports
• Promotion of Local Handicrafts and Cuisine
• Widening of the Tourist Season
• Sustaining the Destination Life Cycle through upgradation / augmentation
• Seeking synergy from the joint promotion of the North East Region
• Creation of investment opportunities for the private sector and livelihood options for the local communities
• Human Resource Development and Capacity building, social empowerment and improvement in the quality of life of the indigenous people
• Institutional Set-up and Tourism Management
• Environment Conservation and Management
• Communication, Education, Publicity and Awareness
• Synergising with the North East by way of the following:
• Development of the narrow gauge railway line from Rangapara (Tezpur) to Murkongselek (Jonai) near Ruksin Check Gate - the gateway to Pasighat
• Developing the river route over Brahmaputra from Tezpur to Dibrugarh
• Introduction of Tourist Ferry across the Brahmaputra from Dibrugarh to Sonari Ghat and from Dibrugarh to Oiram Ghat
2.4. Product Portfolio
The suggested product portfolio for Arunachal Pradesh consists of the following:
1. Cultural Tourism
2. Nature / Eco Tourism
3. Rural Tourism
4. Adventure Tourism
5. Wildlife & Forest Tourism
6. Leisure Tourism
7. Wellness Tourism

The product rationale is presented in the following paragraphs.

1. Cultural Tourism

Arunachal Pradesh has a rich cultural heritage and varied and vibrant lifestyles of the indigenous tribal communities. Fairs and festivals resplendent with traditional ritual forms of the tribes passed on through generations are unique in their socio-cultural content. The State has immense potential for cultural tourism.

2. Nature / Eco-Tourism

The rich bio-diversity of Arunachal Pradesh resplendent with snow-capped mountains, passes, gorges, rivers, lakes, waterfalls, streams and the vastly undulating forested terrain makes the State an ideal destination for nature lovers and eco-tourists. Eco-tourism activities in different locations spread across the State involving the local communities productive, responsible and ecology sensitive have to be made for sustainability of the resource base.
3. Rural Tourism

The increasingly stressful urban settings provide an opportunity to urban dwellers with a recreational space amidst rural landscapes with natural and cultural diversity. In a way, tourism in rural areas can be categorized as cultural tourism where a visitor seeks to enhance personal experience through exchange of knowledge, interactions with different cultures and environment. Rural tourism can also form the base for eco-tourism, heritage tourism or simply recreation tourism.
4. Adventure Tourism

Arunachal Pradesh with its basket of natural resources spread over a widely undulating terrain can be a haven for adventure sports. Mountaineering, trekking (low, semi and high altitude), mountain biking, river rafting, angling, water sports (in the lakes and rivers), aero sports like paragliding, hang gliding, hot air ballooning, etc are the ingredients that can make the State an attractive destination for adventure sports both nationally and internationally.
5. Wildlife & Forest Tourism

With the second highest (68 per cent) forest cover among all the states in the country, Arunachal Pradesh has 2 (two) national parks, 11 (eleven) wildlife sanctuaries, 1 (one) biosphere reserve, 2 (two) tiger reserves, 4 (four) elephant reserves, 16 (sixteen) reserved forests and many

Anchal forests spread all over the State. Doimara Reserve Forest, Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary, Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve / Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary / Mouling National Park, D'Ering Wildlife Sanctuary, Namdhapha National Park, etc, which are home to some of the rare and endangered faunal species (including avifauna) have potential as international destinations for wildlife tourism / forest tourism.

6. Leisure Tourism

The whole of the State is a repository of breath taking landscapes, plateaus, passes, mountains, gorges, glaciers, waterfalls, rivers, streams, lakes and forests. Added to this, the sparse population density makes Arunachal Pradesh a unique destination for nature lovers, solitude seekers and leisure tourists as well as the film industry for location shooting. Natural beauty and solitude are the two sterling tourism resource attributes that can extend the cutting edge in tourism promotion for the State.
7. Wellness Tourism

The pristine, pollution free, salubrious environs of Arunachal Pradesh along with its much esteemed repertoire of traditional medicine provide the right combination to be the wellness-cum-rejuvenation destination for the tourists seeking to experience indigenous medicine of the tribal communities. The State holds immense potential for emerging as a global destination for herbal healthcare and rejuvenation through indigenous medicine of the various tribal communities.
Development Matrix
The development matrix provides tourist resources to be developed, viz. infrastructure (both general and tourism specific), amenities and facilities for accommodation, recreational, adventure sports and special interest tourism, visitor management and support service, human resource development and environment management, etc, which in essence complete the tourism production system. The development components on which comprehensive Investment Plan and Financing Options have been worked out are summarized below.

Tourism Development Components


Sl. No Development Components
1. Adventure Tourism
2. Fairs and Festivals
3. Tourist Accommodation
4. Restaurant, Bar and Cafeteria
5. Wayside (Midway) Amenities
6. Transportation
7. Human Resource Development
8. Tourism Promotion

Some of these tourism development components have been indicated in separate Chapters, others are listed below.

In addition to the above, the Master Plan has been responsive to the extra-State development needs, which have direct impact on tourism development in Arunachal Pradesh. However, the same has not brought within the purview of Investment Planning for the State. Details of the development components have been presented in the following section.

i) Accommodation

Creation of new/additional accommodation infrastructure have been formulated in keeping with the different categories of tourists identified to visit Arunachal Pradesh during the Plan Period. The suggested types of accommodation are Resorts, Hotels, Tourist Cottages, Eco- Lodge/ Huts and Host villages/ Host Accommodation.

ii) Restaurant, Bar and Cafeteria

Restaurant, Bar and Cafeteria have been proposed for all the six main tourist circuits, extended and sub circuits. The same have been suggested on the basis of the following:

a) Establishment of Restaurant, bar and cafeteria is based on the mean tourist population i.e. the average number of tourist arrivals expected per day on the basis of peak season tourist nights.

b) The seasonality factors of the peak season of the proposed six tourist circuits have been take into consideration.
c) It is assumed that 60% of tourists will avail the restaurant, bar and cafeteria facilities in every circuit.

iii) Wayside (Midway) Facilities

Wayside (Midway) Facilities have been proposed for all the six Main Tourist Circuits including Extended and Sub-Circuits. The same have been suggested on the basis of the following,
i) The seasonality factors in the circuits and the static tourist population i.e. the maximum number of simultaneous tourist arrivals per day during peak season,
ii) The geo-physical condition of the local terrain and normal breaks required in a continuous journey for rest, re-filling and refreshments,
iii) One Wayside Facility for 150 visitor / night in each circuit.

iv) Transportation

The planning for the development of the transportation sector has been based on the likely demand for various transportation vehicles and infrastructure demand. The vehicle demand specific to the tourism needs has been further segmented into three specific transport system usage viz. Mini cab, Maxi cab and Luxury Midi buses. Demand projections for transportation has been made on the basis of tourist arrivals during the peak as well as lean season, the peak season tourist days, tourist transport days and occupancy rates.

v) Airports / Heliports

Inadequate transportation facilities have been one of the stumbling blocks in the growth and development of Arunachal Pradesh. For bringing the geographically isolated regions of the State within the mainstream of transport network of the country and abroad, the air-service network will have to be rejuvenated. A study conducted earlier by the North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd. (NEDFi) on the prospects of a regional air-service network for the North-East showed that given the additional opportunity to operate outside the region also, the regional air service could be a viable proposition. Against the said backdrop and in view of the envisaged tourist inflow to Arunachal Pradesh during the plan period, it is suggested that the Airport Authority of India (AAI), NEC and the State Government work

towards upgradation / operationalisation of the airports at Ziro, Daporijo, Along, Pasighat, Tezu and Bomdila suitable for 70/50 seater aircraft operation during the first phase and establish / upgrade the heliports at Naharlagun (Itanagar), Tawang, Rupa, Seppa, Anini. City pairs outside the State should be established with Guwahati, Tezpur and Dibrugarh in Assam.

vi) Solid Waste Disposal

The basis for estimating generation of solid waste has been as follows.

i) Solid Waste generated will be 0.5 kg / Tourist / Day
ii) Cost for Disposal: Rs. 8000/- + 800/- per kg.

The augmentation of solid waste disposal system in tandem with increased tourist volumes has been considered in details. The technical infrastructure requirements and the physical targets are based on the mean tourist population i.e. the average number of tourist arrivals expected per day on the basis of peak season tourist nights. Based on expert opinion, the capital investment norm of Rs. 80.00 lakh per MT of solid waste disposal (which includes disposal trucks, bulldozers, small trolleys, landfills etc.) has been considered. In addition, an annual maintenance cost at the rate of 10% per annum has been assumed. The cost becomes high due to the long distance covered for collection of solid wastes from different nodes within the Circuits as well as from the hinterland thereof.

vii) Water Supply

The basis for estimating Water Supply cost during the increased volume of tourist activities is as follows.
i) Water Consumption - 140 (LPD)
ii) Rate Rs. 21/- per day

viii) Sewage Disposal

The sewage disposal system has been envisaged for drainage of sewerage from point sources near the development of areas / sites and linking the same with the existing sewerage system in the vicinity. The basis for estimating sewage disposal has been as follows:

1) 80 % of Water Supply would be converted as sewage (i.e. 112 ltr. per Tourist / day)
2) Cost considered: Rs. 40/- per ltr.

The augmentation of sewerage system in pace with tourism development has been considered in details. The technical infrastructure requirements and the physical targets are based on the mean tourist population i.e. the average number of tourist arrivals expected per day on the basis of peak season tourist nights. Based on industry norms and discussions with experts, a capital investment of Rs. 3 crore per MLD of sewage disposal has been considered. An additional cost of 20% and 12% on capital expenditure has been provided for drainage and annual maintenance. The total investment plan for augmentation of sewerage system has been made circuit-wise and phase-wise over the 15 year Plan Period

ix) Power

The basis for estimating power has been as follows:

i) The average electricity consumption will be about 0.75 KW per tourist bed.
ii) Room Bed ratio considered is 1 : 1.8
iii) The average project cost of micro Hydel Power Projects having a capacities between one (I) MW and three (3) MW in a hilly regions works out to Rs. 6 crore approx. per MW of power generated, (excluding the cost of transmission and distribution).

Development Paradigm

Inter-sectoral growth models indicate that the overall growth of an underdeveloped economy (dominated by agriculture and/or primary sector activities) comes initially from a 'big push', i.e. major investments in the secondary sector (i.e., the manufacturing sector activities), which absorbs the surplus labour of the primary sector / agriculture, and keeps growing by drawing several of the basic inputs (raw materials, besides labour) from the primary sector. In turn, it provides the primary sector with improved (mechanized) inputs (seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, etc) on one hand and more user-friendly, facilitating consumption items, on the other. This process is replicated in the development of the tertiary sector, basically in the form of transport, communication, trade and commerce, banking and financial activities as well as by the development of the social infrastructure viz. health, education, capacity building, entertainment, etc. The development of the tertiary sector in turn gives a fillip to the primary as well as the secondary sectors by better and quicker supply of inputs (including raw materials) from the respective sources to the production centers and from the production centers to the warehouses/wholesale/terminal markets. As a result, each sector reinforces the activities of the

other sectors thereby improving the overall productivity of the economy significantly. However, in geographically disadvantaged economies with limited resources or access limitation to resources, the development impetus might well originate from the tertiary sector itself, which gives a boost not only to the secondary sector but also the primary sector.

In the present context of tourism development is envisaged with a major spurt in tourism activities propelled by investments therein in the form of accommodation, primary and secondary infrastructure, transportation, travel, trade etc., with their forward and backward linkages, the first visible impacts will be in the form of expanded livelihood options and employment opportunities for the local people and a resultant increase in their incomes. This would in turn give rise to the establishment of series of micro level, small and medium sector enterprises engaged in the manufacture of goods required by the tertiary sector activities e.g., engineering, construction materials, paper and paper products, wooden/ steel furniture, packaged/fast good, bakery items and mineral water, handloom and ready made garments, traditional medicine, etc. Thus employment opportunities in the secondary sector will be opened up where general as well as specialized skills will be in demand. The existing handicrafts and handloom manufacturing activities will also get a substantial upward thrust. The spill over effect of the development of the tertiary sector will extend opportunities to the agriculture sector by way of improved facilities (e.g. transportation, communication, warehousing, marketing, etc.) and inputs and generation of more effective demand for the produce of the primary sector. On the social front the evolution of the tertiary sector will provide opportunities for modernization while major precautions should be taken to control degradation of the environment, ensure food security of the local people and the adoption of appropriate technologies.

It would be interesting to bring Mahatma Gandhi’s development paradigm into effect for developing tourism in the State of Arunachal Pradesh. He had suggested that development of urban area is better linked with the development of local community, which is to be made through, mobilizing and organizing the local community e.g., achieving people objectives. He had mobilized and organized the Indian society to achieve political rights thereby getting freedom for the nation from the British Yoke. Here we will have to take same development paradigm into account to allow the local community to get organized after being mobilized for development of tourism. Being a multi disciplinary activity the local community will have to be

given lessons in various areas of development and such lessons should be given periodically to them till they imbibe the ethos which we would like them to do so.

The over all multiplier effect of the initial thrust would envisage the tertiary sector led growth. Distributing the eco sensitive character of the State by any other development model is likely to create more problems in respect of sustainable development of the State and it’s economy as well as of the welfare of the local community.

Chapter – III State Profile

Introduction

Arunachal Pradesh, the land of immense natural beauty and cultural heritage, provides ample scope to attract tourists. The mountain ranges, valleys, forests and biodiversity, rivers and lakes are the existing natural wealth of the State. This wealth is the base resource for development of tourism in the State through proper destination and product planning. Trekking, mountaineering, wildlife tourism, river rafting and other water sports as well as its peaceful retreats can be promoted under such pristine natural environment. This would need a lot of improvement so that people can stay comfortably and go out for observing natural heritage and come back. Leisure tourism is an important subject, which needs to be developed in this State

The built resources such as archaeological and historical sites and monuments as well as living heritage (culture) of the state expressed through dance, art, crafts and some of the resources which have strong pull factor to attract tourist from different corners of the globe. With this unique ethnic diversity and distinctive socio-cultural heritage with wide repertoire with colourful festivals and dances resplendent in myriad hues are some of the resources which could be so showcased for tourism promotion. Indigenous architecture, ethno medicine and skilled craftsmanship of the tribal communities have great appeal before the discerning tourists. In the succeeding paragraphs district wise profiles and resources identified for the development of the State tourism has been provided with the contextual references to the present tourist circuits.

Natural Resources


The total geographical area of the State is 83,743 sq kms. Out of which 70% constitute broad and narrow valley, 10% foot hills and flat areas and 20% constitutes snow clad peak areas. The population density is low (13 persons sq km. as per 2001census).The permanent agricultural operations are confined to around 55% of the total geographical area. About 62% of the total

forest area of the state is under unclassified forest where the local people exercise their traditional rights and of which a large portion of the area are under shifting cultivation.

Arunachal Pradesh is a natural garden of more than 20,000 identified species of medicinal plants and many more still remain unidentified. In the course of shifting cultivation remarkable varieties of flora and fauna are disappearing, which need immediate attention for extensive and intensive studies.

Traditional knowledge is dynamic and subjective in nature, embedded with socio cultural and spiritual instincts, and may include informal experimentation in a given socio-ecological environment to solve a particular problem, may it be agriculture, animal husbandry, handicraft, food, medicine or natural resources management. The placement of traditional practices after exploration is not only important for its dissemination and learning but also its preservation and protection from bio piracy.

The forest eco-system is to be preserved and managed for wildlife improvement, soil and water resources conservation, maintenance and improvement of bio-diversity medicinal plant and for what is now termed as eco-tourism to improve the economic potentiality of the people living in and around forest. Tropical forests are living museum and laboratories that have yielded only a tiny fraction of treasures to scientific study.

Wildlife in the natural system constitutes the most important component of the ecosystem, which participates affectively in the energy flow and bio-geo-chemical cycling. Animal-plant, plant-plant and animal –animal interaction are the basic milestone of the success of an ecosystem and its productivity. As such, the richness of the ecosystem means the capacity of hold high species diversity but deforestation has threatened the very fabric of the survival of wildlife and the ecosystem in the region. This area is the habitat of as many as 55 major mammalian species of which 17 are extremely rare.

Changes of traditional institutions and customary laws exist in managing natural resources in a self governed tribal society of Arunachal Pradesh.
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DISTRICT WISE TOURISM RESOURCES OF
ARUNACHAL PRADESH


DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Tawang

LOCATION: It is bordered by Tibet in the North, Bhutan in the South-West and Sela ranges separate West Kameng district in the East.

AREA: 2085 sq. km

POPULATION (2001 census): 38924
Male:21846; Female: 17078 LITERACY RATE: 47.3% ( Both Male and Female) MAJOR TRIBES: Monpa
HOW TO REACH

From Guwahati or Tezpur, one has to go to Bhalukpong in West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh and from there via Bomdila and Sela Pass one can go to Tawang by road. (Tezpur to Bomdilla 165km, Bomdilla to Tawang 183 km). There are regular bus services by APST as well as by private agencies. The nearest railway stations are at Tezpur and Rangapara and the nearest airport is at Tezpur.
Airports/Helipads
a) Tawang Helipad
b) Salonbari ( Tezpur ) Airport – 358 kms.
Nearest Railway station
a) Bhalukpong :298 kms
b) Rangapara North 350 kms.
ACCOMMODATION
a) Tourist lodge
b) Circuit House
c) Hotels
PLACES OF INTEREST
1. Tawang
Distance from Itanagar : 547 Kms

Accommodation : Hotel Buddha, Hotel Gorichen, Hotel Sangrilla, Hotel
Paradise, Hotel Mcleodganj, Hotel Dongpho, Hotel Massang, Hotel NEFA, Hotel Alpine, Hotel Gangchen, Hotel Tawang Inn, Hotel Tourist Hut, Hotel Samdupling, Hotel Dolma, Hotel Monyul, Hotel Anapurna, Hotel Rainbow, New Circuit House, Old Circuit House, Tourist Lodge, PWD IB (Tawang), Hotel Tashi

Access : By road/AP Helicopter Service

1. Chugmi ranges and Twang Chu river and valley.
2. Twang monastery funded by Mera Lama Lodre Gyaltso during 17th centaury AD. The library in the monastery has a big collection of ancient books and manuscripts where the famous Buddhist scriptures of Kangyur and Tangyur inscribed in gold are preserved.
3. Nyamjang Chu river and valley.
2. Urgyelling
Distance from Tawang : 4 Kms
Accommodation : It is located within Tawang Township Access : By road, AP Helicopter Service
1. Birth place of Thangyang Gyatso. Bramadug Chaung / Sengsarbu Ani Monastery, Gyanggong Ani Monastery, Nunneries located in the far of reaches of the mountains
3. Jaswant Garh
Distance from Tawang : 63 Kms Access : By Road
1. War memorial founded in memory of Martyrs of the 1962 India-China War.
4. Zemithang
Distance from Tawang : 94 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB and Tourist Lodge
Access : By Road
1. Brokenthang waterfalls. Gorchan Chorten, Sarsang, Sandrukpen Monastery built in stone in the 17th to 18th century. It is believed that this stupa is the 2nd largest Buddhist stupa after Budhnath stupa in Asia.
5. Lumla
Distance from Tawang : 50 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB and Tourist Lodge
Access : By Road, AP Helicopter Service

1. Nam-Tsering waterfalls
6. Taktsang
Distance from Tawang : 46 Kms Access : By Road

1. Sangatsar lake, home of snow pigeon and musk deer. Buddhist pilgrimage centre, where Guru Padma Sambhwa is reported to have offered prayers.

7. Nagula
Distance from Tawang : 28 Kms Access : By Road
1. Pangkeng lake, high altitude mountain pass.

8. Sela
Distance from Tawang : 80 Kms Access : By Road
1. High mountain ranges, Sela lake, Bangajang Monestery.
9. Jang
Distance from Tawang : 34 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road
1. Nuranang waterfalls, Gorichan peak, proposed wild life sanctuary for protecting red panda and musk deer, Lhou- proposed reserved forest.



DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Bomdilla

LOCATION: West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh is located at 260 54' to 280 01'North Latitude and 910 30' to 920 40' East Longitude. The altitude of the district varies from 650` to 13714 ft. The district is surrounded by Tibet region of China in the North, Bhutan on the West Kameng and East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh are in the North West and East respectively. The Southern boundary adjoins Sonitpur District of Assam

AREA: 7422 Sq. Km

POPULATION (2001 census): 74,599
Male: 42,542; Female: 32,057 LITERACY RATE: 60.8% ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Monpas, Sherdukpen, Akas, Mijis and Khowas (Buguns)


PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Bhalukpong
Distance from Bomdila : 90 Kms

Accommodation : Forest Guest House, IB/Circuit House, Hotel, Hornbill, Hotel
Solu, Hotel Ama Yangri, Hotel Sambhala
Access : By Road

1. Ruins of Bhalukpong, Kameng river suitable for fishing and water sports, Archaeological ruins of king Bhaluka’s fort of 10th to 12th century.

2. Lagela Gompa at Morshing Distance from Bomdila : 90 Kms. Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road
1. Old trekking trails
3. Sessa
Distance from Bomdila : 73 Kms Access : By Road
1. Orchid conservation sanctuary
4. Rupa
Distance from Bomdila : 18 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB, Hotel Arohi, Hotel Sawne Access : By Road
1. Waterfalls, eagle nest wild life sanctuary, Rupa Gompa
5. Shergaon
Distance from Bomdila : 60 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road
1. Rock face suitable for adventure sports, scenic beauty
6. Hot spring at Dirang
Distance from Bomdila : 45 Kms
Accommodation : Tented accommodation available, Tourist Lodge Access : By Road

7. Shangti
Distance from Bomdila : 52 km Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road
1. Sangti valley
8. Bomdila
Distance from Tezpur : 52 Kms
Accommodation : Hotel Shipyangpong, Hotel Dawa, Hotel Bomdila, Hotel
Pasang, Hotel Pine Ridge, Hotel La, Hotel Yatri Niwas, Hotel Sangrila, Tourist Lodge, Circuit House, Forest Guest House, Hotel Native Inn, Hotel Elysium, Hotel Potola, Hotel Himland, Hotel Samurai
Access : By Road

1. Buddhist monasteries, Gonpatse monastery built by Rev. Gonpatse Rimpoche, Archaeological sites and monuments Craft centre, District Library and Museum, Yak/Sheep breeding and rearing centres, Apple orchards etc. Kangte and Gorichen ranges, Tenga river and valley, Bomdi – La (Pass)

9. Tipi
Distance from Tezpur : 65 Kms:
Accommodation : Forest rest house, Hotel Retreat
Access : By Road

1. Waterfalls, Orchid museum and Herbarium with more than 450 Orchids species.



10. Sela & Sange, SELA PASS Nechiphu (Zero Point)
Distance from Tezpur : Sange – 238 Kms, Sela Pass – 268 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD) at Sange
Access : By Road

1. Panoramic views

11. Jamiri
Distance from Tezpur : 124 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

1. Megalithic stone rock

12. Dirang
Distance from Tezpur : 203 Kms
Accommodation : Tourist Lodge, Hotel Pemaling and Govt. IB Access : By Road

1. Hot water springs, Orchid conservation sanctuary, Lish Gompa, Dirang Dzong, Apple nursery, Kiwi farm, Hydel Power project.

Ruins of Dimachung-Betali
13. Betali
Distance from Tezpur : 105 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road
1. Scenic beauty
2. Stone sculpture

14. Tenzingaon
Distance from Tezpur : 215 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

1. Scenic beauty, Tibetan settlement and carpet weaving centre, Gyuto monastery, Tantric University of the Lamas

15. Doimara reserve forest
Distance from Tezpur : 70 Kms
Access : By Road
1. Famous for Rhododendron and Orchids




HOW TO REACH
One can reach Tezpur by flight via Kolkata. From Guwahati /Tezpur one has to proceed to Bomdila by road which takes about 4 hours from Bhalukpong and 6 hours from Tezpur. So, it is necessary to halt on the way in Bhalukpong. Accommodation facilities like Government rest house, tourist lodge and hotels are available in the way in Bhalukpong, Bomdila & Dirang.

ACCOMMODATION

Tourist Lodge (Bomdila) Cicuit House (Bomdila) Forest IB (Bomdila)
Cicuit House (Bhalukpong) Circuit House/IB (Rupa) Circuit House/IB (Dirang) Circuit House/IB (Jamiri) Circuit House/IB (Kalaktang) Circuit House/IB (Nafra) Bomdila Tourist Lodge Dirang
Shyphiang-pong Hotel Hotel – La

DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Seppa
LOCATION: East Kameng district is situated in the Western part of Arunachal Pradesh which exactly lies to the east of West Kameng District. It is lying between 92.36' E and 93.24' E longitudes and 26.56' to 27.59' N latitudes

AREA: 4134 Sq. Kms

POPULATION (2001 census): 57179
Male: 28802; Female: 28377 LITERACY RATE: 40.16% ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Nyishi

ACCOMMODATION: Seppa Circuit house
HOW TO REACH
Airports/Helipads: a) Seppa Helipad
b) Salonibari ( Tezpur ) Airport

Nearest Railway station a) Bhalukpong148 km



PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Pappu Valley
Distance from Seppa : 21km
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

2. Pakke-Valley
Distance from Seppa : 140km
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

3. Passu Valley
Distance from Seppa : 78km
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

4. Naksha Parbat
Distance from Seppa : 225 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

1. Archaeological site of a 14th to 15th century A.D. settlement

5. Pakhui wild life sanctuary
Distance from Seppa : 225 kms.
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road

6. Pampoli horticulture garden

Distance from Seppa : 8 Kms
Access : By Road

7. Seppa - Bameng Craft Centres, District library and museum
Distance from Seppa : 72 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road
1. Natural beauty, District museum, craft centre and library

8. Lada
Distance from Seppa : 38 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : Trek Route

9. Chayangtajo
Distance from Seppa : 81km
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road
1. Chayangtajo is famous for "Gorichaan", the snow peaked Mountain which can also be seen from Bameng. Hill station, Archaeological sites
10. Bameng
Distance from Seppa : 48km
Accommodation : Govt. IB (PWD)
Access : By Road
1. Hill station
2. Kameng River valley


DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Yupia
LOCATION: The Papum Pare District the capital district of Arunachal Pradesh is situated in the North–Eastern part of India. It is located in between latitude 26 55’N and 28 40’ and longitude between 92 40’ and 94 21’.
AREA: 2875 sq km

POPULATION (2001 census): 122003
Male: 64184; Female: 57819 LITERACY RATE: 69.3 % ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Nyishi

ACCOMMODATION
a) Circuit house
b) Ashoka Hotel

c) Bomdila Hotel
d) Arun Subansiri Hotel

HOW TO REACH
Airports/Helipads: a) Naharlagun Helipad
b) Itanagar Helipad

Nearest Railway station a) Harmati (Assam)
PLACES OF INTEREST
1. Itanagar
Distance from Yupia :18 km
Accommodation : Hotel Donyi Polo Ashok, Hotel Arun Subansiri, Hotel
Bomdila, Hotel Blue Pine, Hotel Kameng, Hotel Itafort, Hotel Alpine, Hotel Aane, Circuit House, Banquet Hall
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter service
1. Itanagar has been identified with Mayapur, the capital of the 11th century AD Jitri dynasty. At Itanagar, one can find historical fort called Ita Fort, dating back to the 14-15 centuries, after which it is named.
2. Ganga Lake (Gekkar Sinyi) is a beautiful picnic spot, 6 kms away from Itanagar.
3. Consecrated by the Dalai Lama, the Buddhist temple is a beautiful yellow roofed shrine reflects the extensive Tibetan influence and provides good views of Itanagar and the surrounding countryside.
4. Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum provides a kaleidoscope of Arunachal Pradesh and one can see wood carvings, musical instruments, textiles, handicrafts and archeological finds, while a workshop in the Handicrafts Centre specializes in traditional cane manufacture. It also has a library section.
2. Yupia
Distance from Itanagar : 18 km
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter service
3. Naharlagun
Distance from Itanagar :
Accommodation : Hotel Arunachal, Hotel Rajhans, Hotel Simang, Hotel
Chandni, Tosum Hotel, State Guest House
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter service

1. Craft centre, Polo park, Mini zoo, Nursery forest, Shiv temple


DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Koloriang
LOCATION: North-west – Tibet
North-east – Upper Subansiri district
South - Lower Subansiri and Papumpare district

West - East Kameng district

POPULATION (2001 census): 42518
Male: 21117; Female: 21401 LITERACY RATE: 25.7% ( Both Male and Female) MAJOR TRIBES: Nyishi
HOW TO REACH
Airport : Tezpur
Nearest Railway Station: Tezpur

PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Koloriang
Accommodation : Govt. Circuit House
Access : By Road

1. Scenic beauty

2. Sangram
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. River paging, Rural landscape

3. Parsiparlo
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Kamala river, Archaeological Neolithic site.



DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Ziro LOCATION:
AREA: 10,135 Sq.km

POPULATION (2001 census): 55726
Male: 28425; Female: 27301 LITERACY RATE: 60.79% (Both Male and Female)

MAJOR TRIBES: Apatani, Nyishi, Sulung

HOW TO REACH
Airports/Helipads Old Ziro / Tezpur
Nearest Railway station North Lakhimpur (Assam)


PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Ziro
Distance from Itanagar : 167 kms
Accommodation : Hotel Highland, Hotel Centre Point Hapoli, Hotel Blue Pine,
Hotel Pine Ridge Hotel, Circuit House
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter Service

1. Kile Pakho: A ridge located at 7 km. from old Ziro where one can see a clear view of Ziro plateau on one side and snow range of Himalayas called “Nyime Pembu” on the other.

2. Pine Grove: Pine clad area about 3 km. from old Ziro.

3. Midey: 2 Km from old Ziro, this is famous for gigantic Sat-Nii Piisha And Samenii, a Blue pine tree (Pinus wallichina) being biggest and tallest tree in the Apatani valley

4. Ziro Putu: From this hillock one can have bird’s eye view of Apatani plateau.

5. Dolo Mando: A hillock of legendary love affairs between Dolo & Mando. It is located at 2 kms. from Hapoli towards Old Ziro on the western side of Ziro – Daporijo Road.

6. Shiva Lingam at Kardo Forest: It is believed that this Lingam in Ziro has been mentioned in the Shivapurana in 17th chapter of the ninth section (Nava Khand ke Satrahwa Adhyaya) edition 1893 that the tallest Shiva Lingam will appear at a place which will be called Lingalaya and the later the whole will be known as Arunachal. It is about 4 Km away from Hapoli township. The height of Shiva Lingam is 25ft. and 22 ft width at Kardo.

7. Paddy cum fish cultivation, district craft center, Apatani villages of Hari and Hong.

2. Talley Valley
Distance from Ziro : 32km
Access : By Road
1. Taley Wild Life Sanctuary: It has a diverse flora and fauna ranging from sub- tropical to alpine forests. Home to endangered species like, clouded leopard

3. Hapoli
Distance from Ziro : 32km
Accommodation : Hotel Highland, Hotel Centre Point Hapoli, Hotel Blue Pine,
Hotel Pine, Circuit House
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter Service

1. Tarin Fish Farm: About 3.5 km from Hapoli Town, one can see beautiful high altitude fish farm where breeding of high altitude fishes is done.
2. Dilopolyang -Maniipolyang : A twin hillock on the way to Talley Valley after crossing Siro village is a scenic grassland land beneath the natural forests.

4. Raga
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Scenic beauty

5. Yazali
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Panaromic view of Panyor River

6. Yachuli
Accommodation : Forest Rest House
Access : By Road

1. River Kole



7. Ranganadi
Accommodation : NEPCO Guest House
Access : By Road

1. Panyor River and River valley

ACCOMMODATION

Hapoli Guest House, Old Ziro, Hotels Blue Pine, Arunachal Guest House, Peack Lodge, Jumolharie, Moda and Pine Ridge, Circuit house, Hapoli, Peak lodge, Hapoli, Blue Pine Hotel Hapoli



DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Daporijo

LOCATION: West – Kurung Kumey district
North and Northwest - Tibet (China)
South and Southwest - Lower Subansiri district West and Southeast - West Siang district

POPULATION (2001 census): 55346

Male: 28240; Female: 27106 LITERACY RATE: 50.3% ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Tagin, Nyishi

ACCOMMODATION
a) Circuit house, Daporijo
b) Hotel Santosh
c) Kanchanjangha

HOW TO REACH
Airports/Helipads a) Airport Daporijo / Tezpur / Dibrugarh

Nearest Railway station a) Silapathar (Assam)
b) North Lakhimpur (Assam)
c) Tezpur
d) Dibrugarh

PLACES OF INTEREST
1. Daporijo
Distance from Itanagar : 423 km
Accommodation : Hotel Santanu, Hotel Kanchanjunga, Hotel Green View,
Circuit House
Access : By Road

1. Kamala Reserve Forest, Sigem – Daporijo Reserve Forest,
2. Menga Cave dedicated to Lord Shiva temple,
3. Bamboo and cane suspension bridge over river Subansiri



DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Along

LOCATION: bounded on the North by China, on the East by Upper Siang & East Siang districts, on the South by Assam and on the West by Upper Subansiri & Lower Subansiri districts of Arunachal Pradesh,

AREA: 8325 Sq. km

POPULATION (2001 census): 103, 918
Male: 54, 349; Female: 49, 569 LITERACY RATE: 60.31 % ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Adi, Memba

HOW TO REACH
Airports/Helipads Airport Along / Dibrugarh Nearest Railway station Tezpur and Dibrugarh

PLACES OF INTEREST
1. Malinithan
Distance from Along : By bus and car from Silapathar. Likabali,8 Km from
Silapathar.
Accommodation : Govt. IB at Likabali
Access : By Road

1. Archaeological site dating between 10th to 14th century, it is set on a mound of about 60 metres high, overlooking the vast stretch of the Brahmaputra Valley. Malinithan is associated with the Krishna legends. According to the tradition, Krishna and Rukmini, daughter of King Bhishmak, took a rest at this place on their way to Dwaraka from Bhishmaknagar. They were received cordially by Siva and his consort Durga (Parvati) as guests. Durga garlanded them with choicest flowers. At this, Krishna, in praise, addressed her as Malini (mistress of the garden). Since then, the place came to be known as Malinithan or Malinisthan - the seat of Malini.

2. Relics of stone images of Malinithan littered all over the mound came to notice from the early twenties of the present century. In course of a series of excavations beginning from 1968 and ending in 1971, ruins of temples and valuable sculptures were unearthed at this site. Beautifully designed and decorated basement of a temple, divine images, icons of Hindu deities, fine sculptures with animal motifs and floral designs, broken columns and panels with carvings were among the huge mass of stony remains, which were dug out as if from a buried treasure.

3. Ruins of a big temple belonging to 14th - 15th century. The Brahmical images, namely Indira on Airavata, Kartikeya on peacock, Surya on chariot, Ganesha with mouse and huge Nandi Bull can be seen on the site.

2. Akashiganga
Access : By bus and car from Silapathar, 12 Km from Likabali.

1. Water falls considered auspicious by Hindus for washing away of sins. Pilgrimage town for Hindus associated with legend of Kalika Puran. It is believed that the this place is associated with the legend narrated in the Kalika Purana (8th Century A.D.) that where the corpse of Sati (Parvati) was cut into pieces by Vishnu with his discus at the refusal of Siva to part away with it, her head fell somewhere near Akashiganga.

2. The Sacred Kund.
3. Mechuka
Accommodation : Govt. IB and Circuit House
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter Service

1. The Gompa at Mechuka is one of the oldest monasteries called Samten Yongcha of Mehayana sect located at a hilltop in the western most part of Mechuka. This Gompa as per oral history of Membas is a contemporary of the great Tawang monastery.
2. Mechuka lake

4. Along
Accommodation : Circuit House, Hotel Magson, Hotel Agam, Hotel Holiday,
Hotel Cottage, Yongbo Hotel
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter Service
1. At the confluence of Sipu and Siyom river, it is one of the oldest towns. Sites to visit are Patum bridge, Dony- Polo temple, District Museum.

5. Kamki
Access : By Road
1. Natural beauty
6. Basar
Accommodation : Govt. IB, Circuit House, Hotel Bam Access : By Road
1. Natural beauty
7. Kane
Access : By Road

1. Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Home of red Panda and leopard



DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Pasighat

LOCATION: 27.30 to 29.420 N latitude & 94.420 to 95.350 E longitude. Boundary :
North - Upper Siang District South - Dhemaji District, Assam East - Dibang Valley District West - West Siang District.
AREA: 4,005 sq km

POPULATION (2001 census): 87,397
Male: 45265; Female: 42,132 LITERACY RATE: 60.72 % ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Minyong, Padam, Pasi

HOW TO REACH
Airports/Helipads Pasighat / Dibrugarh and Guwahati (Assam), Mebo Helipad Nearest Railway station Murkong Silek

PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Pasighat
Distance from Itanagar : 285 Kms
Accommodation : Siang Guest House, Hotel Donyi Polo, Hotel Siang, Hotel
East, Hotel Oman, Hotel Sangpo, Arun Park Hotel, Hotel Anne
Access : By Road and AP Helicopter Service

1. Historic town is surrounded with the natural beauty of the Siang River and the oldest administrative settlement of Arunachal Pradesh was established in 1912 during the British era.

2. Trekking and white water sports are possible.

2. Kekar Monying (Black Rock) Distance from Pasighat : 67 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. A mountain cliff near Rottung is an important historical place because it was here that the Adi put up a strong resistance against the British in 1911. Komsing, a village on the left bank of the Siang is the place of Williamson's murder and a stone epitaph bearing the name of Noel.

3. Gom-si (Rani) - Archaeological site Distance from Pasighat : 55 Kms Access : By Road

1. Early Medieval Period (probably Pre-Ahom) pieces have been found here. The site has a big rectangular Canal measuring 3.5 meters wide and a pond. A mound has been unearthed inside the Canal area from where 13 different sizes of bricks have been found from its brick wall.

4. Dr. Daying Ering Wild Life Sanctuary Distance from Pasighat : 17 Kms Accommodation : Forest Rest House
Access : By Road and By Boat

1. One has to cruise through River Siang by country boat to reach the place. During September - February, a variety of migratory birds like cranes, wild-ducks, storks, water- fowls etc. from Siberia and Mongolia come here making it a paradise for the bird watchers during September to February each year. It is veritable delight to amateur and professional ornithologists. The forest islands are home for hog deer, hispid hare, wild buffalo, Sambars, elephant and other rainforest macro and micro fauna.

5. Pangin
Distance from Pasighat : 83 Kms Accommodation : Government IB
Access : By Road

1. It presents a rare sight where the blue waters of Siyom meet the green Siang and established spot for fishing and angling.

6. Boleng (Angling)
Distance from Pasighat : 100 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Situated at the confluence of Simong and Siang Rivers.

7. Bodak
Distance from Pasighat : 25 Kms Access : By Road

1. Situated on the banks of River Siang and popular for angling and fishing spot.



8. Mebo
Distance from Pasighat : 15 Kms

Access : By Road

1. Situated on the banks of Siku River is a small settlement with distinct natural beauty. The flocking of thousands of pigeons on the salty bank of Siku is a visual treat.

9. Komsing (Monument)

1. Site for British erected epitaph / memorial stone of Sir Neol Williamson.
2. Scenic beauty of the surrounding mountains.

10. Kebang

1. Historical place near Rottung with a memorial of a tribal (Adi) Martyr Marmur
Jomoh.

ACCOMMODATION

Park Hotel Pasighat. Sanggo Hotel Pasighat. Hotel East
Hotel Siang Hotel Donyi-Polo Hotel Yirang Hotel Hill Beauty Arun Hotel
Circuit House (New) Circuit House (Old)
I.B. and G.T.C. Guest House


DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Yingkiong

LOCATION: Between 94 Deg. - 95 Deg. North North - China (Tibet)
Southwest - East Siang District
East - Dibang Valley & Lower Dibang Valley West - West Siang District

POPULATION (2001 census): 33363
Male: 18057; Female: 15306 LITERACY RATE: 49.80 % (Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Adi Galong, Adi, Minyong, Mishing

HOW TO REACH

Nearest Railhead Murkongselek - 221 KM from Yingkiong via Pasighat

Nearest Airport Lilabari (North Lakhimpur) - 329 KM from Yingkiong via Along Dibrugarh / Guwahati (Assam)

ACCOMMODATION
Yingkiong Circuit House Jengging Circuit House

PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Mariyang & Pekimodi
Distance from Yingkiong : 54 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. Circuit House/ Govt. IB
Access : By Road/ AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting

1. It is situated at a hillock overlooking the confluence of the river Yammeng and Yamne. Apart from scenic beauty, one can go and see the Damro village, which is known to be the largest village of Upper Siang District (10 KMs from Mariyang). Pekimodi, which is famous in Adi folklore is 34 KMs away from Mariyang.

2. Tuting - Gelling
Distance from Yingkiong. : 225 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. Circuit House/ Govt. IB
Access : By Road/ AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting

1. River Tsangpo enters here from Tibet and is locally named Tsang Chu, which is further named river Siang in the South and Bramhaputra in Assam.

2. Rimpoche's Residence, Curved images of Lord Buddha Memba, a Nyingma Sect. of Mahayana Buddhist inhabits Gelling Cricle. There is a 3 hours trekking from Gelling to Bishing where a series of beautiful cataract falls down from mountain above 300 feet. The remnants of Kapangla Pass is still present near Gelling. Earlier, this pass was the main trade route for Adis and Tibet.

3. Yingkiong - Ekodumbing - Riutala
Distance from Yingkiong. : 45 Kms
Access : By Trek/ AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting

1. Ekodumbing (Riutala) is under Simong territory. During the month of October and November the people of Simong arrive here in group to collect EMO (Aconite), which is used for hunting. there is also Yameng Lake at Eco-Dumbing. Now a days the place has acquired religious importance for the Buddhists. They call Eko Dumbing as


Riutala and regard it as a paradise of Awalokeshwara. The Buddhists Pilgrims from far flung areas arrive here in the month of August and September to offer their prayers. Riutala is a hill which is interspersed by many lakes. Around this place there are many caves which give shelter to pilgrims.

4. Yingkiong - Tuting - Dewakota

Distance from Yingkiong. : 160 Kms (Tuting to Dewakota – 3 days trek) Accommodation : AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting
Access : By Road/ AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting

1. Nay Dewakota: The natives believe that Guru Rimpoche has kept many sacred treasure / script at Dewakota, which are yet to be revealed and deciphered. There are many holy spots like Sindura, Guru Durpuk and numerous caves which were said to have been used by Guru Padma Sabbawa. The caves can accommodate more than 100 pilgrims at a time. They are opened only during winter season, during rest of the year, the caves remain submerged under Yangshang Chu river.

2. The Membas of Gelling and Khambas of Singha believe that the present pilgrim places like Dewakota, Riutala, Pema Shree, Dakar Tashi and Jachung were engraved by Lord Guru Rimpoche or Guru Padma Sabbawa - the Second Buddha.

5. Yingkiong - Tuting - Tsitapuri
Distance from Yingkiong. : 160 Kms (Tuting to Tsitapuri 4 days trek) Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road/ AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting.

1. Tsitapuri is believed to be the paradise of Lord Guru Rimpoche. A spectacular sight of this place is that there are more than 108 lakes in it. Lake Danakhosa is one of them, from where river Nyigong (Yangshang Chu) and Jeying Chu originate. Buddhist people believe that those who are fortunate or have pure heart witness different wild animals and a Gompa with a queue of Lamas with their prayer wheel and beads in their hands on the island. The lake is surrounded by barren mountain valleys covered with snow throughout the year.

6. Mouling National Wildlife Sanctuary
Distance from Yingkiong. : 8 Kms upto Camp site Accommodation : Forest Guest House
Access : By trek/ AP Helicopter Service upto Yingkiong and Tuting

1. It is located in the right bank of river Siang and is a reserved house for diverse flora and fauna. Ornamental plants like foxtail, orchids are abundant in this area. One can venture into this park during winter season by seasonal trekking path from Bomdo and Ramsing villages. Inside the sanctuary, there are many attractive waterfalls. Dabung Waterfall and Nirbung Waterfall are two of them.


DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Roing

LOCATION: North: Dibang Valley District
West : East Siang District East : Lohit District
AREA: 3900 sq. km

POPULATION (2001 census): 51,237
Male: 27,562; Female: 23,675

LITERACY RATE: 60.34 % (Both Male and Female) MAJOR TRIBES: Adi, Mishing and Galo


ACCOMMODATION

a) Circuit House Roing
c) Donyi Polo Hotel

HOW TO REACH

Nearest Railway Station: Tinsukia Nearest Airport:






PLACES OF INTEREST
1. Mayudia
Distance from Roing : 43 Kms
Accommodation : Tourist Lodge and Forest Rest House Access : By Road

1. It is nestled at a height of 2655 m amidst lofty hills, lush green forests and breathtaking landscapes. Trekking in high altitudes in chilled weather can be done here.

2. Kunduli
Distance from Roing : 28 Kms Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Archaeological site of 8th century of the Chutia and Ahom dynasties having golden period called Kunduli Valley civilization.

2. Ruins of a temple of Goddess Tameswari Siv linga

3. Mahao
Distance from Roing : 28 Kms
Accommodation : Forest Rest House
Access : By Road
Area : 281.5 sq. km

1. Mahao Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a living treasure for Scientists i.e. Ornithologists, Zoologist, Botanists, Ecologists. The altitude varies from 400m to 3568m

2. Mahao Lake: Part of the Mahao Wildlife Sanctuary, situated at an altitude of nearly 3000 feet, this is the natural stretch of water which is considered to be one of the most beautiful spots in Arunachal Pradesh. Trekking the small pathway leading to the lake through the virgin forest is a wonderful experience. Geologists have classified this Lake as Oliogotropic (Low Nutrient) Lake. Where no fish is available is called as Low Nutrient Lake.

4. Sally-a lake resort
Distance from Roing : 5 Kms
Accommodation : Forest Rest House
Access : By Road

1. The lake overlooks the beautiful valley down below on the far horizon and the Dibang River.

5. Iphipani
Distance from Roing : 12 km
Access : By Road

1. One can get a picturesque view of the plain valley of river Dibang. One can also do fishing and angling.

6. Bomjir
Distance from Roing : 34 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road/ Boat

1. Dibang Reserve Forest: Sisiri River flows through this forest which is home to a rich flora and fauna.

7. Nizomaghat
Distance from Roing : 90 Kms
Access : By Road

1. This is a historical Nizamghat established by Britishers in the nineteenth century, named after the British Political Officer J.F.Needham. It was the access point for the Britishers to enter in the hills. A small ferry here connects Dambuk to Roing.

8. Hunli
Distance from Roing : 90 km
Accommodation : Government IB
Access : By Road
1. It is at an altitude of 5000 feet. Two hours of trek from the town is an interesting cave temple at Kupunli near Hunli.

9. Bhismaknagar

Distance from Roing : 30 km
Access : By Road

1. Bhismaknagar fort is tentatively dated to 8th century and is recorded as the oldest archaeological site in the region. The site was first explored by I. Block in 1848 and afterward it was excavated from 1965-70. The complex houses the ruins of brick-built structure of 1860.52 sq. meters plinth area, having three halls, two extension rooms and six entrances in all.

10. Rukmini Nati (Archaeological Site)
Distance from Roing : 12km
Access : By Road

1. Rukmini Nati ruins of Chidu Chimri Fort of Princess Rukmini situated at the heart of Chimiri village dates back to 10th century. There are remains of burnt and baked bricks, which indicates the progress of the erstwhile civilization.

11. Devnath Village
Access : By Road

1. There is an old brick well with designs of birds, bows and arrows.

12. Injonu Village
Access : By Road

1. An ancient granite stone image of Ganesha dating around 9th-10th centuries has been found here.

13. Dambuk
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road/ boat crossing

1. There is an old random rubble masonry wall built in the 19th century by the Padams.


14. Ita and Padum Pukhuri
Distance from Roing : 14km
Access : By Road

1. It is a historical brick built pond located at Ithili village. A few hundred yards apart from Itapukhuri is situated Padum Pukhuri where in the month of October/November, hundreds of lotus flowers bloom in it.

15. Kampona Pond
Distance from Roing : 17km
Access : By Road

1. It is situated at Idili village. Kampona is the abode of Nag Raja, as per Adi belief.

16. Roing
Accommodation : Govt. Guest House and Hotels

Access : Can be accessed from the adjacent state-Assam by road and air. Visitors can reach Roing by road from Tinsukia via Dhola and Sadiya. One has to cross mighty Brahmaputra River while traveling from Tinsukia via Dhola ghat/Sadiya Ghat to Roing. One can also come from Tezu via Sunpura road or from Pasighat via Dambuk and Nijomghat. A tourist can also enter the district from Paglam area. The nearest airports are at Dibrugarh (Mohanbari) and Guwahati (Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport) in Assam. Helicopter (Pawan Hans) flights are available from Guwahati, Dibrugarh/Mohanbari and Naharlagun. One can travel by Indian Airlines and Sahara Flights up to Dibrugarh/Mohanbari from where one can travel by land route.

1. Picturesque town in a valley in banks of Dibang River.

2. Nehru Van Udyan: Beautiful forest park on the banks of Deopani with an Orchidium.


3. Bailey Bridge: it is the longest bailey bridge in Asia on Deopani river over which the mountainous road leads to the upper regions of the district.

4. Rehko: Place where Reh festival is held in February.

5. Tribal villages of Idu Mishmi Community.


ACCOMMODATION
Circuit House
Anchal Samiti Guest House Eje Breeze Tower
Mayudia Tourist Lodge Sally Lake Guest House Hotel Lasa
Hotel Mimu

DIBANG VALLEY

DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Anini

LOCATION: North and East: Tibet
South: Lower Dibang Valley
West: Upper Siang District

POPULATION (2001 census): 6,483
Male:3880; Female: 2603

LITERACY RATE: 53 % (Both Male and Female) MAJOR TRIBES: Idu Mishmis
HOW TO REACH
Nearest Airport: Mohanbari (Dibrugarh) in Assam
Helipad: Mohanbari
Nearest Railway Station: Tinsukia (Assam)

PLACES OF INTEREST
1. Anini
Accommodation : Govt. Circuit House, Govt. IB
Access : By Road/ AP Helicopter Service
1. Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary: Spread in an area of 4149 sq km, it is home to musk deer, takin, black bear, leopard etc. and a large number of rare avi-fauna.
2. Etalin
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road
1. Situated at the confluence of Dri and Tangon rivers and famous for the Etalin
Bridge.
3. Popuh
Access : No Road
1. It is a place of mythological importance and an important holy place of the Idu Mishmis.

LOHIT

DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Tezu

LOCATION: North & East: China
South : Changlang District

POPULATION (2001 census): 1,25,086
Male: 67150; Female: 57936 LITERACY RATE: 56.05% ( Male: %; Female: %)
MAJOR TRIBES: Mishmi, Khamti, Singpho

HOW TO REACH

1. Tezu is connected to the adjacent state-Assam by road and air. Visitor can reach Tezu by bus, private vehicle and taxies from Tinsukia, Dhola. One has to cross the rivers Noa-dehing, Digaru and a few rivulets.

2. There are two check-gates. One is at Dirak near Mahadevpur at Lekang Circle and the other is at Sunpura at Sunpura circle. The distance from Dirak gate to Tezu and from Sunpura to Tezu is about 65 Kms. and 30 Kms. respectively.

3. There is direct Arunachal Pradesh state transport (APST) bus service connection from Tinsukia to Tezu. The Tinsukia APST bus station is situated at Tinsukia Township along with the bus station of the Assam state transport service. Private buses/taxis are also available at Tinsukia.

4. The nearest airports are at Dibrugarh (Mohanbari) and Guwahati (Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport) in Assam. Helicopter (Pawan Hans) flights are available from Dibrugarh and Naharlagun. One can travel by Indian Airlines and Sahara Flights up to Mohanbari from where one can travel through land route.

Airports/Helipads Tezu, Airport Nearest Railway station Tinsukia ( Assam )

PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Tezu
Accommodation : Hotel Osin, Hotel Sharma, Hotel Mother, Hotel Saru, Hotel
Recess, Tourist Lodge, Govt. Circuit House
Access : By Road and Ferry and AP Helicopter Service

1. District Museum and Craft Centres.
2. Ruined mud fort in the city.

2. Parasuram Kund
Distance from Tezu : 24 km
Accommodation : Pilgrimage Camp
Access : By Road

1. Parasuram Kunda ('Prabhu Kuthar'), a place of pilgrimage is situated in the lower reaches of the river Lohit is associated with Parasuram's matricide where Parasuram had come for to dip to wash off his sins. Religious people, saints come to this kund on Makarsakranti which falls on the 14th January every year.

3. Namsai
Distance from Tezu : 60 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Namsai Reserve forest rich in flora and fauna.

2. There are several Buddha-Vihar locally called Chong in the Khamtis area. The CHONG of Namsai, Sub.Division and Mon-mao, near the junction of Wakro-Tezu road is big and attractive. The world Peace Pagoda located in a river island at Chongkham is ideal for meditation in front of Buddha statues that surrounds in inner core of the vihar.

3. The Khamti Raja's Chong at Guna Nagar at Chongkham is famouse for relics of Gautama Buddha. All the Chongs and statues of Lord Buddha are made in the Thai- architectural style.
4. Chowkham
Distance from Itanagar : 25 kms Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Nodal point for Manabahum and Tengapani Reserve forest.



5. Wakro
Distance from Tezu : 36 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : The nearest road point is near Twam village on Chongkham- Wakro road from where one has to start trekking for the lake.
1. Kamlang Reserve Forest: Home to rich flora and fauna
2. Glow Lake: It is a beautiful spot with background of snow clad mountains and rich flora and fauna in and around the lake.

ACCOMMODATION

At Tezu: Inspection Bungalow, Tourist Lodge. One can also stay at Namsai Circuit House, Inspection Bungalow or Hotel in the Sub. Divisional Head Quarter-Namsai on way to Tezu. Other stay-places are:

Forest Rest House Sharma Hotel Oshin Hotel Mother Hotel Saru Hotel Circuit House Forest Rest House

The Mishmis mainly perform two types of dance called Buiya and Nuiya. The Khamtis Mask-dance is an attractive dance where two dancers wear shirts spotted design and on their heads masks of cock's heads are put on with its crown at the top and the Beal projecting over the foreheads. These two dancers dance like fighting cocks.



95


1. Dong
Distance from Tezu : 200 km
Access : No direct Road connection

1. The spectacular view of snow-capped mountains and blue pine forest is worth watching besides having glimpse of first sunray.
2. Dong and Dicku Reserve Forest.


2. Walong
Distance from Tezu : 220 Kms
Accommodation : Govt. IB

1. There are hot Springs 5 km from Walong. There is also a war memorial in memory of the soldiers who sacrificed their life in the war against Chinese in 1962.

3. Hawa Camp
Distance from Tezu : 33 km
Access : By Road
1. One can have panoramic eye-view of the magnificent Lohit Valley and sunrise and sun set view from this spot.
4. Hayuliang
Distance from Tezu :
Accommodation : Govt. IB, Tourist Yatri Niwas
Access : By Road
1. Confluence of Lohit and Delai rivers.

5. Kibithu and Dichu
Accommodation : Govt. IB
Access : By Road

1. Last Indian territorial post near Indo-Tibetan border. Lama villages and their culture and lifestyle can be seen here.

6. Jia / Koronu
Access : By Road

1. There is an archaeological site at Padam Pukhuri and Ahom Pukhuri.


DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Changlang

LOCATION: The District lies between the Latitudes 26&deg40'N and 27&deg40'N, and Longitudes 95&deg11'E and 97&deg11'E .It is bounded by Tinsukia District of Assam and Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh in the north, by Tirap District in the west and by Myanmar in the south-east.

POPULATION (2001 census): 1,25,422
Male: 65,821; Female: 59,601 LITERACY RATE: 51.3% ( Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: The inhabitants of Changlang District are the Tangsas, Singphos and Tutsas. The Tangsa tribe comprises of a number of Sub-Tribes, namely Muklom, Havi, Longchang, Mossang, Jugli, Kimsing, Ronrang, Mungrey, Longphi, Longri, Ponthai, Sangwal, Tikhak, Yungkuk, Sakieng and Thamphang. They occupy the southeastern hills of the district along Indo-Myanmar border and Namchik basin.

The Singphos occupy the plain foothills area of northern part of the district under Miao, Bordumsa and Diyun circles. The Tutsas live in the western part of the district under Changlang and Khimiyong circles. Other tribes who have migrated to the district are Noctes (APST), Lisus (Yobin), and Deoris. The Tibetans, Chakmas and Hajongs came as refugees.


HOW TO REACH

To reach Changlang District Headquarter, Dibrugarh airport and Tinsukia rail station are the nearest points. Assam State Transport Corporation and Arunachal Pradesh State Transport buses ply daily from Dibrugarh to Changlang via Tinsukia and Margherita.

Air: Changlang township is 136 km from the nearest Airport at Mohanbari, Dibrugarh, Assam.

Rail: It is 96 km from the nearest long distance Railway station Tinsukia Railway Station, Assam and 45 km from the nearest Passenger Railway station, Margherita Railway Station, Assam.

Road: Good motorable road is connected up to Changlang township. It is 140 km from Dibrugarh, 95 km from Tinsukia, 44 km from Margherita and 110 km from Miao.

Airports/Helipads Changlang Helipad 0 Nearest Railway station Margherita (Assam) 45

ACCOMMODATION
Circuit house Changlang Tourist Lodge, Miao

PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Namdapha
Distance from Miao : 24 Kms

Access : Area: 1985.23 sq km

1. It is a Tiger Reserve and National Park with lush green vegetation, impenetrable pristine and virgin forests declared as Tiger Reserve by the Government in 1983.

2. The Noa-Dihing River meanders through the forest fed by numerous tributaries and has a rich variety of aquatic life. It is the only forest in the world, which is the home to four feline species viz. tiger, leopard, snow leopard and clouded leopard. The forest has more than 150 timber species and some of the rare species of medicinal plants like ‘Mishmi Teeta’.

2. Places within Namdapha:

1. Deban: A forest camp on the bank of the river Noa-Dihing.

2. Firm base: The track leading to the idyllic spot is enveloped by luxuriant forest and it is not uncommon to come across birds and wild animals on the way.

3. Hornbill: It is a homing ground for hornbills.

4. Haldibari: This picturesque camping spot, lies across the Noa-Dehing River can be reached by boat.

5. Bulbulia: This is an enchanting camping site overlooking a large aquifer and derives its name from its several natural springs.

6. Camera Point: This camping site, offers a vantage point for a breath-taking view of Namdapha and its lush green landscape.

7. Motijheel: There are pair of large forest-encased aquifers in this spot providing grazing pasture for a number of herbivores.

8. Gandhigram: This is the remotest and the last village in India wedged China and Myanmar and is the home land of Lisu (Yobin) tribe. A weeklong trek through lush jungles is more enjoyable for those having a craving for adventure.

3. Miao
Distance from Margerita (Assam) : 64 Kms.

1. It is situated at bank of River Noa-Dihing. The interesting things to see are Mini zoo, Forest museum, Wildlife Library and Tibetan refugee settlement where colourful woollen carpets of various designs are produced, oil drilling at Kharsang and Manabum.

4. Jairampur
Distance from Margerita (Assam): 44 Kms

1. The famous historic 'Stilwell Road' passes through this small town from Ledo, Assam, India to Kunming, Yunnan Province, China via Burma. The World War II cemetery of about 1,000 graves of Allied Soldiers is located 6 Km away from Jairampur at the Nampong road.

5. Nampong
Distance from Margerita (Assam): 54 Kms

1. The historic Stilwell Road (Ledo Road) passing through the Nampong and goes down to Burma from here. The Pangsau Pass, the Indo-Burma (Myanmar) border is just 12 Km away from Nampong where the famous the Lake of no Return can be viewed from the Pass.

2. The Hell Gate - installed during the World War II, Nampong: Nampong and Pangsau Pass were considered to be "Hell gate" or "Hell Pass" due to difficult terrains in the Indo-Burma Patkai mountain Range. Crossing these places toward Burma were considered to be dangerous and hazardous as Hell during the World War II.

6. Changlang
Distance from Margerita (Assam): 57 Kms

1. The visitors can also see typical Tangsa/ Tutsa villages/ houses and interact with the local people. One can also enjoy fishing in the Tirap River passing through the heart of the town.

2. District Craft Centre

3. Tea Gardens

4. Ranglum: Here one can find crashed Aircraft Debris of world war-II which renew the memory of the War and natural salt-water spring. You can also have a view of Myanmar Territory and Patkai hill. Suitable for trekking.

5. Kengkho Village: A beautiful village situated at the bank of Tirap River.

6. Jongpho-Hate: A village under Yatdam circle is very well known for its holy and religious importance because of a 'Shiva Linga' in the entrance of the village

7. Thamlom Village: The goddess of rain locally called 'Tsalrong Long' is one such hitherto unknown manifestation of god’s power in the form of a stone. It is located in Thamlom, a tiny village under Khimiyang circle in Changlang district.



DISTRICT HEADQUARTER: Khonsa

LOCATION: Latitude 26 38N & 27 47
Longitude 96 16 E & 95 40 E
North – Dibrugarh of Assam South – Myanmar
East – Changlang District of Arunachal Pradesh

West – Sibsagar District of Assam and Mon District of Nagaland AREA: 2362 Sq. kms
POPULATION (2001 census): 100326
Male: 52537; Female: 47789
Rural: 85,032; Urban: 15,294 LITERACY RATE: 41.7% (Both Male and Female)
MAJOR TRIBES: Nocte, Wanjho and Tutsa

HOW TO REACH
By Train: The nearest railway stations are at Dibrugarh (120 km), Tinsukia (110 km) or Naharkatia (70 km) in Assam . From these places, daily bus/taxi service is available to the district headquarter, Khonsa. It takes approximately 3 hours each from Dibrugarh and Tinsukia and approximately 2 hours from Naharkatia to reach Khonsa. There is a daily Rajdhani Express and Brahamputra Express from New Delhi to Dibrugarh / Tinsukia via Guwahati.

By Bus: Both Govt. and private deluxe bus services are available between Guwahati and Dibrugarh/ Tinsukia. Night service is also available. Then from Dibrugarh or Tinsukia onwards, buses of Arunachal Pradesh State Transport Service (APSTS) to Khonsa have a daily service. Many private taxis / buses also ply on this route. Khonsa has recently been connected to State capital Itanagar by a daily direct bus service of APSTS.

By Air: Dibrugarh is connected to Guwahati by air through 2 daily flights. It also has a direct daily flight to New Delhi. From Dibrugarh onwards, taxi or bus service is available. Dibrugarh is also connected to State Capital Itanagar by a daily helicopter (except Sundays) service. Once a week, the helicopter also lands at Khonsa helipad from Dibrugarh.

Airports/Helipads a) Helipad Khonsa 0
b) Helipad Deomali 44
c) Helipad Longding 54
Nearest Railway station a) Naharkatia, (Assam) 70

ACCOMMODATION
a) Circuit House, Khonsa
b) Circuit House, Deomali

PLACES OF INTEREST

1. Khonsa
Distance from Tinsukia (Assam) : 112 Kms

1. District Handicrafts Centre showcasing district’s craftsmanship.

2. Deomali
Distance from Tinsukia (Assam) : 70 Kms

1. Beautiful landscape, famous centre of veneer industry in the north-east and tea gardens.

3. Narottamnagar
Distance from Tinsukia (Assam) : 77 Kms

1. Tea and coffee plantations/gardens.


4. Longding
Distance from Khonsa: 53 Kms

1. Famous centre of household woodcrafts industry.

2. Base of handicrafts industry of the Wanchos.

3. Natural beauty of the Tissa and the Tissing valleys.

People and Culture

The tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh are patrilineal and based on kinship system. The tribal communities generally follow the norms of community endogamy and clan exogamy. A notable feature of each tribe is its belief in its origin from a single ancestor, often a semi-mythical personality.

The tribal communities have distinct social groups:

1. Mahayana Bhotia Society - Found in the western part of the Kameng river in
West Kameng district and Tawang district in the outer Himalayan regions as well as in the upper regions of Dri, Andra and Yongyap rivers in the Dibang Valley district.

2. Nyishi Society - Found in the region lying between the Subansiri and the Kameng rivers.

3. Adi Society - Found in the areas between Siang and Subansiri districts.

4. Mishmi Society - Found in the Mishmi hills between Dibang and Kameng rivers.

5. Hinayana Khampti, - Found in the Lohit and the Changlang regions.
Singphos Society

6. Tangsa, Noctes &
Wanchos Group - Found in Tirap & Changlang district.


The State has a rich linguistic diversity. Most of the languages belong to Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Chinese, Siamese-Chinese and Tibeto-Burmese groups. There are 6 (six) types of scripts i.e. Assamese, Devanagaris, Hingna, Mon, Roman and Tibetan, in use in Arunachal Pradesh. Along with these, there are about 50 dialects. The tribal communities practice different religions i.e. Tribal Religion, Buddhism, Christianity and Hinduism.

Livelihood and Lifestyle – Most of the communities are agriculturalists. There are large land and forest ownership with shifting and terrace cultivation. The communities are also engaged in hunting, gathering, fishing, animal husbandry, poultry, fruit growing, piggery, etc. Some of the communities have now adopted newer forms of economic practices, such as terrace cultivation, settled cultivation, business and trade.

Earlier barter trade was a common practice among the communities that gradually changed over to monetised trade through market economy. Arunachal Pradesh has now monetised its economy as part of its integration with the mainstream economy.

The communities of Arunachal Pradesh excel in textile weaving, carpet making, can and bamboo work, wood carving, ivory and pottery works along with their agricultural activities. All the communities make their own clothing. Each ethnic group has a distinct style and fashion reflected in the shape and size of the dresses besides found in the fabric, colour, embroidery ornaments and head gears (for male members) etc.
Most of the tribes also prepare, favour and use traditional medicines for themselves. The tribal communities take non-vegetarian food. Consumption of roots and tubers is common among them. The tribal families prepare and consume alcoholic drinks made out of rice and other crops.
Social Custom - The settlement pattern in Arunachal Pradesh is basically depends upon the distribution of clans. Majority of the communities practise rules of patri-local residence. The ‘village councils’ (Kebang) or Chieftainship were dominant features of the social institutions of the communities providing a decentralized form of administration. As a traditional form of governance, each village has a head man. The post of headman is hereditary and the succession of the Chief is guided by the society’s norms and traditions. These institutions, in general, administer welfare activities for the tribes, adjudicate dispute, maintain law and order etc. The unity of the communities are mostly balanced / retained with the help of village level administration. While the communities continue with the traditional social economic, cultural and administrative patterns, it often requires for the government to delicately balance the development programmes of the state.
Joint family system / extended family system is common among the Arunachal Pradesh tribes. Most of the tribes practise monogamy with few exceptions. Bride-price is common among the tribal communities. The tribal communities of Arunachal Pradesh also have a unique system called dormitory system for the male members, which also serves as an institution of informal learning and socialisation of the youth.
Festivals
Festivals are an essential part of the socio-cultural life of the people. The festivals having connection with agriculture and celebrated with ritualistic gaiety either to thank God for the providence or to pray for a bumper harvest.
Some of the important festivals are:-

1. Mopin of Galos,
2. Solung of Adis,
3. Lossar of Monpas,
4. Dree of Apatanis,
5. Si-Donyi of Tagins,
6. Nyokum of Nyishis,
7. Reh of Idu Mishmis.
8. Chalo Loku of Noctes
9. Oriah of Wangchos
10. Sangken of Khamptis
11. Shapwang Yaung-Manapoi of Singphos
12. Tam Ladu of Mishmis

Handlooms and Crafts of Arunachal Pradesh

Handlooms Present Scenario
Weaving is an art that involves technique and skill, and it is an area in which the women of Arunachal Pradesh are particularly gifted. Their array of colourful textiles uses geometric patterns and motifs that have evolved over the centuries. The patterns have symbolic meanings and these vary among villages, though their intricate patterns and color compositions have remained constant over the generations. For instance blue is associated with Apatanis and Hill – Miris and the color green with Tagins.

Apatani Shawls and Basket

Silk - The most widely used fiber in West Kameng is a coarse, beige silk called endi produced by saturnid silk worms. The semi-domesticated larvae feed on the Castor trees that are cultivated on a large scale in Assam and Bhutan. The Monpa, Sherdukpen, Apatani and Nishi tribes use cotton for ordinary garments as well as for utilitarian textiles. The yarn is obtained from the plains of Assam.
Wool is the principal fiber used for weaving in this high altitude area. Local fleece is spun and made into the cloth needed by each household. Usually, two to three pieces of this cloth are stitched into blankets. Sheep wool, which provides the primary fiber, is obtained locally. Russian merino sheep are also bred for high quality wool yarn.
An indigenous fiber called ‘Bank’ used by the Nishi tribe is obtained from the bark of the pudu plant. These fibres are dipped in water and beaten with a stone or wooden stick. When completely dry, beeswax is rubbed over the strands to make the fibre pliable and strong. The fibres are taken out one at a time and twisted with fingers to form a single thread.
In Kameng, fibres are almost always spun with a drop spindle. Made of bamboo, it consists of a round, earthen piece at one end, with a notch at the other and is preceded by soaking, drying and simple combing. Thread, kutpa is then spun with the drop spindle. From the spindle, the yarn is transferred to a winding wheel or hand-held skein winder. It is then wound into bails of skein for weaving in natural colours or for dyeing. Today, the weavers also have easy access to markets in the plains of Assam from where they obtain mercerized cotton, blended cotton polyester, and machine-spun woollen and acrylic yams. Cotton is rarely used these days

Dyes - Indigenous dyes used to colour yarns came from creepers and leaves. They are of special significance as most of the tribes have special colors associated with them They

also represent an intangible heritage of our tribal culture and are important to the region identity.
Today, these are supplemented with commercial dyes that have become popular due to their availability and use. The dyes are fixed on the yarns with the use of mordants. Traditionally, sour fruits like wild apple and Isur (stone powder) are used for this purpose.


Some of the popular indigenous dyes are as below:

Red: Lac is the most ancient of animal dyes, is widely used in Kameng for its brilliant red colour.
Yellow pigment comes from the leaves of tsot (Rhubarb) shrubs.
Blue: The blue dye comes from the broacl leaf of a shrub called gya that con- tains Indigolin
Black: In Kameng, black is obtained from jeha, which is a kind of mud found around stagnant water.
White: Normally, natural wool is off-white in color and is used as it is. A purer white is achieved by bleaching the yarn with lime.

Looms- Weaving is done using a variety of looms. Weaving on frames in between beams, allowing the crossing and re-crossing of warp threads, is limited to the Kameng districts. The loin or/back-strap loom is found all over Arunachal, chiefly because it is easy to carry, and simple to use.

BACK STRAP LOOM The loin loom is used for making fabric that is 16-22 inches wide and narrow strips of pile carpets and blankets, most suited to the tribal lifestyle because it is compact and portable, and can be used inside and outside the house.

HORIZONTAL FRAME LOOM: Called the thritak, requires the
weaver to sit on a raised seat which
is a privilege usually reserved for lamas. Used mainly for weaving cloth and looped carpets, the loom consists of a main frame with two side beams.
VERTICAL LOOM The vertical loom or theri is used to weave knotted Tibetan carpets. It consists of a vertical, two-beamed, rectangular wooden frame.

Strategy for Development of Handlooms

Although for most craftsmen this is not an exclusive occupation, in some cases done mainly by the women folk for family consumption and use.

However the distribution of skills and an understanding of the properties and limitations of the material is a valuable resource for the formation and expansion of any handloom and craft-based industry. Hence any strategy should revolve around the local material and its blends and the revival of the inherent tribal skills in the form of new designs and products.

For instance weaving being predominated by women has low productivity and cloth is largely woven for personal use and has only secondary priority after their domestic responsibilities. Infact over time the design element in weaving is getting oversimplified to save time. For example the remarkable Apatani shawl needs revival.

There is a fairly well-established industry which supplies finished products to Handicraft emporia in the metropolitan cities. This industry is distributed over several locations in Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya and Manipur. Most of these emporia-type products are sold as curios which are far removed from any functional context. Perhaps this factor has contributed to the degeneration in the aesthetic and structural quality standards of these products. An excessive preoccupation with decorative detail with no reference to material properties or traditional form and skill sets should be avoided to create a niche for handlooms from this area.

Crafts

Women’s Footwear

The women wear black, green or blue felted knee-length boots with embroidery in front called maloun beedar. They have woven jute soles that are Tibetan in style. The boots are secured with decorative, hand-woven laces.

Jewellery is highly regarded in tribal society. The finely crafted ornaments are handed down from generations to generations and each piece has a deep symbolic meaning.

The most beautiful and prized possession of the Monpa women is the ngankor, a necklace made of semi-precious stones. Made of cat's-eye stone, zei, coral zeeru, and turquoise nein, at times the necklace is interspersed with gold nuggets and silver. Women also wear similar bead necklaces of different varieties and colors for instance white pearl necklace interspersed with turquoise and coral or a profusion of colorful bead necklaces.

Amulets: To keep away evil spirits, women generally wear a rieun amulet made by lamas, worn on a red and white thread. Intricately carved gold and silver amulets called gao consist of charm cases containing spells or prayers designed to ward off evil spirits.

Bangles: All women wear bangles, customarily a pair of the best quality they can afford, set with pale coral and turquoise or heavy bracelets made of mixed metal or silver bracelets that are embellished in the filigree technique.

Earrings: Huge silver ear-rings gilded silver rings delicate waist belts.

Masks and Paintings

The Mahayana stream of Buddhism is responsible, at least in part, for the peaceful way of life of the Monpas and the Sherdukpens. In addition, it has helped adorn their life with a range of art forms, though art is not an end in itself, but part of their quest for the spiritual.

Thangka Painting

Their creations are designed to take them closer to the Buddhist ideal.

Strategy for Development of Crafts

Most aren't too well known outside the region. Mask carving is now a declining art. Few masks are stored in villages and a mask is replaced only when broken. With a decline in custom, few craftsmen have remained, restricted to Kameng. Equally disturbing is the decline in the quality of the craftsmanship of these masks.

As these crafts have either remained confined to local use or have lost their originality.

• Revival Strategy would entail restoring their original skills with a difference in products and end use.
• As many of these are also a part of performing arts – these could me made an inherent part of a heritage tourist route which would include dance and performances and shopping alleys selling the local crafts such as Scroll and mural painting, wood carving and jewellery.
• Music and mask dances and other performances will tend them a distinct identity and encourage buying by the visitors.

Cane and bamboo are domestic crafts that find extensive usage among the tribes of the districts of Arunachal Pradesh. Since the craft is as artistic as it is utilitarian, its use is not restricted to any particular class of society. In fact, craftsmanship using cane and bamboo is not considered so much a profession as a skill borne of necessity. Textures, quality and unusual shapes enhance the appeal of the craft.
This craft is largely dependent upon the prevailing ecological conditions within the state. The climate and soil facilitates the luxuriant growth of various species of bamboo, cane and reed. Bamboo is used lo make a variety of baskets, household utensils, suspension bridges, fishing and hunting traps, ornaments, and war implements. Cane, on the other hand, is used mainly for tying, making strings, fine mats, multipurpose baskets and backpacks.
Baskets are used for everything from storage to carrying goods on one's back, and a variety of basket weaving techniques are employed for the purpose. Baskets are broadly classified by their specific function — carrying, storage, decorative.
Flattened Bamboo Containers: A very interesting and unusual way of using whole or half bamboo culms to make containers was first seen in Manipur and later again in Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Heat is used to flatten a bamboo culm into a sheet without letting it develop any cracks. These sheets are then converted into containers of different shapes and sizes depending on their function. While the basic process of heat-flattening the culm is the same in all three states, the details of the process differ.
Monpa Flattened Bamboo Containers: The Monpas from Kameng, the western district of Arunachal Pradesh, make very interesting containers from flattened bamboo. Living at fairly high altitudes where very little bamboo grows, it is particularly creditable that these people collect bamboo from some distance away and use it with such refinement.
Thuppuk: This is a container used by the Noctes of Arunachal Pradesh to store rice beer. A number of small whole bamboo containers made from small diameter culms were seen in the district museums of Arunachal. Like miniature beer mugs with lids, some of these were only 75 mm high, but beautifully made, complete with fine braided cane straps and rings. These are used as little pouches for tobacco or valuables.
Carrying Baskets: The tribes of the northeastern region use baskets to transport a wide range of goods required for day-to-day living. Grain is carried from the fields to the village granaries, firewood is collected for fuel from the forest, water is carried in bamboo tubes placed inside a basket and fish caught from streams are only some of the products carried in baskets. The weekly purchases from the bazaars and cooked food to the fields are also carried in baskets. In the northeastern region the term "carrying basket" is used for an extremely diverse range of products.

Open-Weave Carrying Baskets: Several baskets made in the northeastern region employ the open-hexagonal weave in their construction. The hexagonal weave is used because it is the most economical way of generating a strong surface, i.e., with the use of minimum material leaving relatively large open spaces. As mentioned earlier, these could either have a square base, made up of elements woven at right angles to each other or a polygonal base made in an open-hexagonal weave.

In both cases the sides of the basket are made up of two sets of elements extending out of the base where one set moves up the side inclined in the clockwise direction with the

other set inclined in the opposite direction. These two sets do not interweave, but form two separate layers, one on the inside surface of the basket and the other on the outer surface.

Barsi: The barsi is an open-weave basket used by the Adi Gallong tribe of Siang District in Arunachal Pradesh. This is a general purpose carrying basket used by women for marketing. It is carried with a head-strap made from braided cane splits forming a long belt of uniform width. The basket may be woven from either cane splits or bamboo splits.

The weave elements can be either fine or coarse, but the width of these elements is always greater than their thickness. The elements used in the warp are sometimes wider than those of the weft; more often, however, they are of approximately the same dimension. There are three main base-shapes in these baskets. These could be a square or rectangular base, a circular base, or a conical base ending in a sharp point —the last two being fairly similar in construction.

Mat Weaving Industry: As the name denotes is not just about matting but an array of innovative products from very fine and flexible bamboo mats.

Bamboo mats are flexible only in the direction of the warp as the weft consists of relatively rigid bamboo splits. The flexibility of the weft depends on the flexibility of the splits used. Some mats are woven with a combination of wide and narrow strips of bamboo. Colored or texture warp stripes are made by arranging the warn threads accordingly and sometimes the bamboo strips themselves are dyed.

Bamboo matting may be sold by the meter or converted into products. The cost per meter of the malting depends on the fineness of bamboo spins. the width of the mat and the number and colour of warp threads used per 25 mm.

Products and By-products

A number of products such as fans, lampshades, handbags and various decorative items are made from converting bamboo matting. The simplest is a wall-hanging made from a 600 mm long mat, with a picture painted on it in oil colors by a local artist. The ends of the hanging are stiffened by bamboo splints. Another decorative product made from waste strips of matting are flower sticks. Bamboo table-mats are one of the most popular products. These are woven on the loom in the required length and width.

Tea Cozy and Tray Mat: A tea cozy and tray mat makes up another product. Made from very fine bamboo splits less than half a millimeter in width.

Folding Fans: Semi-circular and circular fans are made from bamboo matting using the unidirectional flexible quality of the mat.

Lampshades:
Lampshades are also made from

bamboo matting. The idea is a good one, as the texture of the mat is accentuated when it is seen against the light. However, the samples seen were very crudely made without much attention to details.

Development Strategy for Cane & Bamboo

Product Diversity: This diversity stems from several influencing factors. They are as follows:
• The intended function of the product,
• The mode of carrying these baskets, i.e. whether they are carried in the hand; slung over one shoulder with a strap; or slung over the back with a strap over the head.
• Traditional and cultural differences between ethnic groups.
• The availability of suitable raw materials as specific species of bamboo and cane are available in abundance in different areas within the region.
• The different ways in which the technology of working with bamboo and cane are understood by the various groups of people.

The detailing and structural logic seen in these products show a sensitive understanding of the complex interplay of all the above factors. It is obvious that the high level of refinement seen in the products evolved over a very long period of time.
The skill of working with bamboo is extremely widespread, with a large percentage of the ethnic population capable of refined craftsmanship in this material. Although for most craftsmen this is not an exclusive occupation, the distribution of skills and an understanding of the properties and limitations of the material is a valuable resource for the formation and expansion of any craft-based industry.
In addition, a range of new products could be developed based on simple modifications of existing types. One such product line could be architectural interior elements such as screens and partitions made from the split bamboo mats and flattened bamboo elements presently being used for house construction by tribal communities.

Several tribes in Arunachal make flattened bamboo containers in a variety of shapes for storing and serving food. These could be extended to the production of contemporary products such as salad bowls, serving dishes, and trays intended for both urban upcountry and export markets.
The possible new applications could be in the area of sports goods, toys and furniture, to name only a few. In this effort it would be worthwhile exploring the role of bamboo in substituting rapidly declining timber resources.
A study on the imports of textiles , crafts and basket ware which includes bamboo products— besides wicker, rattan, and products woven or plaited in other natural materials— indicates a substantial niche and utility market in countries such as the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and France. The developing countries of Asia, listed according to their level of export, include the Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Thailand and Indonesia. It is surprising to note that India has no significant

participation in this trade in spite of its massive raw material resources and its fantastic fund of traditional craft skills.

Therefore, increased communication, greater awareness through education of the development process is required. There is a definite need to develop industrial entrepreneurship, to assist in the tasks of employment and income generation which are self sustainable. However, sensitive government support would be essential in developing the necessary infrastructure.

The acne and bamboo craft strengths of the region offer an exciting and feasible starling point for the development of entrepreneurial attitudes essential for the overall development of the region supported by the tertiary sector initiatives.


Carpets
Carpets are woven in West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh using a variety of techniques.

Woven carpets are used chiefly for draping over the barks of yaks and horses. Yak hair is employed, with two tighter stripes formed by the brown warp threads of sheep wool. A meandering pattern is added by binding a white cotton cord after the weaving is complete. The carpet is backed with sheep skin, wool side out.

Looped Carpets: Shaggy and rough in appearance, looped carpets have simple designs that may range from one or more narrow strips across each end to a complete self- colored border surrounding a plain field. Patterns in the field, if any, are composed of simple shades consisting of square or straight lines. Simple, star-like patterns and square motifs are scattered over the field.

Knotted Carpets: By far the finest and most sophisticated, knolled carpets are woven on a simple vertical loom and have come to be recognized for their fine quality. Designs are composed and colored using graph paper on which the weaver copies the design from the back of an old carpet, slung over the top of the loom.


Chapter – IV Tourism Promotion
Introduction

Marketing of tourism for an area is essential to inform prospective tourists about what the area has to offer and to persuade them to visit it. Market planning needs to be understood as part of the overall tourism planning process, and as it relates to development of the tourism product. Marketing involves several activities — establishing the marketing objectives; formulating the marketing strategy; preparing and implementing the promotion programme; and providing tourist information services. Market planning can be done for both international and domestic tourists or a combination of these.

Today tourism industry is highly competitive in the run to attract potential tourists. Arunachal Pradesh is composed of so many diverse attractions that it calls for identification of strategic circuits for which effective marketing strategies are required to be worked out for promotion of tourism. The product portfolio offered for promotion of Arunachal Pradesh has been conceived over 8 (eight) broad categories of tourism typologies viz.(i) Cultural Tourism,
(ii) Nature / Ecotourism, (iii) Rural Tourism, (iv) Adventure Tourism, (v) Wildlife and Forest Tourism, (vi) Leisure Tourism, (vii) Special Interest Tourism (viii) Wellness Tourism.

Tourism Market Overview

Formulating the Marketing Strategy
The marketing strategy sets forth the most effective approach to be applied to achieve the marketing objectives. The strategy may include:

• Whether the marketing will be general, aimed at general interest tourists, or be selective and directed to specific types of tourist markets. Primary, secondary and opportunity markets are identified.
• The general types of promotional techniques to be used and where they should be directed — to tour operators, the tourist consumer or a combination of these.
• The timing or priority scheduling of promotional efforts to certain types of markets or countries. Timing may depend on the scheduling of tourism development projects.

• The image and reality of the area to be conveyed. A newly developing tourist destination may need to first create a desirable image of itself before engaging in specific promotion.
• Any particular obstacles to overcome such as recent political instability or a natural disaster.

• Whether promotion offices should be established in the major market source countries, or local marketing representation contracted in those countries, or promotion is handled directly from the home office.
• Consideration of any contingencies which may arise such as the opening of previously closed market sources.

The marketing strategy should be related to both long term and short term objectives. By doing this, the foundation is laid to achieve the longer-term objectives but with the short term ones planned more specifically. The marketing strategy should be reviewed fairly often. It can be modified, if necessary, depending on market trends and any changes in development of the tourism product.

Destination Selection: The Decision Variables

Tourism demand is a consumption process influenced by a number of decision variables. At the individual level, attitudes, perceptions and the intensity of motivation play vital role in the decision making framework. The decision making process of a tourism consumption involves four (4) basic elements viz.
i) Motivating Elements: These are the energizers of demand, which propel a tourist to visit a particular destination.
ii) Filtration Elements: These are the demand constraints (that may be economic, social, psychological/ risk factors), which are assessed before taking final decision.
iii) Impacting Elements: These are the promotional elements of a destination which impacts consumer decision making positively or negatively by affecting the motivating elements.
iv) Extraneous Elements: These are the influences of culture, family (main decision maker), friends and colleagues, which have bearing upon the consumption type and manner of tourism products.

Marketing and promotional strategies therefore should be cognizant of the tourist behavioral patterns.

Tourism Product

Arunachal Pradesh being unexplored state, it should be possible for the state to develop sustainable tourism, practically for all areas and for all seasons. Connectivity and

are informed. Fairs and festivals, tribal games, handicrafts, sunrise experience, border flag meetings, etc. should be linked with accommodation so that tourism product could have a meaning for people to come and stay at various locations in Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh needs a line permit through State Department of Home therefore, it deters people visiting Arunachal Pradesh. This may be looked into and generally, tourists need not be asked for inner line permit.
Market Segmentation by Product Typology

The likely visitation of domestic and foreign tourists over the different product typologies offered by the State is summarized in the following Table.
Product Typology vis-a-vis Tourist Visitation

Sl. No. Tourism Typology High Visitation Moderate Visitation
1. Cultural Tourism Foreign Domestic
2. Nature /Ecotourism Foreign
Domestic
3. Rural Tourism Domestic Foreign
4. Adventure Tourism Foreign Domestic
5. Wildlife and Forest Tourism Foreign
Domestic
6. Leisure Tourism Domestic Foreign
7. Special Interest Tourism Domestic Foreign
8. Wellness Tourism Domestic Foreign

Market Segmentation by Spatial Source

The following geographic market segments have been identified for promotion of the products and destinations of Arunachal Pradesh. The source markets where thrust will have to be given during the immediate, intermediate and long term periods are given below:

Stages and Source Markets

Stage States within India International
Immediate West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi and other N-E States Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, China,
Japan, South Korea, UK, USA and Israel
Intermediate Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam,
Cambodia, Bangladesh, Canada, Italy, Holland Germany

Long Term Himachal Pradesh, Tamil
Nadu, Chandigarh, Orissa, Kerala, and Karnataka Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, Spain



Proposed Marketing Strategy

Like any consumer product, tourism needs to be promoted by an aggressive and well coordinated marketing strategy. And to be successful as a Brand in the market place, all the elements of its marketing mix will have to be managed in a professional way. With a view to attaining the stated objectives the following marketing / promotion strategy has been suggested.
Promotion of Events / Fairs and Festivals
Arunachal Pradesh can be a strong contender for hosting international events on Cultural and Heritage tourism, Eco-tourism, Adventure tourism. Tourism linked activities and programmes of regional associations like SAARC, BIMST-EC, etc like the SAARC Adventure Camp held in Darjeeling in West Bengal can be held in Arunachal Pradesh, which has immense potential for adventure tourism. The proposed Tourism Board should take up these issues with the Ministries of Tourism, Culture, Youth Affairs and Sports and the External Affairs of the Government of India for organizing such events.
In addition, major cultural activities focusing around the religious festivals like Dance, Musical nights, Open-air Evening Cultural programmes should be organized where the tourists’ participation should be encouraged. There should also be a system of awarding Prize to the participants. Some other events specific to Arunachal's tradition and culture should also be orgainsed as follows:
i) Brahmaputra Festival and Buddha Mahatsava: The already existing events should be promoted more vigorously. In addition annual River Festivals covering all the major rivers (e.g. Kameng / Subansiri / Siang / Dibang / Lohit / Noa Dihang, etc) should be promoted.
ii) Recreating Doimara Trade Fair: The historic Doimara Fair, the origin of which is traced to the first decade of the nineteenth Century has been one of the two nodal centres of cross area trade where the Sherdukpens, Thembang Monpas and merchants from Tibet traded with the British merchants. The historic event can be re-incarnated as an Ethnic Trade Fair and promoted as an annual event. The venue may be rotated among Doimara, Rupa, Kalaktang and Dirang where traders from Tibet (China) may be allowed to participate.

iii) Promotion of Tribal Games: Indigenous games of Arunachal Pradesh have been closely attached with celebration and festivities and form a vibrant expression of the cultural identity of the communities. Theme based promotion of some of the games should be made either back- to- back with the local festivals or as stand alone events. The identified games are (i) Mimic Warfare (ii) Mock Hunting (iii) Archery (iv) Snake Games (v) Dragon Trail (vi) Hog’s Rub (vii) Cat and Mouse, etc. Some of the Children's Games should also be highlighted.
iv) Tattoo Festival: Tattooing is an important socio-cultural practice among some of the tribes like the Wancho, Apatini, Nyishi, Aka and Tangsa. Promotion of Tattoo Festival may be made either during the major festivals of the communities or separately. Modern tattooing techniques should be utilized to promote this unique art using motifs approved by the said communities.
v) Sunrise Experience: Sunrise in Arunachal Pradesh is a unique intangible resource and should be promoted as a privileged experience. Experiencing the country's first sunrise from vantage locations or by ballooning over the mountainscape can be a lifetime experience for the tourists.
vi) Border Flag Meetings: The border flag meetings between the Indian and the Chinese armies at selected points on the Indo -Tibet boundary can be promoted for viewing by the tourists. These meetings which are not very frequent can attract domestic tourists. Special arrangements with the Indian Army will have to be made for this purpose.
vii) Other festivals and events to be promoted are:
- Tribal Dance Festivals,
- Food Festival,
- Orchid Festival and Flower Show,
- Handicrafts Festival,
- Festival of Tribal Sports,
- Porter's Race (in the eco-tourism destination).

Showing films (initially at national level and subsequently at international level) on Adventure Sports - in collaboration with the Dept. of Tourism & Culture, Govt. of India, New Delhi should also be organized.
viii) Exhibitions and Workshops may be organized as follows:

• Photo Exhibitions on nature and wildlife in association with leading photography instrument makers like Nikon, Kodak, Canon, Olympia in collaboration with

internationally popular TV channels like The National Geographic, Discovery, BBC and CNN
• Conservation Awareness Workshops in collaboration with world bodies like UNEP, UNESCO, etc.
• Observation of World Tourism Day as a fixed annual event
• Institution of Awards for Responsible Tourism for the operators of Travel and Hospitality industry, Ecotourism Committees among the Tribal Communities

Appropriate planning linking the other Northeastern States should be made for integrating the fairs and festivals of the region as a whole. A calendar of events of the major Fairs and Festivals should be prepared.

ix) Overseas Representation: International awareness on Arunachal Pradesh needs to be created through the Indian embassies and the front desks of Air India and the Tourism Department of the Government of India

x) Tourism Exhibitions: The Department of Tourism has been participating in various tourism related fairs and marts held in the country. It is suggested that the current endeavour be stepped up by promoting various themes of Arunachal Pradesh. Representing Arunachal Pradesh at the major fairs / events / exhibitions at the both national and international level. Some of these are suggested below:
• WTM / PATA / IATO/ TAAI Meets / Annual Conference.
• Beijing International Travel and Tourism Market (B1TTM), Beijing International
• Tourism Expo (BITE)
• Business Travel Show (Germany), Korea World Travel Fair, Thailand Travel Mart.
• TTF Kolkata, Bangalore, Hydrabad, etc. India Travel Mart

Public Relations
Major thrust should be given to Public Relations in the source markets during the first phase of tourism development for making brand ‘Arunachal’ as a premium product. This is essential to create the right image for Arunachal in the marketplace where active cooperation is needed from the hoteliers, transport operators, etc, for developing complementarities between the source and the destination markets. Organizing Familiarization (FAM) tours of the major tour operators, travel agents, airlines in the source markets particularly South and South East Asia region need to be initiated to promote Buddhist and cultural packages targeted at both domestic and international tourists as part of promoting the North East as a composite destination in
collaboration with other States.
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Inviting travel writers to Arunachal Pradesh who in turn can write about their impressions in their respective papers. This is a very effective method of stimulation of the motivational elements of a would-be tourist.
Organising familiarization (FAM) trips for journalists, travel writers, tour operators, airlines, etc. from the SAARC/ BIMST-EC countries under full local hospitality by the APTDB. A FAM trip had already been organized to North Eastern States for BIMST-EC delegates.

Present Marketing Efforts

Marketing of Arunachal Pradesh as a tourist destination is fairly low keyed with low promotional visibility. On present reckoning however, some marketing efforts have been taken, which include the print media, electronic media and event based promotions like festivals, fairs and exhibitions.
The Directorate of Information, Public Relation and Printing of the Government of Arunachal Pradesh, publishes brochures/leaflets and propaganda materials on general tourism related issues. The Department of Tourism, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh supported by Government of India, jointly brings out brochures and promotional collaterals in general as also highlighting fairs and festivals (Bramhaputra Festival, Buddha Mohotsav, etc.).

The Environment and Forest Department, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh also brings out literatures like Namdapha Nature News, etc. on forest and wildlife. These apart, some initiatives are also been taken up by Directorate of Sports & Youth Affairs, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh and the Directorate of Research, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh.
In addition to the above a number of tour operators like Purvi Discovery, Jungle Travels India (Assam based) and Liza Travels, Kon Travels & Tourism Private Ltd., Donyi Hango Tours, etc of Arunachal Pradesh also publish leaflets, brochures and other tourist literature highlighting places of tourist interest, tour programmes, etc.
However, the information brochures of the sub-agents are qualitatively inferior for attracting potential visitors. So far as the electronic media is concerned, the Directorate of Tourism, Government of Arunachal Pradesh has hosted a web site highlighting the destinations spread over the approved tourism circuits. The State Government also undertakes cultural programmes and supports exhibitions at national and international levels. State Tourism

Department also participates either directly or indirectly through its authorized tour operators in event like the Travel and Tourism Fair (TTF), an annual event in Kolkata and Bangalore.
The present level of promotional and publicity programmes initiated by Arunachal Pradesh are not much effective for attracting tourists in viable numbers round the year so as to sustain the sectoral economy. Tourism marketing is virtually absent in Arunachal Pradesh. Travel writers rarely cover the State. Information on the State is difficult to obtain and a large number of Indians may not even be aware of the location of the State. The major limiting factors for the low-trap inertia in tourism marketing can be attributed to the following.
i) Low priority accorded to the tourism sector in the State Plan.
ii) Despite a number of circuits having already identified, the critical gaps in their linkages have still remained due to weak interaction among different stakeholder Departments
iii) Tourism as an economic activity has been unable to build confidence among private entrepreneurs for Investment in the State.
iv) Regional tourism i.e. tourism within the Northeastern States has also remained low-keyed having minimum linkage effects on Arunachal Pradesh.
v) The general sense of insecurity among tourists over political disturbances in the Northeastern region.
vi) Entry restrictions to Arunachal Pradesh (Inner Line Permit and Restricted Area Permit)

Establishing the Marketing Objectives

In the comprehensive and integrated planning approach, the marketing objectives are represented by the market targets of the types and numbers of tourists to be attracted. The targets are expressed in terms of the approximate numbers of tourist arrivals by type, average length of stay, and other characteristics. The tourist groups aimed for should be closely related to the tourism product and the kinds of tourists and tourism desired. The major objectives of tourism marketing are as follows:
• Creation of a sustainable demand base at the national and international levels for consumption of the tourism products and services through a set of dynamic promotional strategies
• Balanced distribution of tourists over time and space.
• Emphasis on Quality tourism over Quantity tourism.
• Positioning Arunachal Pradesh in national and global tourism map.
• Establishing a brand image of Arunachal Pradesh
• Promoting myths and cultural ethos of the tribal communities.
• Showcasing the DSPs of the products which have sufficient strength to pull the tourists and thereby, monopolising the products from the competitive basket of other States.
• Ensuring the selling of right tourist products to the right market segment at appropriate time and affordable price.

• Promoting logistics for attracting high spending tourists keeping in view, control of budget tourists to check mass tourism particularly in 'eco and ethnic' sensitive zones.
• Widening the seasonal base
• Promoting activity based tourism particularly during lean period so as to reduce /mitigate seasonality of tourist arrivals.
• Deepening the market penetration of the existing source markets in the area
• Augmentation/up gradation of tourismdestinations/products life cycles for maintaining their sustainability.
• Product upgradation particularly for attracting repeat visitation for obviating the indifference in satisfaction' fatigue.

In already developed tourist destinations, the marketing objectives may also relate to changing the types of markets, such as aiming for higher quality or special interest markets. Such objectives must, of course, be coordinated with corresponding changes made in the tourism product of attractions, facilities and services.
The marketing strategy should be related to both the longer and shorter-term objectives. By doing this, the foundation is laid to achieve the longer-term objectives but with the shorter- term ones planned more specifically. The marketing strategy should be reviewed fairly often. It can be modified, if necessary, depending on market trends and any changes in development of the tourism product.
Tourist Circuits
The supply base of tourism in Arunachal Pradesh has been spread 11 (eleven) main circuits as mentioned hereunder:
• Circuit I - Tezpur - Bhalukpong - Bomdila – Tawang Circuit
• Circuit II - Itanagar - Ziro - Daporijo-Aalo – Pasighat Circuit
• Circuit III - Pasighat - Jengging – Yingkiong- Tuting Circuit
• Circuit IV - Tinsukia – Tezu- Hayuliang Circuit
• Circuit V - Margherita – Miao – Namdapha Circuit
• Circuit VI - Roing – Mayudia-Anini Circuit
• Circuit VII - Tezpur- Seijosa-Bhalukpong Circuit
• Circuit VIII - Ziro-Palin-Nyapin-Sangram-Koloriang Circuit
• Circuit IX - Doimukh-Sagalee-Pakke Kesang-Seppa Circuit
• Circuit X - Aalo-Mechuka Circuit
• Circuit XI - Daporijo-Taliha-Siyum-Nacho Circuit

In addition to the main circuits, as many as 13 Sub Circuits and 4 Extended Circuits have also been identified (Refer Development Plan) with a view to achieving spatial tourism growth.

Preparing the Promotion Programme

The promotion programme is prepared based on several considerations - the marketing strategy; knowledge of marketing distribution channels; the promotion techniques available; and the amount of the budget. This programme is usually designed for a three- to five-year period. It specifies by year the types of promotion to be undertaken and their estimated costs. Continuing costs, such as for maintenance of offices in the market source countries and local tourist information offices, are usually included in the promotion budget. The most commonly used promotional techniques are as follows:
• Preparing printed material such as brochures, posters, maps, postcards and travel agent manuals, and distributing these to travel agents, tour operators and the tourist consumers.
• Preparing audio-visual material — slide, film and video shows — for use in travel seminars and other types of presentations.
• Advertising in newspapers, magazines, radio and television aimed at the tourist consumers, and in travel trade publications aimed at tour operators.
• Attending travel trade fairs, of which there are now many held annually in Europe, North America and East Asia.
• Undertaking special promotional trips to the market countries in order to contact travel agents and tour operators.
• Inviting and hosting visits by tour operators and travel writers and photographers.
• Preparing and publishing guide and general information books about the area, if these are not available commercially. These books can be sold to recover the costs involved.

Marketing of specialized forms of tourism such as convention and cruise ship tourism requires specific knowledge and promotional techniques.
Promotion of an area and its attractions and facilities should be accurate and honest. If promotion misrepresents the area and tourists are attracted by inaccurate statements made in the promotion, they may well be dissatisfied. This can lead to tourists advising their friends not to visit the area, and to unfavorable publicity in the public media of the market source countries.
Promotion should be closely coordinated between the public and private sectors. A common practice is to establish a joint promotion board for coordinating and carrying out promotional activities. This board is jointly funded by the public and private sectors. The private sector will still undertake promotional activities for their own enterprises. The government must provide adequate budget for its share of marketing, if tourism is to be successful. At the same time, marketing should be carefully programmed so as to maximize effective use of the funds
that are available.
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Providing Tourist Information Services

An important function of marketing is providing information to tourists before and after they arrive at their destinations. Various types of information should be available — the general geographical, historical and cultural background of the area; the attractions, facilities and services (and their costs) that are available; transportation schedules; location of shopping, medical and postal facilities, consulates, embassies and religious institutions; and other specific information. It is also very important to inform tourists about local customs, dress and behavioral codes, tipping policy, and any security problems they should be aware of.
Tourist information offices should be established in convenient locations, and be staffed by knowledgeable personnel. Information officers should have foreign language capabilities where needed. Often, a successful approach is to develop visitor information centres. In addition to information material, visitor centres contain exhibits, offers audio-visual shows and have literature, slides and other material for sale.
Networking Strategy

The Central Government has finally opened Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata along with 18 other tourist destinations for being linked directly to the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries by air.
Designated carriers from the 10 member ASEAN States, which include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Brunei and Myanmar will now be able to operate flights to and from the Indian metres apart from 18 other tourist destinations in India. As of now the foreign airlines concerned will make stopovers at four intermediate points - Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam.

The whole exercise is aimed to promote the tourism destinations in India in which these countries have interest. According to ASSOCHAM sources, this will help raise the tourist flow to India by at least 35 per cent. At present, only Indian Airlines and Air India have been allowed as designated carriers for the ASEAN countries.
With the domestic private airlines brought in at a subsequent stage, there will be a tremendous growth in tourist movement to and from the ASEAN countries in the future. In an earlier move, the Government of India has allowed private domestic airlines to operate flights to

SAARC countries from the four metros plus Bangalore and Hyderabad. Other areas of networking will include:
1) Networking with Travel Agents, Private Sector Airlines
2) Networking with mountaineering clubs both within and outside the country. Holding/ organizing Workshops on mountaineering and adventure sports.
3) Tie up arrangements with major International Airlines in the key source markets in South and South East Asia viz. Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka for organizing ‘all inclusive’ tour packages.
4) Networking with major Environment NGOs (eg. WWF) / Nature clubs, etc at national and international levels.
5) To set up / promote setting up of Tourism / Nature Film clubs in the State (selected districts).




Sales Promotion
Emphasis should be given on promoting Ecotourism in the different geo-climatic zones of Arunachal Pradesh. Collaboration with travel agents and tour operators (both retail and wholesale) in the various States and abroad should be made to promote special theme based packages like Rain Forest Tours, Cloud Forest Tours, Honeymoon Tours, Wellness Tours, Biodiversity Tours, Adventure Trails, Pilgrimage Tours, etc. Incentives should be offered to sell the tourist destinations and packages to the trade channels. Establishing of a permanent channel of communication with the travel-trade through regular issue and distribution of newsletters and bulletins on Arunachal Tourism should also be made.
i) Print Media:

• Preparation of a Compendium of Hotels, Restaurants, Travel Agents/Tour Operators approved by the Department of Tourism, Government of India, Arunachal Pradesh Tourism Development Board and recognized by the industry associations in the SAARC / BIMST- EC member countries.
• Different type of Information for different segment such as Travel Agency, Tour Operator.
• Attraction wise information (Cultural Tourism, Adventure Sports, Trek Trail Map, Wildlife Tourism, Ecotourism, Special Interest Areas, Rural Tourism, etc)

ii) Media Advertising:
• Audio - in the FM channels at the source States in the country
• Print Media- Newspapers, Travel magazines, In-flight magazines
• Electronic Media - CD, Documentary Film (National Geographic Channel, Discovery, and vernacular channels in the source markets.
• Hoardings and Banners

Media advertising has to be launched in a selective manner, largely to support the specific promotions / product launches. Media advertising has to remain modest in scope because of the high cost it entails. The imagery of any visual material should be highly inspirational and should emphasize upon the unique aspects of Arunachal as tourist destination. Coining of appropriate promotional slogans for appeal should be made. Professional agencies should be engaged for this purpose.
iii) Promotion Pricing: To promote tourism, promotional pricing will have to be adopted in the beginning. This means prices for packages should be low initially to encourage potential customers to try the product. For this purpose, collaborative assistance should be sought from various suppliers of tourism consumption like the railways, airlines, transport operators, accommodation providers and travel agents.
iv) Differential Pricing: The package tours should be priced in such a manner that the perceived value of the package is greater than what the tourist hopes to get by traveling on his own. Different packages may be designed based on various tourists’ types. There may be certain exclusive packages for wildlife enthusiasts or adventure sport lovers or golf players. Discounted prices during the lean periods should be offered and properly promoted to attract tourists from both within the country and abroad.
Other Promotional Issues

i) Source markets for countries viz. Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka particularly for adventure and nature /eco-tourism should be tapped. These countries along with countries like Japan would constitute the principal geographic market segments for initiating focused marketing launch in the first Phase of the proposed Plan period. A dynamic process of periodic market review will be undertaken by the proposed
ii) Tourism Development Board for Arunachal Pradesh to broad-base the supply spectrum for ensuring positive growth during the subsequent Phases.
ii) The ADB's promotion of the Greater Mekong sub-region as a composite tourist destination involving six countries has become an annual industry event. Similar efforts of events can be mooted under ADB's SASEC programme of tourism which has identified the eastern and northeastern region of India as the common denominator for providing cultural, nature-based and Buddhist destinations.

iii) The Ministry of Tourism Government of India had earlier initiated two studied on Taxes levied by the State and Central Governments in the tourism sector and on the Impact of Civil Aviation policies to assess the problems of high taxation rates and the multitude of Central and State level taxes that impact upon the industry. The studies recommended rationalization of both Central and State Taxes like expenditure tax, Service tax, Customer duty, etc. The study should also identify deficiencies in air links with tourist source markets, etc.


Chapter – V

Human Resources Development for Tourism

Introduction

The role of Human Resource Development in Tourism Plan is not just creating new jobs but building of capacities for the various functions in the demand - supply chain of tourism production and consumption. With the objective of positioning tourism as a major engine of growth and to harness it's direct and multiplier effects for employment and poverty alleviation in an environmentally sustainable manner, human resource development constitutes a key area in tourism planning.
Human resource development is necessary for tourism sector to increase productivity and efficiencies in the hospitality functions, and to provide sustainable employment opportunities in the areas where options for other gainful avocations are limited.
Human Capital and Tourism Industry

i) Global Perspective

a) World Tourism Organisation (WTO) - Manpower is a key for competitiveness in the tourism destinations to emphasize on the development of human capital for sustainability of the tourism industry.
b) International Labour Organisation (ILO) – There is a need today to devise social and economic systems, which ensure basic security and employment while remaining capable of adaptation to rapidly changing circumstances in a highly competitive global market.
c) Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism - Lack of education facilities, communication systems and other infrastructure facilities are major impediments for growth of sustainable tourism. Private sector investment is important in the training of the local workforce for better human resource inputs in their operations as well as for promoting an ethical and environmentally conscious behaviour. An emphasis of stakeholders’ on environment education and awareness is necessary for development of local community and poverty alleviation.

d) WTO's Global Code of Ethics for Tourism – These are giving priority to local manpower development providing appropriate initial and continuous training as well as necessary development of skills and professional activities and exchanges of experience between and among the executives and workers.
ii) SAARC Regional Perspective
Following actions are needed in the SAARC region for tourism activities taken by the South Asian Regional Conference on Conservation and Ecotourism:
- Training and skill development programmes
- Consumer awareness and education
- Community capacity assessment
- Local structures and their values,
- Integration of pro-poor and biodiversity agendas,
- Inter-stakeholder partnerships
A Technical Assistance programme has recently been approved by ADB under the SASEC initiative involving the four South Asian countries viz. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and India for Human Resource Development and Capacity Building in the tourism sector.
iii) National and State Policies
• National Tourism Policy

The National Tourism Policy recognizes the importance of the country's human capital for maximizing productivity. The Policy notes the high employment potential of the tourism sector and emphasises on the need for training of manpower at different levels among different stakeholders.

• Tourism Policy of Arunachal Pradesh

The Tourism Policy of the State underscores the requirement of creating a wholly new culture of professionals in hospitality sector with strong emphasis on courtesy management. One of the objectives of the Tourism Policy is to build capacities and create mechanisms to support small and medium enterprises.
Human Resource Development (HRD) in Tourism Sector of Arunachal Pradesh

Employment opportunities (direct and indirect) will be generated in the tourism sector with specialized skills and professional manpower required for the different sub-sectors of the travel and hospitality industry. A well-designed plan for capacity building and manpower

training local, regional, national and international experiences will help make tourism development successful.
The aim of the HRD Plan will be to create an efficient manpower base that would help promote the economic, social, cultural and the environmental objectives. HRD for the tourism sector will thus incorporate awareness, training, education, research and management activities for different stakeholder groups.
Important Issues for HRD Planning

a) Productivity - Tourism industry is regarded as a labour intensive industry. Productivity of personnel depends on the level of education, skill and training in new technologies, which also provides for customer satisfaction as well as career progression for the personnel and ultimately to the overall State economy. Strategies for enhancing productivity include refocusing of core competence, upgrading of skills, creation of new professional profiles, multi-skilling, promotion of team work, etc.
b) Education and Training - The increasing demand for quality services in the travel and hospitality sector makes it imperative to provide literate and professionally skilled manpower.
c) Women's Role and Empowerment - Women occupies the lower levels of the service hierarchy in the tourism labour market with limited career development opportunities. The growing emphasis on women's empowerment makes it mandatory to provide non-discriminatory opportunities in education and training as part of HRD policy in the tourism sector.
d) Child Labour - HRD planning for the tourism sector should be sensitive to the issue of child labour, which is common across the globe in the tourism industry. An estimated 13-19 million children and young people below 18 years of age (nearly 10-15 per cent of the entire workforce of the global tourism industry) are employed in the tourism industry worldwide.

e) Human Values – Tourism industry often faces the challenges of commercial sexual exploitation of women and children. This is more prevalent in the developing economies of Asia. Tour operators, hotel staff, taxi drivers and entertainment bodies often work in collusion to satisfy tourist demands. Any HRD planning exercise for tourism should take this issue into account so as to prevent cultural degradation of the destination. Respect for the socio-cultural life and traditional values of the indigenous people of the destinations should be given.

f) Environment, Health and Safety - With great emphasis being placed on environment conservation, there is an increasing need for the tourism managers both at Government and private levels to be careful about the environmental impacts during the construction as well as operational phase of tourism development project. Monitoring of the environmental health vis-a- vis carrying capacity of the destination as well as food safety, general health and hygiene and the security environment of the area requires to be done for overall sustainability of the tourism activities.

g) Entertainment, Sports and Performing Arts - Tourist destinations are embellished with product and sub-product support where entertainment, sports and performing arts are the vital components. For catering to the tourists' needs, the HRD plan should focus on developing a corpus of trained personnel / experts in the various forms of the said activities from among the local communities.
Honing of skills for tribal sports, golf, etc. should be made so as to cater to the tourist destinations. Similar exercises should be undertaken for capacity building for Adventure Tourism, Wildlife and Forest Tourism, Ecotourism Wellness and Rejuvenation Tourism, Special Interest Tourism, etc.

Formal and Specialized Education

Manpower training may be provided through formal education system as well as tailor- made workshops and awareness programmes. The beneficiaries of the formal education system will be the major service providers to the tourism industry in the State and will be tagged with the main course of action for tourism development.

Rajiv Gandhi University has started three year back 1-year P.G. Diploma in Hotel Management and Tourism with two semesters covering the following subjects:

1. Principles of Hospitality, Management and Tourism
2. Food and Beverage
3. Health, Hygiene and Food Nutrition
4. Menu Planning
5. Hospitality and Tourism Marketing
6. Human Resource Management in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

7. Hospitality and Tourism Accounting
8. Hospitality and Tourism Industry Research Project





The State is sparsely populated therefore, we feel at present setting up an Institute of Hotel Management may not be worthwhile. However, in other states for specialized and technical education, there are in three types of courses given below:

1. Three year Diploma in Hotel Management for the students who have pass 10 + 2. This type of diploma is being offered by the Polytechnics in the country in various nomenclatures in Hotel Management & Catering Technology. The examinations are being conducted by the State Council of the Technical Education of the States. The syllabi are also prescribed by technical boards, constituted by State Council of technical education. Separate guidelines on norms and standards for diploma level institution (Polytechnic Institutions) are published by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE).
or
Three year Diploma in Hotel Management for the students who have passed 10+2. This type of diploma is offered by National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology (NCHMCT). The admission procedure and the examination system has been worked out by National Council for Hotel Management and conducted by the National Council for Hotel Management, and Catering Technology (this diploma is not equivalent to degree of a University).
2. One year Post Diploma course intended to be offered by National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology for those candidates who had passed three year diploma after 10+2 level. This post diploma after three year diploma programme has a course duration of 1 year with course contents and academic equivalence to professional degree in Hotel Management & Catering Technology as given below.

3. Four year degree programme in Hotel Management and Catering Technology after 10+2. This programme is being offered by few Universities and colleges affiliated to University.

AICTE has determined course structure for the following diploma and degree courses:
- Teaching for Three Year Diploma
- Teaching for Four Year Degree

The Academic Scheme of teaching and evaluation in Hotel Management and Catering Technology for diploma and post diploma courses shall be prescribed by National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology (NCHMCT).

Staff and Infrastructure Norms should be followed as per the guidelines determined by AICTE.

It should be mandatory for the officers and staff of Department of Tourism in the State to attend one-week course of IHM.

Scope for HRD
Non-availability of the adequate number of skilled manpower is a major constraint in the State. Higher education facilities and vocational training centres are insufficient to meet the future challenges of the tourism industry. The future development of tourism industry in the State will generate a large volume of employment opportunity (direct and indirect) and this future workforce will need specialized training to serve the industry in a professional manner. The scope for Human Resource Development in the State will thus broadly encompasses the following:
• Development of New Skills
• Importance of Continuous Training
• Learning for Competencies
• Certification
• Training provided by Employers
• Filling the Training Gap i.e. matching training demand with training supply
• Voluntary Contribution by the private sector for Training, Environment Education, Conservation and Management of community resources by the local population
• Technical and Educational support from NGOs, community based associations, academic and research institutions on ecotourism, culture and society.
Human Resource Development (HRD) Initiatives
Training and capacity building will be initiated both for the existing workforce in the hospitality and travel industry in the State as well as for the new generation to be empowered at the community level and NGOs for promoting programmes, strategies of tourism development while making their activities environmentally, socially, and culturally sustainable.

HRD initiatives for promoting and developing education programmes can enhance awareness about nature conservation and sustainable use, local and indigenous cultures and their relationship with tourism. Capacity building through formal and specialized training should be a part of the Planning exercise.



Capacity Building through Formal Education

Training for manpower development for the tourism sector can be initiated through formal education and training. Formal education system may be divided into two branches viz.
(i) Basic Education - to deal with environmental awareness programmes and (ii) Specialised Education - to deal with producing knowledgeable and skilled manpower to meet the demand of the tourism industry.
i) Basic Education
Following basic education system at the Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary schools should include courses for building awareness among students in the areas of environmental protection, bio-diversity, conservation of natural resources and codes of ecotourism. The school curriculum should emphasize on:
a) Knowledge of environment and cultural diversity.
b) Regional history and archaeology.
c) Importance of tourism for Arunachal Pradesh, both for conservation purpose and economic benefits.
d) Special features of different regions in terms of tourism resources, biodiversity and culture.
e) Importance of ensuring hygiene and sanitation in places of tourist interests as well as urban centers from ecology and environment protection angle.
Students of Secondary and Higher Secondary schools will have more ability to absorb issues related to environmental protection and conservation of the natural resources. They may be encouraged to set up eco-clubs in the schools and conduct biological tours. School students may be utilized to conduct campaigns in the villages for environmental protection in association with the Village Conservation Committees (VCC).
ii) Specialized Education
The purpose of specialized education is to create trained manpower for the future with professional knowledge and skill to meet the demands for tourism services. This class of trained

manpower will act as the major driving force for the advancement of tourism in Arunachal Pradesh. Specialized education should be divided into the following branches:
a) Hospitality - Hotel Management, Catering Technology, Tourism and Travel Management
b) Products - Ecotourism, Wildlife Tourism, Adventure Tourism specializing in Trekking, River Rafting, Angling, Mountaineering, Rock Climbing, Biking, First Aid and Emergency Rescue operations. Professionally skilled manpower in adventure tourism may act as Instructors and Guides for tourists.

c) Ecology and Environment - Independent subjects to be offered at Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels suitable for field level operators, managers and decision makers.

d) Social Sciences - Independent subjects to be offered at Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels suitable for operators, field level managers and decision makers.

iii) Vocational Training
Vocational courses may cover short-term diplomatic / certification / crash courses on different tourism related subjects for various stakeholders like tour operators, taxi operators, hoteliers, guides, personnel in the hotel and catering services, media, etc. The various types of vocational courses, suitable for tourism development in the State are given below:
• Tourism study may be taken up as a Vocational Course at the UG level in the Degree Colleges in the State.
• Post Graduate and Management courses can be developed as part of courses in humanities, environmental sciences and management studies streams covering hotel management and catering technology, travel management, adventure tourism, heritage tourism, etc. In all the above courses, history and culture, anthropology, mountain ecology and environment and major economic issues of the State / region should be included.
• Tourism should be included as part of the secondary and higher secondary syllabi under Environment Education.
• At the primary level eco-tourism can be a part of nature study course. Establishment of Eco-Clubs in schools should be made mandatory.
• Interactive meets on tourism, environment conservation and management of common property resources should be organized by the Block level/District level Committees specially formed for the purpose with the Village Conservation Committees. The proposed Tourism Development Board should play a pro-active role in this regard. This would help the communities to be better acquainted with the requirements and role of the tourism sector as well as the tourism values.
• Training programmes for the Trainers, Government officials, and other major service providers viz. tour operators, guides, Instructors of Adventure tourism activities, etc. should be organized for increasing efficiencies in manpower for productive dispensation keeping pace with the developed situations. Training is also necessary for villagers on orchid production, handicraft items, food processing for the tourists.

Inadequacy in Local Capacities - There is a dearth of skilled technical manpower in the State. A Polytechnic Institute is going to be set up at Itanagar at an estimated cost of Rs. 23 crore under a World Bank aided project. Three more ITIs are likely to be set up at Dirang, Yupia and Miao under the Prime Minister's economic package. The proposed ITI of Yupia would be for woman.
Training Courses

The courses should be conducted in all remote tourist destinations and to be dealt with should include the following:

(a) Destination Management
(b) Food Production
(c) Restaurant Service
(d) Hotel Accounts
(e) Lodge Management Training
(f) Trek Leadership
(g) Medical Aid / Emergency Relief
(h) Travel Agency Personnel
The local NGOs and Village schools can play an important role in organizing the such training and help in creating awareness among drivers, porters, hotel owners etc. where formal training is not required.




Chapter –VI Strategic Approach

India- North East Region

The North East Region-Vision2020 document for the development of the North East region under Sectoral Strategies for the Region and Economic Development Perspectives for Poverty Eradication in the North East gives special emphasis to Tourism. The document States:

“Tourism has tremendous potential in the region. The promotion of tourism calls for widespread augmentation of infrastructure for the hospitality industry (always moderated by ecological and environmental considerations), skill up-gradation in hotel management and in the skills of officials promoting tourism and a thrust on domestic tourists and low budget hospitality services. Tourism may be constructed around four concentric circles:

(a) State based i.e. intra-state tourism
(b) Multi-state tourism circuits
(c) Pan regional tourism within NER and other regions of the country, particularly the eastern region and
(d) International tourism with connectivity with neighbouring foreign countries.” Further the Vision 2020 document states:
For newly emerging states, and hill states in particular, the inflow of expenditure from an expansion in tourism services is an important driver of economic development. Tourism has tremendous income and employment ripple effects that spread far beyond the actual tourism activity itself, so that benefits disburse quite naturally to owners of small shops, peripheral services, and even to construction banking and handicrafts. In other words, tourism related services are naturally employment intensive.


The following table shows the growth of the tourist traffic in the North Eastern Region over a 3 year period from 2003 to 2005.

Tourist 2003 2004 2005 CAGR
Domestic 31.01 33.60 35.00 6.25 %
Foreign 0.30 0.39 0.37 9.24%
Total 31.31 33.99 35.37 6.28%

(Source: North Eastern Region -Vision 2020) (numbers in lacs)

The region received only 35 lac domestic tourists and 37000 foreign tourists in 2005 displaying a very poor footfall and also a drop in the numbers of foreign tourists during the year 2005.
The overall growth rate for the North Eastern region is also below the growth rate for India of 13% for foreign tourist arrivals and 11% for domestic tourist arrivals showing opportunity for building the tourism sector in this region.
The employment in the Trade, Hotel and Restaurants taken as a proxy for tourism sector employment also shows that against an all India average of 25.3% the employment in these sectors in the region are from a low of 15.3% in Meghalaya to a high of 40.2% in Nagaland
( Source : Vision 2020 – Year 2004-05 )

State Trade , Hotel and Restaurants
Arunachal 22.7 %
Assam 28.6 %
Manipur 19.7 %
Meghalaya 15.3%
Mizogram 17.1 %
Nagaland 40.2 %
Sikkim 33.5 %
Tripura 27.2 %
India 25.3 5


Arunachal Pradesh

The following table shows the growth of the tourist traffic in Arunachal Pradesh over the same 3 year period from 2003 to 2005.







Tourist (2002)
2003 2004*1 2005 CAGR
Arunachal Domestic (4372)
2195 39767 50560 27% on year 2004
Arunachal
Foreign (187)
123 321 313
Arunachal Total (4559)
2318 40088 50873
NE Region-
Domestic 3101472 3360084 3500000 6.25 %
NE Region-
Foreigners 29478 39168 37000 9.24%

(Source: North Eastern Region -Vision 2020 & data received from the Department of Tourism, Arunachal Pradesh)

The following table shows the sustained, positive and reassuring growth of the tourist traffic in Arunachal Pradesh over the further 3 year period from 2006 to 2008 after the sudden jump in the tourist traffic in 2004*1.

The foreign tourist arrival, about 2 % of all tourists, has also shown a very high growth rates: 50-75% over the same periods though the numbers are small.

Tourist 2006 2007 2008 CAGR
(2004 base year)
Arunachal
Domestic 80137 91100 89292*2 22.47%
Arunachal -
Foreign 706 2212 3020 50%-75%
Arunachal
Total 80843 93312 92392 22.5%

Note: *2 -does not include 60,000 pilgrims to Parasuram Kund
(Source: Data received from the Tourism Department - Total hotel rooms available are 882 & approx 1700 beds)

The data shows the growth of tourists both domestic and foreigners is better than the regional averages.

Domestic tourist growth rate is better than the all India average of 11%.

In respect of the foreign tourists, who constitute 2% of all tourists, the base is so small that even though the growth rate is very high at 50-75% and way above the all India growth rate of 13 % we need to increase the absolute numbers of foreign tourists to enhance our revenue realizations as they constitute an extremely high paying segment with an estimated average of 1800 US Dollars per visitor being spent during the visit excluding travel costs.
The employment in the Trade, Hotel and Restaurants taken as a proxy for tourism sector employment also shows that against an all India average of 25.3% growth the employment in these sectors in Arunachal Pradesh has fallen at an average of 8.1% and this needs to be investigated.
Year Trade , Hotel and Restaurants
1999-2000 33.5
2004-05 22.7
CAGR -8.1%
( Source : Vision 2020)

Tourism Sector -Capital Intensity
Tourism has a very positive Labour-capital ratio. An investment of one million rupees (at 1985-1986 prices) would create 89 jobs in the hotel and restaurant industry, compared to
44.7 jobs in agriculture and 12.6 jobs in manufacturing industries.

The average for the whole tourism industry is 47.5 jobs for an investment of one million rupees (at 1985-1986 prices).
A comparison of labour/capital ratios in different economic sectors is shown in table

below:



Labour-Capital ratios by sector

Sector L-C Ratio
Agriculture 12.6
Mining and quarrying 2.06
Railways 0.9
Other transport 13.8
Hotels and restaurants 89.0
Tourism- overall 47.5

Source: Annual Plan 1996-97, Department of Tourism, Government of India.

Tourism Sector – Force Multipliers


A. GDP (2002-03) Direct Total
GDP 2.78% 5.83% Overnight Stay
GDP
Same Day 1% 1.00%
GDP
Total 3.78% 6.83%

B. Employment Generation (2002-03)

Jobs Overnight stay 4.59% 8.27%
Jobs Same Day 1% 1%
Jobs Total 5.59% 9.27%


“Tourism Development is an “Economic Activity with Social Impact” Need
Economic Development which is: inclusive, equitable and reduces disparities of gender, urban-rural and different regions and its communities
Local Area Development strategies to have direct and positive impact on rural migration and creation of income and job opportunities in rural areas
Addresses the issue of proximity based regional linkages, investment and income transfer opportunities in the state and its districts
The overall impact of the Tourism Development Plan is dependent upon the political and administrative will of the state to synergize the tourism development plan with the states vision and development strategies.
The socially and economically empowered society will have the ability to make choices for improved lifestyle and quality of life.
Strong concern for environmental conservation, and that local people should benefit and be involved in tourism.

Economic Growth Targets

The economic growth targets for Arunachal Pradesh as per the plan periods are:

Period GSDP @ 2007-07
prices Rs (Crore) Growth


% Population Growth Rate

% Per Capita GSDP
At 2006-07
prices

Rs Per Capita Growth Rate

Average %
Base Year 2006-07 3089 26425
11th Plan 19685
(3937) 8.75 1.19 162086 7.47
12th Plan 32132
(6426) 11.90 1.14 249644 10.64
13th Plan 31291
(6258) 14.25 1.01 233209 13.10
Required
growth rate 11.18 1.13 9.93
Growth rate 2000-01
to 2004-
05 4.05
Source Vision 2020

Tourism Growth Targets
Using the Trade, Hotel and Restaurant data as a proxy for Tourism, the contribution at 4.3% of state GSDP is far below the national average of 15.2% and even below the NE Region average of 13%. Tourism, as a growth driver for the state and direct impact on the trade sector, needs to contribute at least to the regional average of 13% and we would like to set a target of 10% for this sectors contribution to GSDP.
We need to increase the capacity of the Tourism sector to create an average annual revenue of Rs393 crores in the 11th plan and Rs 642 crores in the 12th plan from the current annual revenue of Rs 132 crores i.e. 4.3% of State Base Year GSDP of Rs 3089 crores for 2006-07. The annual increase of Rs 510 crores by the 12th plan mid period accounts for more than 486% growth in the tourist arrivals and spend i.e. CAGR of approx 24% from the base year 2006-07

The existence of a global positive economic growth indicators and the picking up of the economy in India is creating a favourable environment for the planning of tourism traffic growth both domestic and foreign.
In order to achieve substantive economic and social impact, and supported by current growth in the tourist arrivals, we are taking a conservative and sustainable approach for target setting and planning for the increase at:
• CAGR of 15% in the numbers
• CAGR of 10% in the spend per tourist.
In order to achieve these targets we will have to:


1. Build the Brand and facilitate tourist

2. Improve activities and opportunities for the tourist to spend
Projected Tourist Arrivals Assumptions:
1. Conservative Base Year is 2008 for which confirmed data is available from the Tourism
Department. Total tourists for 2009 estimated at 115000 tourist

2. Growth rate for total tourist is 15% CAGR

3. Foreign tourists are 2% of the total.

4. Connectivity and permissions for the foreigners will not be the constraint.

5. The number of nights used by tourist both foreign and domestic is 5

Tourist 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Domestic 118087 135800 156171 179596 206536
Foreign 3994 4593 5282 6074 6985
Total 122081 140393 161453 185670 213521
Nights/Tourist
Domestic 5 5 5 5 5
Nights/Tourist Foreign 5 5 5 5 5

Projected Tourist Arrivals per Capita
The population growth of Arunachal Pradesh is projected as follows and accordingly based upon the 15% CAGR for projected tourist arrival, the tourists per lac population over the planning period are:
Year Population Tourist Arrivals Tourist/Lac

Population (lacs)

2001 10.98 -------------- population as per the census 2006 11.69 80843* 6915 ( NE Vision document)
2011 12.26 122081 9957 @
2015 12.84 213521 16629 @
Note:
1. Ministry of Tourism, Government of India projections of 760 million domestic tourists and 11 million foreigners by 2011 will mean approximately an average of 64000 tourists per 100,000 population across the country
2. * Data provided by the Tourism Department, Arunachal Pradesh

3. @ Sikkim today has a tourist per lac population figure of 35000 which is considered to be a very good in terms of carrying capacity management
A new growth sector is medical tourism. It is currently growing at around 30% per annum. Medical tourist arrivals are expected to reach one million soon.
The tourism industry of India is based on certain core nationalistic ideals and standards which are: Swaagat or welcome, Sahyog or cooperation, Soochanaa or information, Sanrachanaa or infrastructure, Suvidha or facilitation, Safaai or cleanliness and Surakshaa or security.

Environment
a. Competition

We have to realize that like all market driven situations there is competition in the tourism space also, both for the tourist traffic and tourism infrastructure investments. This competition covers the needs of the local, regional, pan-India and foreign tourist.
i) An informed tourist collects information, evaluates, refers and then makes the choice of a destination and the offerings by the destination. Pleasant experiences and value for money being the key parameters for word of mouth referral for repeat visit and promotion of the destination for others. This enhances the value of the Brand Build Up exercise the state may embark upon.
ii) Investments also are promoted by the tourist indirectly based upon their experiences during the exploration visits. A proactive policy is the best way of reaching out to the investors. Most of the developing countries and its states the biggest issue is licences and permissions.

iii) Structural headaches of governance far outweigh the fiscal incentives offered and the investors are not forthcoming. The Tourism Policy to be “Problem Resolution” based rather than “Philosophy” based. The ease of implementation of the policy and automatic approval routes with sunset clauses for restrictions to be integrated into the policy formulation. Other states are competing for the same investment.
b. Employment Opportunity

The tourism sectors contribution is next only to retail sector and it also supports the development of the retail sector. Together they account for almost 20-25% of all jobs created. The benefit of promoting tourism in naturally endowed areas is even greater as nature is a heritage and little investment gives high returns.
1 in 10 jobs globally are created by the tourism sector and the CAGR is approximately 15%. Such is the impact of this sector on development approaches and strategies. Unlike other service sector jobs, the tourism and retail sector create jobs at all skill levels and being mostly local jobs have a very high income distributive capacity. The multiplier effect is also significant as it creates jobs in its own service sectors like food & beverages, transport, crafts, guides etc.
c. Tourism-Emerging New Drivers

While everybody wants to promote foreign tourist the key point they miss is that the Indians are the biggest spending tourists in the world. The average spend is in the region of 1500-2000 dollars for a week’s trip. Many countries who would make it difficult for the Indians to get a visa are now giving Visa on arrival. Such is the power of the Indian Tourist and this market needs to be tapped aggressively Government of India is also giving greater emphasis on the development of the states in the North East and this again provides the opportunity to create better infrastructure for promoting tourism with enhanced connectivity and better tourist services.
The Road Ahead

The plan establishes a benchmark for:

a. increasing the number of tourists by 15% CAGR

b. increase in spend of the tourist by 10 % CAGR

The tourism development plan to achieve the above key objectives and have a significant impact in the medium term of 3-5 years will be based upon the following principle:
• Build Upon the Existing – short to medium term initiatives
• Create new Infrastructure and Markets- medium to long term initiatives
• "Brand Build Up" plan to be launched by the State

6.11.1 Build Upon the Existing:
We expect this to be achieved by improving the ongoing activities and creating opportunities for the tourist to spend money on travel, participation in cultural and other activities and purchases of cultural and heritage products. We want to aggressively promote our brand in the already established markets to give better value to the tourist and enhance our image through word of mouth and ensure security of the current tourist traffic while we address new markets.
Create new Infrastructure and Markets






Infrastructure

• Transport
Improved connectivity and good quality, reliable and safe inland transport is required for increasing tourist comfort and confidence.
The Transport should connect the State with the entry points on the Air and rail network besides the road transit points. These are mostly in Assam. Within the state also adequate and reliable network for the tourists needs to be created.
Besides good vehicles we also need to ensure that the drivers are well behaved and well trained for hill driving. They should not drive recklessly as it creates a bad image and no tourist wants to risk their lives. The drivers should also be trained to be Quasi-Guides and facilitate the journey of the tourist
• Wayside Amenities
All along the road network for the tourist basic facilities of rest rooms and beverages to be created at standard driving time of 1 hour intervals and later at ½ hour intervals. Today this basic need is not attended to leaves a credibility gap in tourist facilitation.

• Accommodation
The increasing number of tourist would need affordable accommodation at various destinations. Reliable, safe and clean basic accommodation for the tourist is required. These should be built beyond Shillong also to encourage tourists to stay at destinations listed for development and also create a income transfer and job creation opportunity at these places.

• New Markets
New markets have to be reached to increase the number of tourists and also increased average spends. This would require better facilities and planned activities to cater to new segments of leisure, MICE and adventure tourist. Rural, health and eco-tourism segment needs to be developed.
Eco-tourism based wild life tourism, river rafting, trekking etc and other adventure products / activities to be created to reach new class of high end tourists, both domestic and foreigners
Regional Tourism should be actively encouraged and facilities strategically located to take advantage of the gap in meeting these needs today. Week end & Same day tourism accounts for approximately 30% and should be actively followed with Guwahati as the key target market.
Collaborative efforts with the tour operators to link with the Buddhist circuit as Tawang is a key Buddhist destination.

6.13 Brand Build Up

An integrated "Brand Build Up" plan to be launched by the State for creating the image of the State as a safe and enjoyable destination.

Tourist Information Centers to be set up across the state and also key market locations in India and managed pro- actively.

Chapter – VII Strategic Direction


Strategic Directions

The Tourism Development Plan is “Need Based” and “Tourist Centric.” What is the guiding principle?
(i) Benefit to the state and its people – income transfer and distributive character
(ii) Sustainable in respect of both tangible and intangible assets.

What is the Plan expected to deliver?

(i) Initiatives for building the tourism sector for its contribution to the economic growth and employment needs of the state
(ii) Ensure tourism related businesses and investments are viable and sustainable
(iii) Key initiatives for the next 3-5 years
(iv) Competitive approach to the tourism market
(v) Collaborative effort of all the stakeholders and consultation process between the Government, Industry, Civil Society and for the design, implementation, ownership, participation and achievement of set objectives.
(vi) Sustainable for the protection of the environment and culture of the people

The Next Growth Wave
The current economic downturn is an opportunity to create tourism facilities to catch the next growth wave expected in 2-3 years time
Government- A key facilitator
(i) The larger objective of local area development, disparities reduction and employment to be addressed by the Government besides revenue generation through taxes etc.
(ii) Create a Tourism Policy by adopting a strategy of problem resolution and constraints removal for the inception and growth of tourism related enterprises and the development of local entrepreneurship and the private sector.
(iii) Facilitate a multi – ministry initiative for the success of the plan
(iv) Create a platform for the collaborative effort between the various stakeholders


Strategic Partners

We should pro-actively seek and search for partners who would add value to the tourism development in the state. They are from Media, Travel and Tour operators, Hotel Chains, Airlines and the Railways
Role of Technology

(i) A real time data base is to be created for tracking the developments in the tourism sector as they emerge and take corrective action to meet the objectives and targets therein. The current situation is far from satisfactory and in the fast changing world it is many times irrelevant for the managers for any action and also too dated for the planners to derive reasonable benefit.

(ii) It is recommended to enhance the role of affordable and appropriate technology to meet the needs of market access ( reservations etc), knowledge
(skills etc) and funds ( on line payments etc).

Demand Driven - Need Based Plan
In order to maximize our returns we need to address the gaps in the system for the tourism infrastructure and facilities. The tourist should not only come to the state and its various destinations but feel good and spend “TIME” at each destination. “TIME” spent provides the opportunity for the tourist to spend some money at the tourist site / destination visited and facilitate the income transfer to the area ,one of the basic requirement of tourism development plan for local area development.

Need Assessment

We have relied upon various need assessments for the hospitality sector including our own and discussions with the people in the hospitality and travel& trade

Asian Development Bank

ADB has conducted a survey for the entire eastern region of India and its neighboring countries and held workshops across India and the eastern region. Some of the key areas that are relevant to our effort and need attention are:



Travel Related

• Regional Airlines for improved connectivity
• Create facilities at the Borders
• Signage’s-Road side and at destinations
• Wayside facilities- toilets etc

Develop Human Resource

• Create / modernize training facilities
• Use competitive advantage of spoken English language
• Training and communication skills for tourism officials
• Integrated training programs for other stakeholders (Government, Private, Community etc) with Tourism Department
• Detailed manuals for each destination for information and training (Priced nominally for revenue generation)
• Improve the delivery of culture- standards of interpretation, guides training, printed information etc
• Eco-Tourism-Guides with greater depth of knowledge and multi-language capability
• Train service providers at the grass root levels-hospitality, retail, transport

Product Development

• Improve product quality to give better value to the tourists
• Develop & promote eco-tourism based on nature & culture
• Develop river based products
• Seasonality by new products to exploit the uniqueness of the seasons
• Convention tourism – small scale
• Youth & School tourism to be developed

• Home stays in tea gardens etc
• Standardization and certification for enhancing the tourists comfort level (NE Region – NE Council )

Heritage Products

• Promote handicrafts
• Promote weaving
• Bamboo & cane based products

Marketing & Branding

• Awareness programs to remove wrong perceptions of the NE as security risk area
• Source market to be flooded with information and training for the North East tourism
• Joint marketing for the region to avoid duplication and offer complete experience (combinations of religion, nature, leisure, adventure, wildlife etc)
• NE as an Eco-Tourism region
• Publicity materials-CDs, brochures, website
• Extend the market beyond national borders to the South East Asia
• Create “North East” as a Brand

Data Management

• Harmonize data collection and analysis across the North east States – NEC can help in this
• Intra regional arrivals
• Linked travels within the region

Local Communities

• Local communities to be engaged in the development of the infrastructure and services for the tourists
• Promote appreciation of tourists
• Realize the importance of regional tourists (not foreigners only)
Security & Image

• Each destination with a Task Force (Police to be included) to manage the destinations and resolve problems.
• Cleanliness / hoardings / vehicles / hawkers etc – reduce/minimize hassles



Enabling the Private Sector

• State regulations for business development
• Radical reform of investment regulations-domestic & foreign
• Promote PPP
• Upgrade the capacities of the institutions, chambers
• Pro-active effort to bring the private sector on board for planning and implementation of multi-sectoral projects for tourism development

INTACH – Hospitality Field Survey

We have also done a direct survey of the hospitality status in the state and the outcome is as follows:
Opportunity

There is tremendous opportunity for the development of tourism in the state as it has the blessings of nature with abundance of flora, fauna, natural and manmade heritage. The local communities are hospitable and willing to accept tourists.
Connectivity
Guwahati airport as the gateway for air connectivity has to be well equipped to facilitate tourists visiting the state. They should not only provide printed literature but also assist in reservations of hotels, bus / taxi for the journey to the state. In the current situation the tourist is at the mercy of the service provider for the quality of service and the price and this is not conducive for the Brand development for the state. The situation is almost the same at the railway station and the bus terminus

Roads & Facilities

The entry to Arunachal on the Guwahati-Tawang sector has to be made impressive as it is the key route and also vital for the Brand development.
Bus / Taxi service with air conditioned vehicles and fixed rates has to be introduced for the Guwahati-Tawang sector


Hotels

Wayside facilities are to be added on all routes as they are inadequate today.


In the absence of an effective policy and practice for the registration the hotels are not

able to access the financial sector for the need of funds.

The standard of the entire hotel industry in the state needs to be improved. New accommodation needs to be added to take care of demand in the peak season.
Itanagar, capital of the state, being the hub has to enhance its availability of rooms and as a showcase city of the state, the quality of the hotel and restaurant industry with proper grading is vital for creating a credible and reliable tourism image of the state.
Towns on Circuits 1 and 2 need special attention in view of their high tourism potential. Availability of good accommodation will encourage tourists to enhance the duration of their stay in the state for increased revenue from this sector.
The staff needs to be trained for all the services in the hospitality sector and also given proper attire.
Travel & Tour Trade Feedback

We have also held discussions with the tour and trade operators and the following facts are highlighted for action:
Connectivity

There is a urgent need to connect Itanagar, Tawang, Ziro , Passighat etc with by regular air services and not limited to the current structure of extremely limited seats on the helicopters with Guwahati acting as the primary gateway for the state.
Regional airline network would also facilitate regional tour packages and Intra - region movement of the tourists.
Travel Agents Awareness & Training Program

All the representatives felt that there is a need for the training of the travel agents in the key areas of the current and emerging market states of India besides the dominant domestic tourist state of West Bengal. The well equipped travel agent can better promote the state as a destination.

Special Interest Groups

Special packages are to be developed for this segment of the tourist market as this attracts mostly the foreigners. The packages besides the eco-, wild life tourism, river rafting would cover community living experience and hospitality in their traditional environments.



Accommodation

A key need is the availability of clean and secure accommodation, more so in the case of eco-tourism and village tourism. In the current environment the tour operators have to move full camp sites to cater to the needs of the foreign tourists who are the mainstay of special interest tourism
Local Participation & Skills Development

Both for the success of the tourism development and the comfort of the tourists it is felt that the local community should take the ownership of the facilities and also the skills of the local youth are developed for meeting the needs of the sector.

Plan Development Process

We are building the Tourism Development Plan based upon the needs and constraints identified. The plan will be targeted to the interventions required.
Targets for achieving the growth in both domestic and foreign tourists along with higher spend per tourist will be the basis for planning the basic infrastructure.

We are taking in account the past initiatives, lessons learnt and ongoing activities. The basic issue of change and change management during the transition period of 3 years is being kept in mind in the implementation schedule.

We have also looked into the issue of the entire north eastern region development process as envisaged in the Vision 2020 and its impact on the state.
Local Area Development Strategies along with Replicable Packages for infrastructure development have been considered for participation of the local community, skills development, entrepreneurship and ownership through local enterprises and also enhancement

of economic sustainability with low cost technical assistance to the tourism enterprises during the initial stages of the tourism development plan implementation.
The Private Sector Development, currently at a very nascent stage will put greater pressure on the government to move beyond the role of the regulator and facilitator and also shoulder the responsibility of the startup entrepreneur for “Growth Driver Projects” and later spin off these enterprises. This could be done through various Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV) for each / a set of projects or through the existing tourism development corporation. Public Private Partnership (PPP) models could also be looked into for larger projects and where there is a larger lead time available.
Financial Sector has to play a critical role and be more pro-actively responsible in meeting its obligation to the state beyond using the state for deposit collection.

Our Plan is forward looking and based on “Making Things Work”. We have given priority to problem identification and resolution approaches over policy development. The Policy should be an outcome of the issues to be resolved in the development process for grass root planning and successful implementation.
Tourist’s Planning Process

Tourism is an aggregate of all businesses that directly provide goods and services to facilitate business, pleasure and leisure activities away from home (S Smith 1988 ).
Tourism is not spontaneous- it is carefully planned and we need to help in the planning or make planning very simple.
We can do this by easy access to information and facilitation outlets. This is to be achieved by media, events, festivals and direct mailing to select target groups.
Strategic alliances with tour operators, airlines and railways can help create attractive, no- hassles tour packages and reduce apprehensions to enhance tourist experience and create brand equity to increase tourist traffic.
We must also keep in mind that the “Tourism” product is perishable – room nights, bus seats etc cannot be stored away for the future and we must the targeted utilization by dynamic pricing or early bird approach. This will encourage tourist to plan early and fill capacity.

Tourists Perspective

The effort in traveling to a far off place has to be satisfying in terms of:
o Targeted tourist profile and their expectations
o Information
o Connectivity- access / time / costs
o Comfort of stay
o Local transport
o Highway Rest Points & Facilities
o City Rest Points & Facilities Food & Beverages

o Tourism Opportunities-products & services
o Entertainment – cultural shows
o Shopping – heritage & cultural products
o “Feel Good” factor -Welcome & not Exploited
o Brand Build Up- affordability-availability-reliability-credibility

Sustainable Tourism

Key Principles of Conservation and Environment Management

a) The community to treat the natural and manmade heritage as its own asset and manage it prudently for future generations.
b) Risk management strategies to be followed in development of the tourism plan.

c) Follow the principles of carrying capacity of the various destinations.

d) Environment friendly technologies to be used for accommodation, energy, water etc

.
Tourism has become an important source of identity, revenues and employment for
destinations. With almost a billion people traveling each year the Tourism sector if credited by leading international Tourism authorities including the UNWTO for generating over US$ 1 trillion per annum in direct revenues and the stimulation of 10% of global employment.

The Tourism sector inspires investment into, and the development of, essential infrastructure, both general and sector specific. Tourism has become a powerful driver of global

understanding, respect, harmony, and of course, commerce. With increases in arrivals of leisure and business travelers to a destination, tourism has the potential to cause damage to a destination’s value and values system as a result of, inter alia,
(i) Over-use of infrastructure without re-investment back into maintenance and renewal critical to the ‘engineering’ of the destination
(ii) Excessive exposure of natural elements and attractions causing erosion and/or eradication of the environment and ecosystems unique to the destination
(iii) Forfeiting of cultural codes and / or principles for the sake of tourist comfort, - generated money and destination competitiveness, ultimately creating a local tourism culture based on short-term personal gains and greed.
(iv) Creation and magnification of seasonal peaks and troughs in tourism industry activity, causing destabilisation in the sector’s contribution to the economy and employment.

With these risks in mind, governments and private entities are realizing the importance of adoption of an approach to tourism growth which ensures long-term destination development grounded in:
1. Responsibility: encouraging and stimulating tourism growth in a way which builds the industry for the enduring benefit of the destination as a whole – its product, its people, its proposition and its profile.
2. Accountability: absolute respect for, and ownership of, the impact of the sector on the destination at economic and social levels
3. Legacy: maximising Tourism sector opportunity today for the long-term benefit of the destination, its stakeholders and its visitors

Areas of Sustainable Tourism

Ultimately Sustainable Tourism is a reflection of measurable approach to sector growth and development which focuses and invests directly in ensuring on-going strengthening of the following core elements of the destination, namely:
• Essence: The core proposition which uniquely, competitively and proudly defines the destination as a Brand and experience
• Earnings: Revenues and investment generated directly and indirectly from tourism activity
• Economy: Inter-related, inter-dependent sectors which work together to

• Service and support the Tourism industry
• Employment: On-going, year-round job creation of the sector
• Environment: Safety, stability and survival of the natural surroundings of the
• Destination
• Eco-systems: Natural eco-systems which inhabit the destination’s land, aqua and air environments.

• Equity: The sense of value and worth of the destination, financially and emotionally.

The concept of sustainability is fundamentally important to the long-term viability, credibility, authenticity and productivity of the Tourism sector. As leaders of the Tourism sector it is our responsibility to ensure that the richness and rightness of the term is not diminished by the cliché of its application.
Extracts from Ref:-Created for CNN’s TASK Group by Anita Mendiratta

7.10 Tourism Sector -Enabling Policy
The key issues that need to be addressed in the tourism policy are as under. The FHRAI report 2007-08 has also identified key areas of intervention and the extracts are reproduced hereunder for consideration while finalizing the Tourism Policy

(i) Tourism as an industry
(ii) Fiscal incentives
(iii) Income tax exemptions
(iv) Sales tax exemptions
(v) Statutory Incentives
(vi) Permissions & Licenses- Automatic in 3 days
(vii) Land ownership / Lease for outside the state residents
(viii) Entrepreneurship Development State wide Campaign
(ix) Skills Development
(x) State Brand Build up – exhibitions, media etc
(xi) Security Perceptions / Automatic Insurance for all registered tourists
(xii) Promote Joint ventures and protect outside investors with Government designated investment agency holding controlling shares

FHRAI in its report 2007-08 has highlighted the following issues:

In order to compete with the leading tourist destinations in Asia like Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Macau etc, who have a very pro-active tourism policy with low levels of taxation, hotels in India need a rational licensing, procurement and tax structure (especially with regard to

taxes imposed by state governments like Luxury Tax, Value Added Tax, Entertainment Tax, State Excise Duty etc.). The complicated licensing regime and the high taxes are stifling growth in our industry.

To provide growth, there is a need to take the following steps:

(i) Providing tax incentives as given to service exporters, providing the necessary fillip for increasing hotel capacity and tourism infrastructure.
(ii) Rationalisation of taxes such as service tax charged by the GOI. Hotels should be exempted from service tax if the guests staying with them pay their invoices in convertible foreign exchange.
(iii) Rationalisation of taxes such as Luxury Tax, Value Added Tax (Sales Tax) etc levied by the State Governments.
(iv) Capacity building of service providers, taxi drivers, guides and immigration staff.
(v) Constant innovation of the Incredible India campaign and penetration into newer markets.
(vi) Convergence of tourism with other sectors of the Indian economy.
(vii) Continued opening of the skies and improvement of rail-road, seaports, internal waterways and airport infrastructures.
As India expands its base in travel and tourism, it will generate many more jobs and the tourism sector will become a major engine for India’s economic growth. In order to be more effective and competitive, we suggest the following specific changes be made
Direct Taxes
Under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the following changes may be considered favourably:

(i) Inclusion of Hotels in Infrastructure: On hotels being included in the infrastructure list just like airports, seaports, railways etc. all new hotel projects will be able to avail the benefit of deductions of 100% in respect to profits and gains for a period of ten years.
(ii) Hotels should be given the benefits available through the Section 80-HHD which were available till 2004/05. These benefits allow hotels to get a tax exemption on amounts earned through foreign exchange earnings.
(iii) Special category states like Sikkim, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh are

allowed 100% deductions from profits and gains for five years for computing the total income for promoting Eco Tourism in the country in terms of Income Tax Act 1961, Schedule XIV Part-C, Serial No 15. However, Income Tax authorities have disallowed deductions to hoteliers on the grounds that an activity of a hotel does not constitute an operation as specified in Schedule XIV of the act. This is a set back not only for hoteliers who are in the process of building hotels with eco tourism being the mainstay but also discourages the development of eco friendly hotels, something that this country and the world are in urgent need of.
(iv) While computing the total income of an individual, deduction of LTC paid to an employee (government/private) be admissible as is the case for provident funds, mutual funds, insurance etc.
(v) In the Income Tax Act 2007/08, Section 80 ID was introduced to encourage development of one, two, three and four-star hotels and Convention Centres of a minimum seating capacity of 3,000 persons built in Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon etc. A tax holiday of five years was granted to these hotels. We request that this section not only be extended to hotels in other categories such as five and five-star deluxe hotels but also all hotels being built across the country. We also think that this tax holiday be increased from five to ten years.
(vi) As per the latest accounting norms, hotel buildings should be depreciated at a rate of 10% per year. However, hotels need to maintain their facilities in prime condition and this adds a lot of pressure on existing structures, demanding a higher level of maintenance and resulting in higher wear and tear. We suggest that a rate of depreciation of 20% be allowed.
Indirect Taxes

(i) Exemption from Para 63, Service Tax Act 1994: Hotels and other tourism related service providers who earn foreign exchange have been included as the 13th Sector in the Service Export Promotion Council (SEPC) set up by the Ministry of Commerce GOI. We think that they should be granted exemption to the extent of foreign exchange for services such as commission paid to foreign travel agents, cab rentals, dry cleaning services, health club, and beauty parlour services.
(ii) Hotels should be allowed a concessional rate of customs duty for hotels and restaurants in tune with international level of duty.

(iii) Preparations such as bread, biscuits, chocolates etc, which are consumed regularly by guests, should be exempted from levy of central excise duty.
Sales Tax/Vat/Luxury tax and Others

(i) Luxury Tax should be rationalised on the actual amount received by the hotel and not the published tariffs.

(ii) A common policy should be established for luxury tax as well as uniform VAT/Sales Tax on Food and Beverage and excise duty on liquor.


Economic issues pending with Ministry of Finance

(i) A 2% interest subvention should be extended to hotels for being an employment extensive industry similar to textiles, leather, marine and handicrafts which currently enjoy these benefits.
(ii) Deletion of hotels from being equated with real estate by the Reserve Bank of India, a condition which implies very high risk levels (3-4% higher than the prime lending rate).
(iii) Tourism to be declared as an industry under the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act 1951, which will allow hotels benefits such as getting land banks, exemption of duty on stamp paper, exemption and concessions on VAT, water and electricity charges as per industrial rates, road tax, single window clearance for projects etc.
Land / FSI

This brings us to another issue faced by mid market, budget and economy hotels. Most of the existing hotels in this category lie in the heart of the city. The low FSI (Floor Space Index or the amount that can be constructed on a given parcel of land) is so low that larger inventories cannot be made. The only alternative left for hotel owners is to buy additional land which is very difficult especially with the prohibitively high land prices across most Indian cities.


Chapter – VIII Strategic Initiatives

The Role of the State

State plays a crucial role in the development process and more so in areas/ regions lagging behind in the development for multiplicity of reasons. State has even greater role to play for reduction of disparities- regional, gender, rural and other disadvantaged groups.
India’s development process for over 60 years stands as a testimony for the above strategy even though at many stages the same has been subject to criticism. The “temples of modern India” conceived and built through the early years after independence laid the foundation of a very dynamic society, which even though is battling to solve the problem of population growth and associated poverty, stands at the threshold of a nation creating and using the most advanced technologies and development approaches.
Arunachal has taken new initiatives for the state to meet:

(i) Constitutional obligation for the development of its people
(ii) Equitable socio-economic development
(iii) Reduction of regional and other disparities
(iv) Empower the people and communities

With the basic policies in place, the state has now to act as:

(i) “Agent of Change” beyond the role of a facilitator and a regulator
(ii) Trigger Private Sector, including communities, based investment
(iii) Promote “Public-Private-Community Partnership” for the economic development of the state
(iv) “Participatory Approach” to bring about ownership and sustainability in the development initiatives
(v) Create an “Entrepreneurial” society to reduce dependence on either Government jobs or grant driven projects for State GDP and employment generation

Tourism- A Strategic Sector for Development of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh, with its natural beauty offers a unique opportunity for the development of the tourism sector. This will not only bring about a transfer of income from

outside the state to the state but also create a distributive opportunity for the income to reach out in remote areas: areas which have been left out from the mainstream due to their remote locations.

Tourism sector will create new opportunity for development of an entrepreneurial society and also jobs at all skill levels, both in urban and rural areas.

The tourism growth trends in India and the State are very encouraging and it is essential for the state to benefit from this opportunity. An aggressive and proactive Policy in place duly supported by strong implementation mechanisms can bring about immense benefits to the state and its people.

The need of the hour is to create “Delivery Mechanisms” to deliver the intent of the policy. Need based “Strategic Initiatives” proposed by us are targeted to fill this gap to sustain and enhance the contribution of the tourism sector.

The development of the tourism sector would entail the following:

(i) Mindset to welcome the Tourists with a “SMILE”
(ii) Resolution of the issue of LAND, a basic for all tourism projects
(iii) Creating a “Brand Equity” for the state to bring tourists and also investment in the tourism infrastructure
(iv) Building the local Skills to manage the tourism sector
(v) Local Entrepreneurs for joint ventures / franchise for knowledge transfer
(iv) Access to funding for the individuals and community based projects beyond the centrally sponsored schemes for the development of the tourism sector.

Past Development Initiatives & Current Needs

The Government of Arunachal Pradesh has taken up various initiatives in the past for the development of the tourism sector. These initiatives have included destinations, circuits and wayside amenities and funded, almost all, by different schemes of the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and negligible amount from states own resources. The private sector participation has been at an extremely low profile due to early stage of private sector and entrepreneurship development in the state. Poor access to credit and land regulations have also been a limiting factor.

The following data, based upon information received from the State Tourism Department, shows the investment trends for the last 5 years:

Tourism Investments`-Past Budgets
(Rs crores)

Year Central State Total %GDP
2004-05 10.41 - 10.41
2005-06 19.24 - 19.24 less than 1%
2006-07 17.34 0.33 17.67
2007-08 33.15 - 33.15
2008-09 20.92 - 20.92



35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
2004-5 2005-6 2006-7 2007-8 2008-9




List of Schemes sanctioned by the Ministry of Tourism Government of India

Year Project Name Amount Sanctioned
2003-2004 1. Construction of Wayside Amenities at Kuporijo
2. Development of Infrastructure at Ganga Lake, Itanagar
3. Eco-Tourist Hut at Changlang (Site changed to Medo)
4. Destination Development of Along, West Siang(C/O Tourist Complex at Along)
5. Destination Development of Zemithang



10.41
2005-2006 1. Destination Development of Hot Spring, Jia at Lower Dibang Valley Distict, Arunachal Pradesh
2. Destination Dev. Of Geara Lake Taraso
3. Circuit Development of Dibrugarh-

19.24

Pasighat-Dying Ering Wild Life Santuary
4. Integrated Development of Siang Circuit
5. Computerization of Arunachal Tourism
6. Construction of Multipurpose Hall at Pasighat/Tourist Lodge at Deomali/ Wayside Amenities at Deomali Entry Gate, Tirap
2006-2007 1. Restoration and Preservation of Historical Heritage of Stone Rampart at Yabgo, Dambuk
2. Development of Tourist Complex at Parsuramkhund
3. Development of Tourism Circuit in Arunachal Pradesh-Dirak-Chowkham- Wakro-Tezu-Hayuliang-Walong
4. Development of Tourist Resort at Hollongi



17.34
2007-2008 1. Development of Tourist Lodge at Geku in Upper Siang District
2. Development & Improvement of Geyakar Sinyi near Itanagar
3. Development of Tourism Circuit in Arunachal Pradesh (Itanagar-Ziro- Daporijo-Basar)
4. Development of Tourist Complex at Tuting, Upper Siang District
5. Development of “Mechuka” Tourism Destination in Arunachal Pradesh
6. Construction of Tourist Complex at Mayudia Lower Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh
7. Development of Jairampur Destination in Arunachal Pradesh
8. Development of Tourism Infrastructure Near Pakhui Wild Life Sanctuary at Seijosa







33.15
2008-2009 River front development and additional accommodation at the Tourist Complex at Aalo in Arunachal Pradesh
Destination Development of Morsing in West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh
Development of Lumla Sub-Circuit, Arunachal Pradesh
Development of Dolma Park at Lumla in


20.92

Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh Construction of Tourist Lodge at Seppa Construction of Tourist Lodge at Tasam Moring near Bameng, East Kameng District


Growth of Tourist Arrivals in Arunachal Pradesh

The tourist arrival during the 7 year period from 2002 to 2008, for which the state has made investments in the tourism infrastructure development, is as follows:

Tourist (2002) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Arunachal
Domestic (4372) 2195 39767 50560 80137 91100 89292
Arunachal
Foreign (187) 123 321 313 706 2212 3020
Arunachal
Total (4559) 2318 40088 50873 80843 93312 92392



(Tourists)


100000
90000
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

The chart above shows positive growth trends of tourist arrivals at a CAGR of over 22% during the period of 2004-08 after sudden jump in 2004. The tourists are mostly Domestic with Foreigners being just 2% of the total tourists.
The major driver for tourism during this period has been the air fare eligibility for LTC travelers of the government and public sector employees to travel to the states in the North East.

It is expected to keep this incentive till the growth stabilizes and the stimulus may not be required.

The Missing Links:

Infrastructure

In the absence of a State Tourism Strategic Plan, Comprehensive Tourism Policy (current & updated- last made in 2003), Destination Development (facilities at the specific tourist sites) most of the projects are encouraged by the different Grant Schemes of the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India and with very little linkages for the tourism infrastructure on a holistic and demand driven basis.

The resources are thinly spread and show low quality and capacity to service high paying tourists as well as high end budget tourists as the expectations are way beyond what is being offered.

The current infrastructure does not allow the tourists to spend money for accommodation, at destinations, entertainment, shopping and restricts the income transfer for the benefit of the people in the state.
The poor infrastructure and low capacity also inhibits the travel and tour trade to take aggressive stance to promote tourism.
Land is the most critical issue in the development of the tourism infrastructure. The complex and unresolved issue of land ownership and lease by the private sector is the single biggest barrier to investments by the local or outside the state investors. It also does not allow the projects to access funds from the financial institutions and / or banks, even if they are viable and sustainable.
The most important need of connectivity – telecom and internet for information, communication and confirmations etc is not included in these projects
Tourism depends on the basic infrastructure of roads and these leave a lot to be desired. In some areas of interest to high paying tourists the roads are almost nonexistent as they are of extremely BAD quality and back breaking. Good quality road connectivity to destinations is a pre-requisite and non-negotiable.


The Missing Links: Skills

The need of the “Human Resource Skills” starts at the level of information and facilitation be it at the tourist originating states with needs for holiday or a business visit planning or at the gateways to the state for the tourist (airports, rail heads, road transport stations
- bus & taxi) to reach their destinations in the state for their holiday or business.

Arunachal, being a hill state the dominant means for transport is the road transport system .The bus and taxi drivers are the first ambassadors for the state that interacts with the tourists and the behavior of help or exploitation decides the impressions the tourist carries. This is important as the word of mouth is the best advertisement and supports all efforts for “Brand” development.
The grossly inadequate and poor wayside amenities and the eating houses (dhabas included) on the route also create a lasting impression for the facilities the state is providing for the tourists. The most common need of a clean and functional toilet is yet to be met. We have to train the people and create a mind set to benchmark their infrastructure and services such that it makes the journey pleasant.
The rash highway driving is full of near misses and does not add to any comfort of the tourist as the fear of an accident is always upper most in the mind of a traveler.
The lack of highway / city information support system leaves the tourist in the lurch. Current and relevant route and city maps are essential and should be available at all gateways and other visible pick up points at the commonly visited places by the tourist. A special cadre of Tourist Police, well informed and trained will go a long distance to meet this need
Low cost information leaflets/ brochures etc are required at the destinations / sites on the itinerary of the tourist to enrich the visit and also ensure time is spent at these stops. There is an urgent need for well trained and certified guides at such stops.

We also need to upgrade the skill set of the service providers at these tourist destinations and sites, be it the tea stall, fruit vendor or a handicraft seller. This will assist in creating a higher spend environment for the tourist and increase the income for the people servicing the tourist as well as enrich the tourist’s experience.




Tourism Growth Planning

The rapid increase in tourism is being fuelled by a wide range of contributory factors as outlined in the table below.
Tourism Segment Growth Drivers

• Domestic tourism

• Rapidly increasing purchasing power of the middle class.
• Better road connectivity
• Evolving lifestyle

• International tourism

• Development of internationally acclaimed destinations such as Goa, Kerala & Rajasthan and the Golden triangle
• Favourable perception of Brand India
• Attractive market that motivates foreign business travelers

Planning Module

The past trends and projected number of tourists based upon a CAGR of 15% it is clear that the increase in the number of tourists is over 100,000 for the next period of 5 years and the same is expected to continue for longer period and grow at a faster pace if proper initiatives are taken and tourism development support systems (both hardware and software) are in place.

We have taken a Planning Module of 100,000 tourist addition per Strategic Plan period of 3 years. The infrastructure needs are demonstrated and the planned capacity needs can be extrapolated for future Strategic Plan period of 3 years.

Strategic planning is a dynamic process and it is recommended that the plan be reviewed every 3 years based upon the trends visible in the 2nd year.

Domestic Tourism

The large numbers of domestic tourists are driving the tourism sector growth. This is because of work, leisure, increased disposable income in the hands of the younger generation and lifestyle changes. Considering that the total domestic tourists were 550 million during the period of these survey even small percentages are large in terms of absolute numbers to be catered to in the different segments.
The tourism infrastructure will have to meet the needs of the various segments of travelers and provide adequate, affordable and available facilities and services for transport, accommodation and entertainment for the tourists besides the development of the tourist’s sites and destinations.
The survey conducted by the Ministry of Tourism has shown the following pattern:


Distribution of Tourists by Purpose (%) (Domestic)

Purpose Urban Rural All India
Business & Trade 10.7 6.6 7.7
Leisure & Holiday 8.7 5.0 6.0
Religious &
Pilgrimage 16.2 12.9 13.8
Social 52.9 61.0 58.9
Others 11.6 14.4 13.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Source: MoT and NCAER Domestic Tourism Study



Summary of Domestic Tourism Statistics (2002)
Urban Rural All India
Estimated households
(Million) 55.2 140.6 195.7
Estimated tourist
households (Million) 21.9 64.9 86.8
Number of trips
(Million) 60.9 168.6 229.4
Number of package trips
(Million) 1.3 2.6 3.9
Number of tourists
(Million) 157.0 392.4 549.4
Number of same day tourists
(December 2002) 67.0 176.0 243.0
Number of trips
per households 2.78 2.60 2.64
Number of tourists
per trip 2.58 2.33 2.39
Average
expenditure (Rs.) per trip 2,043 1,160 1,389
Average expenditure (Rs.)
per package trip 2,129 1,288 1,558
Average expenditure (Rs.)
per same-day trip 119 78 89
Distribution of tourists by purpose (%)
Business & Trade 10.7 6.6 7.7
Leisure & Holiday 8.7 5.0 6.0
Religious &
Pilgrimage 16.2 12.9 13.8
Social 52.9 61.0 58.9
Others 11.6 14.4 13.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0


Source: MoT and NCAER Domestic Tourism Study


Strategic Initiatives proposed are of 2 types:

Start Up
Priority Initiatives
Strategic Initiatives that are basic and need to be in place over a reasonable period of time (5 years) and the quality and content updated from time to time based upon baseline studies and feedback.
Some of these initiatives, to be taken up on priority, are to trigger private sector and community participation by demonstration effect of the government initial investments, either through central government grant funds, state funds, PPP etc
The following are some examples:
(i) Brand Development for the State
(ii) Information & Facilitation Centers
(iii) Skills Development & Capacity Building
(iv) Tourist City Centers
(v) Inns/ Guest Houses in low traffic areas
(vi) Rural Tourism
(vii) Home Stay-Rural Area
(viii) Tourism Sector Investment Opportunity Profiles
(ix) Tourism Cluster Promotion

Eco Tourism / Wild Life Tourism
The state has abundant forest resources with a large variety of flora and fauna. The forests are classified as: national parks, wild life sanctuaries and conservation reserves. It is recommended that a Task Force be created for the development of “Wild Life Tourism – Community Based”. Department of forest would be a key partner and knowledge resource in the Task Force.
Tourist Infrastructure Capacity
Initiatives that are required on a continuing basis to meet the demands for infrastructure on year to year basis due to increasing number of tourists.
These initiatives are to be primarily taken by the private sector and the community with appropriate tourism development policy in place.
The funding of these initiatives is from the regular financial intermediation and based upon economic sustainability and meeting the norms of prudent financial management.

In order to attract investors and facilitate investments the government should pro- actively identify Tourism sector project opportunities and present them on the state web site as well as hold Investor Workshops periodically. This initiative will go a long way in the development of the tourism sector.
The projects indentified should meet the financial sector lending norms of IRR and DSCR as applicable to both short and long gestation period projects. Special schemes need to be in place to encourage local entrepreneurship.
Land being a basic need action should be taken to resolve the issue of participation by outside the state residents in the projects as current land regulations are highly restrictive and do not allow/ encourage participation of outsiders. Te development process globally is driven by investments coming from outside as they also bring in markets and technology. A complete review of the land policy needs to be done keeping in mind the local traditional ownership and state of development of local entrepreneurship. Policy should not allow exploitation on the basis of land speculation.
The following are some examples:
a. Wayside Amenities
b. Inns/ Guest Houses
c. Hotels / Motels
d. Home Stays
e. Rural Tourism
f. Food & Beverages
g. Transport Services
h. Travel and Tour Trade
i. Bed & Breakfast Schemes in Cities

Growth Driver Projects

What are Growth Driver Projects and the Need?

Projects which fulfill one or many of the following objectives are Growth Driver Projects and are needed to be initiated by the government or its agencies.
1. Projects with long gestation period for economic recoveries and hence difficult for funding by normal financing channels. They would be driven by grant components and/or long term debt funds with generally have a moratorium of 3-5 years and repayment of 10- 15 years thereafter. Such funding is normally not accessible to the private sector. Most of

the projects in this category are Infrastructure Projects: access roads to the destinations, destination development in remote areas, projects with low tourist traffic at present but need to be developed for strategic reasons of equitable development of the various regions of the state etc.

2. Projects where benefits are for the larger community and cannot be funded by individual entrepreneurs. Brand Building of the state is one such project which needs to be done by the government as the benefits are not only for the tourism sector but overflows into many areas including Investments in the state in many sectors like education, health care, industry etc

3. Projects for Capacity Building is of a nature for the general benefit of the state and the impact is on a long term basis.

a) Human Resource Skills Development is one such major project at the level of INDIVIDUALS and would benefit other sectors like retail, healthcare, besides travel and tourism. A state wide structured initiative has to be launched for the benefit of the youth and to enhance their employability.

b) Institutional Capacity will enhance the ability within the state to conceive, design, develop and implement programs and projects in the state for the benefit of all. The impact of capacity building is also on the mindset for development of the tourism sector. This would also include the Tourism Department and others within the government and its institutions that contribute to the development of the tourism infrastructure and facilitate the travel and enhance the experience of the tourist. The civil society institutions and the community based traditional institutions will also benefit from these programs and develop participation and ownership for the success of the Tourism Development Plan. The entire travel and tour trade within the state needs to be upgraded to meet the needs of linkages within their trade network in India and the other countries abroad

c) IT Network is a critical need in current times. Information flow and access for planning by individuals, bookings and confirmations, payment gateways etc are to be facilitated by a high speed and reliable IT network within the state linking all

the players in the sector. Such a network will make it easy for the foreign travel and tour operators as well as individuals to plan a trip to the state. It will facilitate Brand Build up for the state as well as create an advantage for the state when it is competing with other destinations both within the country and abroad.

4. Information & Awareness Campaigns and setups are Critical Projects that need to be started immediately as other projects are dependent on them. Information centers at the rail, road and air gateways, important states of tourist origin and cities within the state are an example of this need.

5. Demonstration Projects

The most important need of a tourist is affordable, safe and standard accommodation along with rest facilities on the highways as roads are the only means of transportation in the hill areas. The road system in the USA developed due to the wayside facilities and accommodation as MOTELs.

Franchised brands provided the credibility needed for the comfort of the motorist and ensured minimum standards and eliminated exploitation.

In order to promote and facilitate tourists in the state it is imperative for the Tourism Plan to provide for these facilities which are non- existent or grossly inadequate. Projects listed below will fill the gap in the tourism needs as well as these will trigger similar private sector initiatives by the demonstration projects acting as demonstrator with multiplier effect.

• Wayside Amenities,
• Inns /Guest Houses
• Rural Tourism,
• Home Stay etc

6. Transportation

There is a need to connect major centers for the tourist in the state with the gateways for rail, road and air which all happen to be in Assam and Guwahati being the main gateway for all travelers in the North East.

Tourist Busses / Coaches / Taxis, both air-conditioned and non air conditioned need to be operated by the Tourism department either directly or in partnership of the private sector, communities, and retired service personnel to connect the gateways. The Tourism department LOGO must be clearly visible for confidence building and bookings done at the tourism department Kiosks at these gateways. Fixed fares to be charged and published. The facility will go beyond pure transportation to the cities in the state but also move the tourist away from the clutches of unscrupulous travel / taxi operators who exploit the tourist both in terms of money and content and create an unhappy tourist who is likely to become a negative brand ambassador.

7. City Tours

Conducted City tours with proper Guides achieve the twin objective of explaining the local heritage and opportunity for the local community to benefit from the regulated stops by selling goods and services to the tourists at these stops. It is more organized and transparent way of engaging the tourist’s time during the visit to the state

9. Package Tours ensure hassle free travel for the tourists. The numbers are small in the beginning but over time they are a key to the development of tourism as they take away the uncertainty from the tourists mind and create a better success chance for the state being opted as the destination.

Package tours also facilitate in better utilization of the accommodation facilities as overnight stays can be planned for destinations other than the main hubs. This provides an opportunity for exposure to the local art, crafts, cuisine and entertainment thereby engaging the local community.

9. Tourist City Centers

Tourist City Centers, a new Strategic Initiative, are proposed by us to meet the tourist’s needs on a holistic basis within the state. The Tourist City Center is:
(i) A single point information and facilitation center for the tourist in the city and acts as the center of activity for the entire travel and tour trade in the city and its neighboring area.
(ii) A major feature of the Center is that it provides for good affordable accommodation, food court and shops for meeting tourists needs

(iii) The Center also provides for the exposure to the local heritage, arts and crafts, cuisine and performing arts including entertainment.
(iv) It also provides the base for Guides and City tours as well as day tours to tourist destinations in the area.
(v) The Tourist gets a 9am to 9 pm exposure and in the process transfers financial resources to the local community for their well being and gainful engagement.

Demonstration Projects-Tourism Sector

“Wayside Amenities” Project – Arunachal Pradesh


1. The Need

Tourism is one of thrust sectors for growth in the hill state of Arunachal Pradesh. Employment and distributive growth is the need of the hour and tourism offers an excellent avenue as it creates income transfers and actively involves local communities.

The primary means of transport for the tourists in the hill area is through roads. However, the infrastructure available for these tourist is very minimal if not absent in the hill region.

There are clearly identified needs of clean wash rooms - especially for women, rest points offering credibility, reliability in quality of products and services and security. Developing “Wayside Amenities” for the tourist across the state including remote areas will attract more tourist and also increase the tourist spend in the state.

2. The Project

The project consists of a chain of branded cafés. This project is based on a Public – Private – Community Partnership (PPCP) model. The location of our outlets in the hill areas will provide new opportunities for the local entrepreneurs, create new jobs in the local communities and also provide access to market for heritage products and local produce.

The Structure of project consists of about 50 outlets classified as Base stations/ Nodes and Modular outlets. The base stations will work as distribution points and training grounds for the other outlets and also provide additional services.

Base Stations will be flagship outlets located at strategic points so as to serve as centre of the supply chain and as training grounds for other outlets.

Module A is the basic module for all outlets. It will offer the basic services such as Clean Toilets, Tea & Coffee, Beverages (Soft drinks, Bottled water, flavored milk etc.),Basic Packaged foods counter, Basic Travel Requisites (OTC Drugs, travel pack etc.), Forest Produce and Local Tourist Guides

Module B can be added on to Module A based on the demand. It will offer add on services to the basic module such as Communication Center (Telephone/ email), ATM machine, Add on retail products (Souvenirs, travel requisites like books, magazines, audio cassettes etc.), Forest Nursery Products

Module C will be added on to the module B at places with high traffic such as tourist spots and roads between major tourist destinations. It will have extra seating space and offer add on services to Module B like Heat and Eat Food, Kiddy rides and play area and Facilitate emergency medical care.

3. Benefits to Key Stakeholders

The State gets an opportunity to create 50 new entrepreneurs, 250 direct jobs and 1250 indirect jobs .The development of this infrastructure will promote tourism and increased tourism income in the state and create demand for ethnic products.

The Local Communities will benefit from the jobs created, income enhancement opportunities and access to markets for their produce.

The Entrepreneur benefits from a new income generation opportunity, skill up gradation and enterprise sustainability by being part of a larger project.

The Tourists gets access to high quality facilities, reliable quality products and services, and an opportunity to enjoy nature and access to ethnic products


WAYSIDE AMENITIES
(Government of India, Ministry of Tourism- Press Report)

Wayside amenities should be located after about every 50kms. on the way leading to the tourist destinations/circuits.
A workshop held in Delhi on World Class Tourism Infrastructure in which Mr. Sujit Banerjee said, “We have proposed to set up wayside amenities every 25-30 kms on national and state highways, district roads, smaller roads that connect highways and places of tourism importance. This will be achieved in coordination with the Ministry of Surface Transport which has given its assent.”
A proposal to set up amenities will be funded through: investments from state tourism boards, PPPs and if required, through Central Financing Assistance (CFA). Banerjee said, "The important aspect of this project is that the amenities may be established on private land as well. Suppose there is a conventional dhaba, we can ascertain the viability of the same wherein a small area can be designated for the amenity with appropriate signage. We are working on the modalities."
The ministry is considering three different forms of amenities: only with a washroom, washroom with a small room to serve refreshments, and one on a larger scale having 10-12 tables for dining with washrooms. "These facilities will be basic in nature for travelers who need a clean environment for a stopover during long road journeys," he explained.
The decision on locations will be left to the respective states. Banerjee added, "These amenities could have different designs depending on the states, depicting their architecture and culture. State governments, we expect, will soon start sending their proposals to private operators for this projects. This project will be vital for us to promote rural tourism."
Following facilities for Wayside Amenities are:
(i) Eating place, drinking water and wash rooms;
(ii) Dormitory for rest;
(iii) Facility of telephone;
(iv) Fueling facilities;
(v) Sufficient parking space for different categories of vehicles segregating the parking for buses and trucks from car and other light vehicles;

(vi) Repair shops (mechanical and electrical) and shops for spare parts;
(vii) A kiosk for sundry items;
(viii) A space for spreading awareness about various government welfare programmes including first aid facility; and
(ix) Landscaping;
(x) Recreational facilities
(xi) Vehicle accessories and workshops
(xii) Information hoardings and landscaping etc.
(xiii) Illumination
(xiv) Improvement of road and parking

INN’s / Guest Houses Project – Arunachal Pradesh

The INNs/ Guest houses are based upon a standardized modular design and expandable and they target the Family Tourists – Budget Tourist corresponding to 1 & 2 star hotels.
Overall project investment is envisaged at Rs 25 crores (excluding cost of land) creating 500 rooms and providing direct and indirect employment to 2000 people. They are proposed to be taken up gradually, in the next 5 years by 2015, to include all tiers 1, 2 and 3 cities / towns in the state and provide reliable, secure and standardized high quality accommodation to the budget and family tourists.
Four Inns are proposed to be taken up in the initial stage as part of Growth Driver Projects. The benefits will accrue due to demonstration factor and multiplier effect at various locations in cities other than Itanagar where the Flagship Inn will be located. They could be taken up in partnership with the local community to facilitate access to land and create local participation and ownership.
Inns would also facilitate creation of budget accommodation for tour packages to be developed for structured tourism.
1. The Need

Tourism is one of thrust sectors for growth in the hill state of Arunachal Pradesh Employment and distributive growth is the need of the hour and tourism offers an excellent avenue as it creates income transfers and actively involves local communities. The primary means of transport for the tourists in the hill area is through roads. However, the infrastructure available for these tourist is very minimal if not absent in the hill region.
There are clearly identified needs of overnight stay accommodation in form of Inns / Hotels offering credibility, reliability in quality of products and services and security.

Developing “INNs” for the tourist across the state including remote areas will attract more tourist and also increase the tourist spends in the state.
2. The Project

The project consists of a chain of branded “INNs”. This project is based on a Public – Private – Community Partnership (PPCP) model. The location of our INNs in the hill areas will provide new opportunities for the local entrepreneur.

The Structure of project consists of about 29 modular INNs across the state and would contribute to the development of tourism infrastructure across the state. The flagship INN located at Itanagar will serve as centre of training for other INNs.

Location Capacity
Rooms each Numbers Total Capacity Rooms Remarks
Itanagar 50 1 50 Flagship &
Training Center
Circuit 1
Circuit 2 25 8 200 Phase 1
Other circuits cities, towns and tourist
destinations 12 20 240 Phase 2
Total 29 490 (say 500 )

3. Benefits to Key Stakeholders

The State gets an opportunity to create about 100 new entrepreneurs, 1000 direct jobs and another 1000 indirect jobs .The development of this infrastructure will promote tourism and increased tourism income in the state and create demand for ethnic products.
[
The Local Communities will benefit from the jobs created, income enhancement
opportunities and access to markets for their produce.

The Entrepreneur benefits from a new income generation opportunity, skill up gradation and enterprise sustainability by being part of a larger project.
The Tourists gets access to high quality facilities, reliable quality products and services, and an opportunity to enjoy nature and access to ethnic products

8.8.3. Hotels / Motels – The Critical Need

This segment of the tourism infrastructure is proposed to be taken up basically by the Private Sector and hence not included in the list of “Growth Driver Project” to be initiated by the state. However the following issues need to be addressed by an appropriate Tourism Development Policy so that an attractive enabling environment exists for the investors and investments are economically viable for the investors and financial institutions to provide access to funds as these projects have a long gestation period.
A key need for the tourism infrastructure is good and affordable accommodation.

The accommodation exists in the following 3 segments: (a) 5star, 4 star and heritage hotels (b) Three, two & one star hotels and (c) Small budget hotels, guesthouses & inns in the unorganized sector.
The sluggish investment scenario in the hotel and tourism segment implies that most of the investors are not willing to come forward because of the inherent problems there in like:

1. Lack of hotel sites, expensive land available through auctions
2. Construction of hotel is capital-intensive and it has a long gestation period
3. There are few Government incentives presently available to the hotel industry
4. There is extremely large number of approvals / sanctions required to construct and operate a hotel (regulatory process) as well as uncertainties of permissions.
5. Inadequate returns on the investment as compared to other sectors of the Economy

Over the five-year period from 1999-00 to 2003-04, the compounded annual growth rate has been the strongest in the ‘budget segment’. During this period, the revenue per available room (RevPAR) for the 3-star category has grown at 11%, the 4-star segment has grown at 9% and slowest growth was recorded in the 5-star deluxe segment that grew at a marginal 1.2% only (source: survey for 2005-06 done for FHRAI by HVS International).
With rise in domestic tourism, overall occupancy in the non-luxury sector has already touched 65%-70% across the country. Demand for the mid-priced or non-luxury segment is being fuelled by a surge in mid-management corporate travel (junior business executives, medical representatives) and domestic tourism. Foreign corporate and holiday travelers also fuel demand for budget hotels.

Tourism Policy- Affirmative Actions for Accommodation
• The formation of budget hotels in the country needs a multi-prong strategy from the State Governments/local authorities in terms of land pricing, moderate taxation and speedy approvals.
• The state could consider for budget hotels a 10- year tax incentives, reimbursement of stamp-duty and lower transfer fee for leasehold land.
• In order, to keep the tariffs competitive, budget hotels should also be extended concession on entertainment and luxury tax. The base tariff for luxury tax needs to be revised to above Rs. 2000/- per night room rent and periodically raised.
• Land availability and the auction of hotel plots is linked to the real –estate values of the land, which makes the project cost prohibitively high and setting-up of budget hotels becomes an economically un-viable proposition.
Growth in the accommodation will trigger small businesses and self-employment. These activities can range from providing tour and guidance services to setting-up of hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops and local handicrafts outlets.

Findings from the primary survey – Domestic Tourists
Accommodation required by the domestic tourists
70%
Average bed nights per visitor Domestic 1.12 Foreigner 1.36
Person per room 2.09 1.15




Type of accommodation required Luxury 2.16 Budget 30.23 Others 67.61

(Source: ACNielsen ORG-MARG Pvt. Ltd. Assessment of requirement of Hotel Room / Accommodation in Metro Cities 10 and 50 major Tourist Centres in India –MoT Feb 2008)

The growing number of domestic tourist, encouraged by the incentive given by the government for the Government and public sector employees, offers an unique opportunity for the private sector to invest in the Hotel industry. A pro-active action needs to be taken by the government to initiate a dialogue with all the stakeholders, including the financial sector, to identify and resolve the bottlenecks to growth

Rural Tourism & Home Stays

We propose to use development of rural tourism as one our most important tourism promotion initiative. It is easy low cost high return initiative and takes the benefit of tourism to remote areas of the state. Rural tourism has also been a key component of Ministry of Tourism

various initiative and also interfaces with the rural development and panchayat raj. Rural tourism could thus trigger an all round development of the rural areas by providing jobs and income generating opportunities for the residents, women empowerment and community participation and ownership for both economic and social sustainability of the project.

Government of India has also conducted an impact assessment study and the results are very encouraging. In view of the multi-dimensional impact of rural tourism and home stays the extracts of the study are being reproduced. Rural Tourism and home stay Projects are to be carefully designed to protect the heritage and avoid negative impact of un-regulated tourism. The residents of the area have to be prepared to understand the project and its impact and supported by a sociologist to act as a counselor during the early stages for both the tourist and the residents.

Following are the excerpts from the study:


The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India is implementing Rural Tourism Scheme to promote village tourism as the primary tourism product to spread tourism and its socio- economic benefits to rural and its new geographic regions in India. The primary beneficiaries are rural communities (especially women and unemployed youth), PRI representatives, tourists etc.


Under the 10th Five Year Plan thrust has been given to promote village tourism as the primary tourism product to spread tourism and its socio-economic benefits to rural and its new geographic regions.

For creation or improvement of infrastructure at the selected site, various activities have been undertaken, viz, improvement of surroundings of the village which include landscaping, development of parks, fencing, compound wall etc; improvements of roads within the Panchayat limits; illumination in the village; provision for improvement in solid waste management and sewerage management; procurement of equipments directly related to tourism, like water sports, adventure sports, eco-friendly modes of transport for moving within the tourism zone; refurbishment of the monuments; signages; reception centres; tourist accommodation and other work/activities directly related to tourism.
Further to build capacity and enhance the participation of local community, various software activities are undertaken by implementing agencies like Non Government Organisations

(NGO) / Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRI)/ etc. The objectives of the software activities is to develop a sustainable Rural Tourism product, convergence with the Ministry’s Rural Tourism Scheme (Hardware) through tourismawareness, capacity building for tourism/hospitality services, gender equity, creation of Gurukul, environment care and marketing of traditional art and folk forms.
Various activities at the selected sites that have been undertaken include the baseline survey of the site; enhancing local community awareness of the tourism process; gender sensitization; capacity building/design inputs related to art & craft skills, cultural & natural heritage; Gurukul process;capacity building for various aspects of visitor handling; convergence with other yojanas/schemes in the site; environment care and access to cleaner technology with local material, local skills and local traditional styles; marketing convergence including the travel trade for domestic and international visitors.
Based on the Tenth Five Year Plan goals of the Government of India, and on the United Nations Development Assistance Framework priorities of strengthening decentralization and promoting gender equality, Government of India- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Country Programme (2003-2007) has been initiated. UNDP has committed funding support to the Government of India (Ministry of Tourism) for the Endogenous Tourism Project initiative. The Project seeks to promote local culture and craft based eco-tourism for sustainable livelihoods and integrated rural development during the 10th Five Year Plan. The primary facilitation of the Endogenous Tourism Project is for capacity building / direct training; thereby enabling low-income village communities create and articulate their skills from within.
IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SCHEME

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism projects, particularly on Tourist arrivals

Most of the sites chosen for rural tourism project have inherent advantages in terms of historic importance, craft, culture, cuisine, natural beauty etc. It was assessed that prior to the intervention of Ministry of Tourism, there were five basic issues hindering the flow of tourist.
• Lack of basic infrastructural facilities for tourists like sanitation, drinking water
• facility, wayside amenities
• Lack of accommodation and fooding facilities
• Lack of awareness about the site importance and the need for local guides
• Need to maintain hygienic and good sanitation conditions at the sites
• Xenophobia among the local population

With the intervention of Ministry of Tourism, there has been considerable change. Though, it is too early to assess quantitatively the increase in the number of tourists (in most of the cases, the project is not yet completed), but our study shows that the Xenophobia (fear towards unknown) has been removed from the mind of the local people. The smaller radii in the tourism circuit have been identified within the destination for keeping the tourist stay for more than a day. Different goal setting exercises have been conducted with the host community in due participation and suggestion of village committee as well as the District Coordination Committee.
The following factors have complemented and are indicative of the fact that Rural Tourism scheme has been successful in attracting more tourists and elongating their period of stay in the village.

• Effective documentation of the site by preparation of Brochures, cards, websites etc depicting the site attractions. This has helped in marketing the sites even among foreign tourists.
• Equipping the artisans to produce the artistic products with good quality. Encouraging product diversification and provision of marketing linkages as well as credit facilities has increased sales of the local art and craft forms from the craft interpretation centre.
• Documentation of traditional festivals and folk lore has been carried to the tourists.
• Improvement in the cleanliness and hygiene in the village and environmental awareness among the people has fostered a conducive atmosphere for tourists at few places. The drainage system, garbage disposal system etc has changed the Sanitation and health of the village.
• Guide training among the local youths has led to an increasing number of youths helping the tourists in knowing the places of attraction in the villages.
• Concept of home stays with food, clean water and toilets being promoted among the host community has resolved the problem of accommodation on one hand and on the other hand helped the tourists to feel a part of the local community.
• Training of the women/ the host community in preparation of different types of cuisine and other hospitality aspects has also resulted in increasing the satisfaction level of the visitors.

• The tourist arrival to control villages is constant over a period of time. Not much of efforts have been done by local community members to increase the total inflow to the destinations.

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects, Particularly on Employment Generation – overall and for the Local Population

The overall goal of the rural tourism is to create a community managed rural tourism model through strengthening livelihoods of the local communities and the preservation and development of local heritage of the villages. Due to the initiatives taken by the Ministry of Tourism to promote rural tourism, a number of avenues for employment of local population have opened. The direct and indirect sources of income are enumerated below:

• The employment of local youths as tour guides has given gainful employment to a large number of unemployed youth in the village. The concept of homestays with toilets has supplemented the income of the host population.
• A large number of tea stalls, small restaurants, pan shops etc have started functioning due to the increase in inflow of tourists, which has again improved the socio-economic conditions of the local people.
• As local resources (labour and material) were used to construct the hardware structure under this scheme in the villages, a number of people have got employed.
• The revival of Tourism products like folk arts by formation of activity groups has also helped the local population. These folk arts provides link with the past and bring alive ancient traditional art forms and culture. They also helped in perpetuating legacy for the future. The support to rejuvenate the folk arts has lead to the revival of the folk arts and also providing livelihoods to the practitioners of the arts.
• A vital aspect of the Rural Tourism Scheme was to check the migration of the artisans from the village. To tackle the problem of migration, the artisans in different categories like stone carvers, pot makers, wood carvers, painters, weavers etc have been given trainings and exposure visits. Their product has been effectively promoted via different means and they have been taught about product diversification and demand of market, which has ultimately enhanced their income and stopped the migration.
• Integration of gender perspectives into the tourism industry has also evolved as an important concept through the Rural Tourism Scheme, as it is the major employer of women and offers various opportunities for independent income generating activities for them. The Self Help Groups (SHGs) which were either non functional or disintegrated and have been provided/ will be provided financial and marketing linkages helping them to increase their income.

In control villages, due to lack of concept of integration of existing economic activity with the tourism, the villagers lack the basis understanding of alternative livelihood opportunity

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects, Particularly on Preservation and Improvement of Environment

One of the biggest challenges of the tourism industry is that success should not destroy, what attracts the visitors in the first place i.e. the environment. During the field visits, it was observed that there is change in villager’s attitudes towards cleanliness, hygiene and sensitiveness towards environment. The changes in relation to preservation and improvement of environment that were noticed during the field visit are listed below:

• Solid Waste Management: Solid Waste Management (SWM) Training has been imparted by the NGOs/ implementing agencies to the villagers covering issues like awareness generation; appropriate waste segregation; disposal of plastics; reuse and recycling of plastic, composting and vermi-composting. The measures adopted have improved the environment and facilitated the tourists. After training, the villagers have initiated waste management and started collection, segregation and dumping of the waste in designated areas. The SWM brought in the much required scientific approach to the whole process of waste management and a proper disposal of plastic which was unchecked. It also gave Waste Management a new perspective in terms ‘waste as wealth’ and ‘waste as source of income’.

• Beautification and Landscaping of the village: It has been reported that the rural tourism has improved the natural beauty of the rural tourism sites. Beautiful parks; renovation of old and heritage buildings, temples, mosques etc; decoration of entry gates etc have gone a long way in attracting the tourists by presenting them a clean and environment friendly village.

• Sanitation and Personal Hygiene: The quality of the living conditions of the local community and their standard of living has improved at select rural tourism sites. For the development of village, people have showed their priority towards sanitation. For instance, in Lachen (Sikkim), the cows and yaks roam in plenty and pose a threat to health of the villagers. To spread awareness among people, various measures have been undertaken under the rural tourism scheme. For instance, for improvement in health and hygiene, camps and demonstrations of hygienic practices; workshop on cleanliness has been organized. This has resulted in improved living condition of the local community through proper hygienic practices.

Again, for improvement in the sanitation facilities, need assessment was done with the local community to identify the needs of the people in the improvement of sanitation. Environmental awareness workshops were organized. The output of all these has been creation of sanitation facilities such as the toilet facilities for the usage of local community and enhancement in awareness on the utilization of created infrastructure.
In control villages, the participation of local community members for improvement of sanitational condition is limited and lack the concept of improved sanitational conditions in the

village can increase stay period of tourist which would ultimately lead to enhancement of income generation

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects on Direct Revenue Generated

One of the most important objectives of the rural tourism programme is to increase the income flow of the local population and improving their quality of life. After receiving training on various aspects like hospitality management, guide training, visitor handling, linguistic ability etc, many rural unemployed youths have come forward and started working as guides. Youth who were already employed in the profession, have improved their skills on visitor handling. Most of them neither could speak in English nor had any formal degree. These guides have now become much more organised and many have opted for various courses and certification, which will increase their income in future.
Besides, the development of home-stays in this programme has resulted in a smooth flow of income for the host community. They have been given training on cleanliness, preparation of cuisines and other vital aspects of visitor handling. During the field survey, it was found that in Kumbhalanghi (Kerala), the charges of rooms are as high as Rs 1200 per day. Besides, the host community also earns by serving the guests with different types of cuisines.
Artisans and craftsmen in the villages are another set of people whose earning has moderately increased due to the efforts taken under rural tourism scheme. They have participated in various workshops and training sessions, updating their knowledge and skill on modern designs, colours, technology and experimented with different models. While participating in the local festivals or in national events, they have earned good profit by selling their products. In control villages, artisans still use traditional techniques and designs for their product. It leads to low demand for their product in the market.

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects on Self-Sustainability of Projects

Another major objective of the rural tourism is to build the capacity of local communities so that the projects may be sustainable in long run. In most of the rural tourism sites, the community has been effectively mobilised and their capacity being built (especially for UNDP supported sites). The local community has been trained to manage the tourism site, all by its own for sustainability. The community has been equipped through the goal setting exercises in the maintenance of the site; outcomes of the tourism through community participation and effective

monitoring of all the said activities. The Village Coordination Committee, consisting of both genders has enabled the local community in the activities for the successful results. The active participation in need assessment, group discussion, disadvantaged groups, women, and unemployed youth has also been ensured in this process. This institution building among the artisan community has resulted in the formation of Federation of artisans, VLCs, SHGs, producer groups etc. These institutions are constituted to manage the site on sustainable basis. In control villages, the concept of self sustainability totally lacking amongst the local communities

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects on System of Maintenance of Facilities for Tourists

The maintenance of the facilities created is an aspect which requires a lot of attention or else the utilities and civil structures created would either be destroyed due to sheer negligence or would not be able to draw the desired number of tourists. At Paranpur (Madhya Pradesh), it has been observed that the structures like Kala Kendras, Craft Museums, Toilets, Parking sheds, rest rooms etc are maintained by the villagers under the direct supervision of the village panchayat. This also serves an important objective of the rural tourism i.e. to increase the livelihood opportunities of the locals. For maintaining these facilities, in many places (or already in place in many sites) the local youths and women are working as sweepers, guards, cleaners, facilitators, receptionists etc. Thus not only the structures gets utilized and maintained, but the people also get gainful employment resulting in self sustainability.

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects of Publicity/ Campaign Launched by the Agency Implementing the Project for Attracting Tourists

The publicity/campaign launched by various NGOs and implementing partners has helped in projecting the particular sites as places in the tourism circuit of India. Earlier, the visitors were either unaware about the site or didn’t stop over in the village. Due to the publicity and marketing efforts of the Ministry of Tourism, State departments and the implementing partners, situation is gradually changing. Various publicity methods have been adopted to promote tourism at the sites like documentation of the site with the campaign of “Incredible India”; preparation of brochures, cards depicting the site attractions; developing websites explaining in details the history, culture, food, craft etc of the site; strategic tie-up with various tour operators and travel agents to market the site; video shooting; Taking natives to exposure visits to unknown places, thereby spreading the culture through word of mouth ; putting up signages in villages so that visitors know exactly what to see or where to go and conducting

workshops in places like Delhi Haat etc where the true art form of the natives is showcased thereby getting more recognition to the villages.

Impact Assessment of Rural Tourism Projects on Involvement of Travel agents/ Tour Operators to Promote destinations

The travel agents and tour operators are playing an important role in promotion of the destinations. Most of these places were till recently unknown to many domestic and foreign tourists. However, most of tour operators who conduct package tours, (taking the people for sight seeing to different places and arrange for their accommodation and food too) have started taking the visitors to these sites now.
Though it is still at a nascent stage, with volume of tourists slowly increasing to the sites, however the efforts are in place to promote these sites. During interaction with private tour operators, it has been reported that the situation is slowly changing and visitors are now desirous to see these destinations.

Perception, Experience and Expectation of Tourists about the Facilities Available

During the interaction with tourists (both domestic and international), overall the visitors seem to be truly satisfied with their trip to India. While some of them were in the site for the first time, few others had repeated their tour. The positives of the rural tourism according to them are enumerated below:

• India being a land of diversity, this type of trips gives a platform to visit the hinterlands and meet the rural people.
• Local community warmth and the natural beauty of the places is really enchanting
• Their expectations have been fulfilled, as they felt a part of the family itself
• They really enjoyed the home stays and talking and mixing with people
• Added attraction for them was that the local art and crafts were being made in front of them and the process being explained to them.
• It was a great experience to witness the way of living, to exchange views with rural people and being close to nature.
• They enjoyed the hospitality of the people who were very receptive.

Skills Development & Capacity Building Strategy for Arunachal Pradesh

Background

The growth in tourism will have to be serviced by a substantial increase in infrastructure, including air-road-rail connectivity, hotels and restaurants. Department of Tourism, Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Government of India, undertook a study to assess the manpower requirement in the hotel and restaurant sector as well as the tour and travel operation business. The extracts of the key findings are:
Hotels in India
• There are an estimated 1.2 million hotel rooms in the country. However, the star
• category hotels account for a mere 7% (approximately 80000 rooms).
• There are almost 750,000 people working in hotels across India. In addition, there are more than 1 lakh employees working in motels on state & national highways.
• A bulk of the employees (approximately 60%) are working in F&B service, Kitchen and Housekeeping.
• Almost 80% of the employees in key hotel functions such as F&B, front office and housekeeping are young; they are less than 40 years old.
• Hotels in the unorganized sector employ largely untrained manpower.

Restaurants in India
• Our estimate is that there are at least 140,000 restaurants in urban India.
• Conventional restaurants account for the largest population (30%), followed by sweet shops (16%), fast food outlets (16%) and dhabas (13%).
• There are almost 1.85 million people working in restaurants across India.
• In addition, there are more than 1.3 million people employed in small restaurants and
dhabas on the state and national highways.
• Almost 70% of the employees in key functions of F& B service and kitchen are less than 30 years old.
• Almost 20% of those employed in F & B of conventional restaurants, cafes and fast food outlets are diploma holders either from private hotel management institutions or Food Craft Institutes. Dhabas, largely, employ untrained manpower.

Travel Trade Business in India
• There are approximately 6000 travel trade companies/ firms in the country.
• The population of these agencies could be growing at 7.5 - 10% annually.
• This sector employs almost 83,500 people. Of them, a significant proportion is in functions such as ticketing, tour operations and accounts/ administration.
• Almost 44% of the employees in ticketing have a formal IATA/ UTA certificate or a diploma in travel & tour management; 17% of those in administration also have a formal education in travel & tour management. Overall, 17.5% of the employees have formal training in tour and travel management.

Emerging Needs for Skills Development and Capacity Building Strategy for Arunachal Pradesh

With the growth in the tourism sector and needs for the capacity building and skills development, both at institutional and individual levels. Our plan is to train 10,000 people over a 5 year period to create the basic Human Resource for the state. We propose the following areas for skills development and capacity building:
Institutional

The Policy, planning, implementation, monitoring and sustainability of the individual projects and the entire tourism sector within the state will be dependent upon the pro-active action and the support the sector receives from the various government departments and its agencies, public finance institutions and the community at large.
In order to ensure proper awareness and understanding of the importance of this sector it is proposed that the people in these offices are exposed to a sensitization program and also to specific support and skills therein needed from their respective organizations. This initiative will also create synergy and better utilization of state resources.
Government

Tourism Department, Industry, Forest Department, Local Administration, Police, Roads, Archeology Transport, Panchayat Raj, Rural Development, Local Communities, Employment, Social Welfare, Culture , Minorities, etc
Public Institutions
Industry and Trade bodies, Travel and Tour Trade, Hotel and Restaurant associations, Transport Sector- bus and taxi operators, NGOs, Community based organizations, Schools and Colleges, Village Council, Arts & Crafts Promotion Agencies etc.
Individuals
Individuals across all activities of the tourism sector need to be trained to meet the emerging needs and expectations of the tourists. This will facilitate the states capacity to manage the growing tourism sector both effectively and efficiently and attract both investors and tourists to the state.

We have identified the following core areas for the skills development:
Information and Facilitation centers

Front Desk Tour Planning Reservations

Travel and Tour Trade

Ticketing Tour Planning
Tour Escorts & Guides

Transport
Owners Drivers Conductors
Guides

Heritage & Religious sites
Community Heritage & Sacred Forests etc Forests- Flora & Fauna
Eco Tourism-Mountains ,rivers, lakes etc
Hotels, Resorts, Rural Tourism, Wayside Facilities
Reservation – IT enabled Guest Relations Housekeeping
Food & Beverages Kitchen
Restaurants and “DHABAS”
Housekeeping Food & Beverages Kitchen
Handicrafts
Product & Services development & display Sales & Customer Relations
Performing Arts
Dance, Drama, Music
Folklore & Story telling
Adventure Tourism
Mountains- trekking, Mountains- biking
Water Sports – River & lake

Paragliding etc

Environment Sustainability

Water Pollution Waste Management


Tourism Sector Skills Development Matrix
10000 trained in 5 years

























Growth Driver Projects - Strategic Start Up Projects Stakeholders Interface

The government departments, its agencies and other institutions and enterprises engaged in the following activities are the stakeholders in the project either directly or indirectly:
• Culture & Heritage
• Nature
• Government- development initiatives
• Private Sector-tour operators/investors
• Local Community- entrepreneurs/jobs
• Financial Sector-Opportunity/CSR/Community Act
• Tourists

Various stakeholders meetings were held at different times and needs assessed from the travel and tour operators, hospitality industry and civil society besides discussions and information with the government departments and field visits.
This was interactive and very beneficial as:

• Part of a process to promote participation and ownership of the initiatives to achieve the desired outcomes
• Critical to bottom up planning as the implementation success is dependent upon the details at the operational levels and not brevity of the policy
• Provides knowledge of past initiatives and their failure / success
• Makes the information more objective

The environment is for all round efforts to succeed rather than criticize.

Investment Strategy

The Investment Strategy proposed for the development of the tourism sector is driven by the need to create the Brand and the basic facilities to attract more tourists to the state. Having started this action the private sector will initiate investments in the facilities based upon economic returns in a demand driven situation. The government has to have enabling policies in place to encourage the same. Strategic alliances with the financial sector are required to make the access to funds simpler for the tourism sector. The initial investment by the government will also give it the lead time required to solve the issue of land for encouraging outside investors, essential for the development and participation by the private sector.

The investments initiated by the government can explore all funding routes: grants from central government, budgetary support of loans from the state government, public private

partnership, Regional development funds and also other funds dedicated to the rural development and employment generation.

We are proposing the following matrix for the overall investments:

Investor Type % Remarks

Government Growth Driver Projects 20% Start up and
Spin Off-5yrs

Private Sector Core Investments in 80% Dispersed
& Ownership
Community Tourism Infrastructure

The private sector investments will be more sustainable after growth driver projects are launched by the government as explained above. The overall opportunity from the growth of the tourism sector will open new avenues for the financial institutions and the banks to proactively fund the tourism sector projects which they are reluctant to do so due to issue of land, adequate entrepreneurial development in the state and collaterals at all levels of funding.
Consolidation of the projects under one Program will enable larger player ( ILFS, IDFC, PE Funds etc) to participate as financial partners or joint venture partners. Each project by itself is very small for these to participate and thus excluding the state from access to investments by such large players.

Growth Driver Projects – State Initiated Projects

Start Up Project

A Dual Approach strategy for the development of tourism in the state is being adopted to enhance the experience of the tourist by better infrastructure on the existing high traffic routes as well as create new destinations adjunct to the main circuits and sub circuits to take the benefit of tourism to new areas and for mainstreaming these areas.

The following need based projects were identified and are to be taken up at the earliest by the state government as they are critical for the development of the tourism sector and benefits will accrue widely across the state. These projects will trigger private and community based investments as well as sustains the investments already made by the private sector.

The locations of the project have been identified based upon the current trends, revealed by the Department of Tourism baseline study for the tourism in the state, and the need to develop the two key tourist traffic circuits for the increased tourist inflow and higher spend.
1 Tezpur- Bhalukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
including sub-circuit Bhalukpong-Tipi-Seijosa 50 % tourists
2 Itanagar-Ziro –Daporizo-Along- Passighat 37% tourists


The development of areas adjunct to the main circuits will support tourist traffic builds up in all areas across the state and the need is felt to create new destinations and products for the tourists for better coverage and experience.

Infrastructure and promotion of tourism in other circuits (13% in total), which receive between 2-4% of the total tourists individually will be driven by development needs and not economic sustainability initially. The numbers are very small at this stage and would build up over time as they get integrated into the tourist map of the state.

The basic infrastructure of roads and communication is required to be in place before mass tourism can happen. State resources should not be spread thinly for an efficient and effective tourism development approach and Government accommodation and other infrastructure should be spruced up to meet the tourism development needs.

Eco-tourism, especially wild life and river rafting needs to be promoted as “Boutique Tourism” and not mass tourism due to carrying capacity and the possible negative impact on the environment. This needs low infrastructure but better security, training and medical aid and evacuation facilities.

The border areas have to be dealt with special security concerns as the major target group for Eco-Tourism-wildlife and adventure are foreigners. In order to get high paying foreign tourists we need to explore minimum returns per night for the state either as Tourist fees or as Floor rates for Hotel etc per night. We have to actively discourage low paying tourists in this eco-sensitive zone and border areas as most will be staying in remote villages and home stays.

Each type of project selected for the start up is unique in character as it addresses a very specific need and fills in the gap in the current set up. The projects are demand driven and as the tourist traffic builds up they will be replicated by the private sector and the skills and knowledge created within the state will benefit all in this infrastructure expansion drive later.

The projects are to be structured in a manner that the revenue earning component of the project can be spun off later on to create new resources for the Tourism Department/ Agency identified / created to implement the Tourism Development Plan and enable them to develop new destinations with these resources. They are likely to become self sustained within the period of 5 years from commercial operations.

We have already highlighted the need to implement the Strategic Plan in a period of 3 years with a start up / preparatory period of 1-2 years for the plan to be relevant and effective for the state and derive benefits from the growing tourism.

Pilot Projects


The Start Up Projects also include 4 special initiatives as “Pilot Projects” to reach out to high paying traffic and benefit from emerging opportunities. They are distinct in the tourism resource being developed for the individual pilot project.
1. Heritage Site Malinithan
2. Wellness Tourism-Flagship Tawang-Tsacha
3. Eco-Tourism- Flagship Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary
4. Hydro-Tourism-Lake Dollung Mukh

Start Up Projects – Implemented over a 3 year period

Type & Locations Nos Unit Cost
(Rs Crs) Total Cost
(Rs Crs) Remarks Lease / Spin
Off Possibility
Tourist City Centers
c) Flagships
Itanagar
d) Others: Bomdilla / Ziro Passighat
c) Mini City Centers Aalo
1
12 41.90 Completely Disinvested -leased
out to external
3 5.3 operators including
TDC Proposed
Right to run the
4 3.5 information &
facilitation center
with the

Mechuka Tezu
Miao government
Wayside Amenities- & 22 2.75 60.50 Completely
Information and Disinvested -leased
Facilitation Centers out to external
Midways on all Tourist operators including
Circuit highways TDC Proposed
Location Details- Annexure 1 Right to run the
information &
facilitation center
with the
government
Inns/Guest Houses 7 1.98 13.86 Yes- Completely
Accommodation on all Disinvested -leased
circuits out to external
Location Details- Annexure 2 operators including
TDC Proposed
Rural Tourism –
one in the identified rural areas of each circuit: Location Details- Annexure 3 Home Stays – 2 cottages in each village identified in; Location Details- Annexure 4 20


40 0.70


0.15 14.0


6.0 Social Worker part of the project for better understanding Yes-Completely Disinvested -leased out to external operators including TDC Proposed
Adventure Trekking Routes
Location Details- Annexure 5 8 2 16
Adventure- White Water Rafting & River Front Development
Location Details- Annexure 6 5 5 25
Pilot Projects 29
1.Heritage Site - Malinithan 1 5
Preservation, Renovation &
Development 1 15
2. Wellness Tourism-
Flagship Tawang-Tsacha 1 4
3.Eco-Tourism- Flagship
Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary 1 5
4.Hydro-Tourism-Lake
Dollung Mukh
-
Center of Excellence - 1 5 5 Not applicable as
Water Sports- for capacity
Passighat building of the
state
Skills Development 10,000 5.0 Not applicable as
c) Institutional for capacity
d) Individual building of the
state
Information Technology & Communications Network – 1 10

Capacity Building Management & Security Tourist Facilitation & Online Inner Line Permit
( domestic tourists )


Brand Build Up
*Marketing: International
/
National /Regional
*Information kits
*Niche Market Development

1 lot

20
Total 246.26
Add Grand Total Rs 270.89 Each project will
10% crores be funded
contin differently
gency










Tourism Growth Drivers: Start Up Projects

Type of Project: Wayside Amenities Total Nos: 22


Annexure No: 1


Circuit No: 1 Route: Balukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next
Station Remarks Risk Factor
Balukpong Balukpong AP Entry - land
Balukpong SESA Bomdilla land
Bomdilla Sela Sela Pass Tawang land

Total - 3
Circuit No: 2 Route: Itanagar-Ziro-Daporji-Aalo-Passighat
Start Station En-route Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Itanagar Potin Tri-
junction Ziro land
Ziro Kardo Hills Shivaling - land
Ziro Godak Daporji land
Daporji Tode Aalo land
Igo Tri- junction Entry from
highway NH 52 to AP land
Aalo Yembung Passighat land

Total - 6
Circuit No: 3 Route:Passighat-Jenging-Yingkiong-Tuting
Start
Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Passighat Passighat AP
Entry - land
Boleng 2 routes
served Yingkiong/Tuting land
Boleng Yingkiong Yingkiong Destination land

Total – 3
Circuit No: 4 Route:Tinsukia-Tezu-Hayuliang
Start Station En-route Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Tinsukia Chokham AP
Entry Tezu Land
Total – 1



Circuit No: 5


Route: Margherita-Miao-Nomdhapa
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Margherita Namchik AP
Entry Miao land
Total – 1
Circuit No: 6 Route: Roing – Mayudia- Anini
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Roing land
Mayudia land
Total 2
Circuit No: 7 Route: Tezpur-Seijosa-Balukpong
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
- - - - Seijosa is
very close Land
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 8 Route: Ziro-Palin-Koloriang
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Ziro Palin Palin Intermediate
station Land
Palin Koloriang Koloriang Destination Land

Total – 2
Circuit No: 9 Route: Itanagar-Doimukh-Sagalee-Seppa
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Itanagar Kheel Sagalee Land
Sagalee Nari Camp Seppa Land
Total - 2
Circuit No: 10 Route: Aalo-Mechulka
Start Station En-route
Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Aalo Kamba Mechulka Land
Total – 1
Circuit No: 11 Route:Daporijo-Siyum-Nacho
Start Station En-route Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Daporji Sipi Siyum
Total - 1







Tourism Growth Drivers: Start Up Projects

Type of Project: Inns & Guest Houses Total Nos: 7



Annexure No: 2


Circuit No: 1 Route: Balukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
Start Station Location Special
Features Next
Station Remarks Risk Factor
- -
Total - Nil
Circuit No: 2 Route: Itanagar-Ziro-Daporji-Aalo-Passighat
Start Station Location Special
Features Next
Station Remarks Risk Factor
Itanagar - Ziro
Ziro Daporji - land
Daporji Tirbin Aalo land
Aalo Pangin Trijunction Passighat land
Total - 3
Circuit No: 3 Route:Passighat-Jenging-Yingkiong-Tuting
Start Location Special Next Station Remarks Risk Factor

Station Features
--
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 4 Route:Tinsukia-Tezu-Hayuliang
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor

Total – Nil
Circuit No: 5 Route: Margherita-Miao-Nomdhapa
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
---------------------
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 6 Route: Roing – Mayudia- Anini
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Roing land
Total – 1
Circuit No: 7 Route: Tezpur-Seijosa-Balukpong
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
- - - - Seijosa is
very close
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 8 Route: Ziro-Palin-Koloriang
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Ziro Palin Palin Intermediate
station Land
Total – 1
Circuit No: 9 Route: Itanagar-Doimukh-Sagalee-Seppa
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Seppa Chyayangtajo
Total – 1

Circuit No: 10 Route: Aalo-Mechulka
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
------------------------
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 11 Route:Daporijo-Siyum-Nacho
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Daporji Siyum Nacho
Nacho Destination
Total - 2





















Tourism Growth Drivers: Start Up Projects

Type of Project: Rural Tourism Total Nos: 20



Annexure No: 3


Circuit No: 1 Route: Balukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Shergaon land
Rupa land
Urgeling land
Total - 3
Circuit No: 2 Route: Itanagar-Ziro-Daporji-Aalo-Passighat
Start Station Location Special
Features Next
Station Remarks Risk Factor
Reru land
Deke land
Liromoba land


Total - 3
Circuit No: 3 Route:Passighat-Jenging-Yingkiong-Tuting
Start
Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Rumgong land
Mebo land
Jengging land
Total – 3
Circuit No: 4 Route:Tinsukia-Tezu-Hayuliang
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Chowkham land
Hayuliang land
Total – 2
Circuit No: 5 Route: Margherita-Miao-Nomdhapa
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Hukanjuri land
Total – 1
Circuit No: 6 Route: Roing – Mayudia- Anini
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Roing land
Anini land
Total – 2
Circuit No: 7 Route: Tezpur-Seijosa-Balukpong
Start
Station Location Special
Features Next
Station Remarks Risk Factor
- - - - Seijosa is
very close
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 8 Route: Ziro-Palin-Koloriang
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Palin Land
Koloriang Land
Total – 2
Circuit No: 9 Route: Itanagar-Doimukh-Sagalee-Seppa
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Doimukh land

Pakke land
Total – 2
Circuit No: 10 Route: Aalo-Mechulka
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Yorlung land
Total - 1
Circuit No: 11 Route:Daporijo-Siyum-Nacho
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Daporijo land
Total - 1












Tourism Growth Drivers: Start Up Projects

Type of Project: Rural Tourism- Home Stays Total Nos: 40


Annexure No: 4


Circuit No: 1 Route: Balukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
Start Station Location Special
Features Next
Station Remarks Risk Factor
Shergaon land
Rupa land
Urgeling land
Total - 6 (3 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 2 Route: Itanagar-Ziro-Daporji-Aalo-Passighat
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Reru land
Deke land
Liromoba land

Total - 6 ((3 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 3 Route:Passighat-Jenging-Yingkiong-Tuting
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Rumgong land
Mebo land

Jengging land
Total – 6 (3 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 4 Route:Tinsukia-Tezu-Hayuliang
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Chowkham land
Hayuliang land
Total – 4 (2 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 5 Route: Margherita-Miao-Nomdhapa
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Hukanjuri land
Total – 2 (1 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 6 Route: Roing – Mayudia- Anini
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Roing land
Anini land
Total – 4 (2 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 7 Route: Tezpur-Seijosa-Balukpong
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
- - - - Seijosa is
very close
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 8 Route: Ziro-Palin-Koloriang
Start Station Location Special Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Palin Land
Koloriang Land
Total – 4 (2 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 9 Route: Itanagar-Doimukh-Sagalee-Seppa
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Doimukh Land
Pakke Land
Total – 4 (2 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 10 Route: Aalo-Mechulka
Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Yorlung Land
Total – 2 (1 set of 2 units each)
Circuit No: 11 Route:Daporijo-Siyum-Nacho

Start Station Location Special
Features Next Station Remarks Risk Factor
Daporijo Land
Total – 2 (1 set of 2 units each)


























Tourism Growth Drivers: Start Up Projects

Type of Project: Adventure-Trekking Routes Total Nos: 8


Annexure No: 5


Circuit No: 1 Route: Balukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
Trekking Route Special Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
“Gorichen Trekkers Trail” Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total - 1
Circuit No: 2 Route: Itanagar-Ziro-Daporji-Aalo-Passighat
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
Todor Putu Dapo Geko Trail & Tirbin-Yomcha- Kamba-Aalo Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total 1
Circuit No: 3 Route:Passighat-Jenging-Yingkiong-Tuting
Trekking Route Special Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
“Komsing Trek” Village Foreigners- Camp sites /

trek drivers medical aid
/communication
“Singa Trekking Trail” High altitude Foreigners- drivers Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total – 2
Circuit No: 4 Route:Tinsukia-Tezu-Hayuliang
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor

Total – Nil
Circuit No: 5 Route: Margherita-Miao-Nomdhapa
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
Miao-Nomdapha Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total – 1
Circuit No: 6 Route: Roing – Mayudia- Anini
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
Biosphere Mipi-Tuting Trail Circuit 6 and
circuit 3 linked Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total – 1
Circuit No: 7 Route: Tezpur-Seijosa-Balukpong
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
------------------------ ---------------------
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 8 Route: Ziro-Palin-Koloriang
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
Bameng- Koloriag Circuit 8 and
circuit 9 linked Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total – 1
Circuit No: 9 Route: Itanagar-Doimukh-Sagalee-Seppa
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
Circuit 8 linked
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 10 Route: Aalo-Mechulka
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor

Yorlung- Mechulka Lake site at high altitude Camp sites / medical aid
/communication
Total - 1
Circuit No: 11 Route:Daporijo-Siyum-Nacho
Trekking Route Special
Features Route Details Remarks Risk Factor
------------------------- -------------------
Total - Nil





















Tourism Growth Drivers: Start Up Projects



Annexure No: 6


Type of Project: Adventure-White Water Rafting & River Front Development Total Nos: 5

Circuit No: 1 Route: Balukpong-Bomdilla-Tawang
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
Balukpong White Water Rafting & River Front
Development Training, Safety Medical Aid,
Communication
Total - 1
Circuit No: 2 Route: Itanagar-Ziro-Daporji-Aalo-Passighat
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
Tirbin White Water Rafting &
River Front Development Training, Safety
Medical Aid, Communication
Tai White Water Rafting &
River Front


Total - 2

Development

Circuit No: 3 Route:Passighat-Jenging-Yingkiong-Tuting
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
Patum White Water Rafting &
River Front Development Training, Safety
Medical Aid, Communication
Total - 1
Circuit No: 4 Route:Tinsukia-Tezu-Hayuliang
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
---------------------
Total - Nil
Circuit No: 5 Route: Margherita-Miao-Nomdhapa

Location Special Features

Details Remarks Risk Factor

-----------------------


Total – Nil

Circuit No: 6 Route: Roing – Mayudia- Anini
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
-----------------------
Total – Nil

Circuit No: 7 Route: Tezpur-Seijosa-Balukpong
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
-----------------------
Total – Nil
Circuit No: 8 Route: Ziro-Palin-Koloriang
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
-----------------------
Total - Nil
Circuit No: 9 Route: Itanagar-Doimukh-Sagalee-Seppa
Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
-----------------------
Total - Nil

Circuit No: 10 Route: Aalo-Mechulka

Location Special Features

Details Remarks Risk Factor

-----------------------




Location Special
Features Details Remarks Risk Factor
Daporijo White Water Rafting &
River Front Development Training, Safety
Medical Aid, Communication



8.11.2 Private Sector Investment
New Opportunity & / On Going Projects Sustained

The Growth Driver Projects – State Initiated Projects will create new opportunities to meet the need for the 100,000 tourist increase every strategic plan period.
They will also enhance the sustainability of the existing projects and the projects in the various stages of implementation.
Tourism department can take a pro-active action in preparing the pre-feasibility studies / project profiles for these projects to attract investors from outside and also opportunity for the financial institutions and the banks to invest in the state.

The projects needed for tourism infrastructure and to be added every year in the next 5 years to meet the 15% CAGR of domestic tourist arrivals are listed below:

Resource Mobilization-Funds

8.12.1 Government of India Central Schemes

Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, besides developing a policy, has taken many pro-active steps for the promotion of tourism in India. The tourism development program also encourages the state governments to take benefit from the various financial assistance schemes of the Department of Tourism, for the planning of the projects in the state. The Policy & Schemes are given below for quick reference:















Tourism Policy and Schemes

In order to develop tourism in India in a systematic manner, position it as a major engine of economic growth and to harness its direct and multiplier effects for employment and poverty eradication an environmentally sustainable manner, the National Tourism Policy was formulate in the year2002. Broadly, the “Policy” attempts to:-


• Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth;
• Harness the direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism;
• Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth;
• Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the burgeoning global travel trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination;

Types Numbers Unit cost in Rs crore Unit cost in Rs crores
Accommodation 1000 rooms 50 room Hotels-10
25 room Inns -16
10 room Inns-10 7.5
2.5
0.75 75.00 Crs. 40.00 7.50
Sub-Total 122.50
Transport Sightseeing 20 seat Buses-75
45seat Cars -100 0.15
0.05 11.25
5.00
Sub-Total 16.25
Food & Beverages Restaurants-10 Fast Food -25 0.50
0.40 5.00
10.00
Sub-Total 15.00
Adventure Tourism River Rafting & Wildlife
Tourism etc 2 5 Sub-Total 10.00
Total Rs. 163.75 Crs.
Add 10% contingency 21 2 Grand Total Rs 180.00 Crs

• Acknowledges the critical role of private sector with government working as pro-active facilitator and catalyst;
• Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage, and culture in partnership with States, private sector and other agencies;
• Ensure that the tourist to India gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually elevated and “feel India from within”.

Keeping is view the basic principles and guidelines of the Tourism Policy, the Ministry of Tourism has been broadly implementing the following schemes/ programs during the 11th Five Year Plan:

Guidelines for Plan Scheme (11th)

• Scheme for Product/ Infrastructure Development and Destination & Circuits
• Scheme of Assistance for Large Revenue Generating Projects
• Scheme of Capacity Building for Service Providers (CBSP)
• Scheme of Rural Tourism
• Scheme of Central Financial Assistance for Information Technology (IT) Projects
• Scheme for support to Public Private Partnership in Infrastructure Development (Viability Gap Funding)
• Time Share Resorts (TSR)
• Market Research- Professional Services
• Marketing Development Assistance Scheme for promotion of Domestic Tourism
• Revised Guidelines for Adhoc Advertisement
• Scheme of financial assistance to the IHMS/FCIS/IITTM/ITIS/Polytechnic etc

Guidelines with Application Forms for Recognition / Classification Schemes

• Revised Guidelines for Marketing Development Assistance MDA Scheme
• Policy For Development And Promotion Of Caravan And Caravan Camping Parks
• Revised Guidelines For MDA Scheme for Medical / Wellness Tourism
• I T Guidelines for Central Financial Assistance
• Scheme of Financial Assistance to the IHMs /FCIs /IITTM/ITIs/ Polytechnic
• Revised Guidelines for postings in Overseas India Tourism Offices
• Approval of Hotels at Project Stage and Classification & Reclassification of Hotels
• Classification of Heritage Hotels
• Recognition as approved Travel Agents
• Recognition as approved Inbound Tour Operators
• Recognition as approved Tourist Transport Operators
• Recognition as approved Adventure Tour Operators
• Recognition as approved Domestic Tour Operators
• Approval of Standalone Air Catering Units

• Revised Guidelines for Grant of License for Regional Level Guides
• Time Share Resorts (TSR)
• Stand Alone Restaurants
• Incredible India Bed & Breakfast Guidelines
• Guidelines for Approval of Guest Houses
• Basic Minimum Standards for Adventure Tourism Related Activities
• Guidelines of Apartment of Hotels
• Guidelines for Tented Accommodation
• Revised Guidelines for CBSP Scheme
• Guidelines for Central Financial Assistance for broad basing hospitality education.
( Last Updated On 23 November 2009 )

The North Eastern Council Schemes

The North Eastern Council is the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the North Eastern Region which consists of the eight States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura.

The North Eastern Council was constituted in 1971 by an Act of Parliament. The constitution of the Council has marked the beginning of a new chapter of concerted and planned endeavour for the rapid development of the Region. Over the last thirty five years, NEC has been instrumental in setting in motion a new economic endeavour aimed at removing the basic handicaps that stood in the way of normal development of the region and has ushered in an era of new hope in this backward area full of great potentialities.

STATEMENT IN REPLY TO RAJYA SABHA UNSTARRED QUESTION NO 1657 RAISED BY SHRI MATILAL SARKAR, M.P. FOR 20TH JULY 2009, REGARDING "NEC PROJECTS".

Tourism is one of the thrust areas of the North East Council and below are listed the various schemes for the promotion of tourism in the North East Region:

Scheme for Promotion of Tourism in the North Eastern Region and Sikkim

• Development of Infrastructure facilities
• Tea Tourism
• Religious and Cultural Tourism
• Eco Tourism
• Wild Life Tourism
• Rural Tourism
• Adventure Sports Water Sports and Golf Tourism

• Support to Festivals and Fairs etc
• Publicity and Publications etc. including Information Centres for States
• Capacity Building in the Tourism Industry
• 10th Plan Achievements
• Establishment of North East Tourism Development Council

NORTH EAST INDUSTRIAL AND INVESTMENT PROMOTION POLICY, 2007

(GENERAL OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR REGISTRATION OF INDUSTRIAL UNITS AND PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING SUBSIDY CLAIMS UNDERVARIOUS SCHEMES UNDER NEIIPP, 2007)

Extracts

“Subsidy under various subsidy schemes under NEIIPP, 2007 viz. Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme, Central Interest Subsidy Scheme and Comprehensive Insurance Scheme have been devised alognwith necessary checklists to be strictly followed for scrutiny of claims. In addition, general Operational Guidelines have also been evolved which are to be strictly followed by all the State Governments concerned. These have been ‘e-mailed’ to the North Eastern Development Finance Corporation (NEDFi) and may kindly be obtained from them. Specific guidelines have already been provided under the respective subsidy schemes under NEIIPP, 2007”.






Establishment of North East Tourism Development Council Background
In order to understand the perspective of the State Governments of the region on the concept of establishment of the North East Tourism Development Council (NETDC), a meeting was held under the aegis of H.E. Governor of Assam on 3rd September, 2005. Hon'ble Ministers of Tourism of various North Eastern States, senior officials of Tourism Departments and other stakeholders like Banks, Railways, Airlines, Tour Operators and Entrepreneurs attended the meeting. Everyone present accepted in principle the concept of creation of a common institutional platform called the "North East Tourism Development Council" for all the stakeholders of tourism industry. It was considered essential to create a Corpus Fund for the

functioning of the Council through contribution of the North Eastern Council (Rs 1.00 crore), North East Development Financial Corporation Ltd. (Rs 1.00 crore) and the Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India (Rs 8.00 crores).

Objective

The broad objective of the NETDC would be to facilitate development of tourism industry through effective networking of stakeholders, marketing through creation of a common North East Brand. NETDC would function in such a way that (a) NETDC will not infringe upon individual State Govt. jurisdiction, its plan/ programmes, NETDC would rather augment them;

NETDC will not bid for any financial support from the central Govt. out of funds earmarked for the State Govts.; (c) NETDC would be a facilitating body and there will be no involvement in actual infrastructure development.

North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd

North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd. (NEDFi) was incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956, on August 9, 1995 with its registered office at Guwahati, Assam, for the development of industries, infrastructure, animal husbandry, agri-horticulture plantation, medicinal plantation, sericulture plantation, aquaculture, poultry and dairy in the North Eastern states of India.


NEDFi has been promoted by All India Financial Institutions - Industrial Development Bank of India, ICICI Ltd., Industrial Finance Corporation of India, Small Industries Development Bank of India, Insurance Companies - Life Insurance Corporation of India, General Insurance Corporation and its subsidiaries, Investment Company - Unit Trust of India and Bank - State Bank of India.
After the creation of DONER, NEDFi has come under the administrative control of this Ministry. NEDFi is the premier financial and development institution of the North East of India. The main objects to be pursued by NEDFi as per its Memorandum of Association is :

To carry on and transact the business of providing credit and other facilities for promotion, expansion and modernisation of industrial enterprises and infrastructure projects in

the North Eastern Region of India, also carry on and transact business of providing credit and other facilities for promotion of agri-horticulture plantation, medicinal plantation, sericulture plantation, aquaculture, poultry, dairy and animal husbandry development in order to initiate large involvement of rural population in the economic upsurge of the society and faster economic growth of different parts of the North Eastern region.

NEDFi with its Products and Services aims to be a dynamic and responsive organization catalyzing the economic development of the Northeast of India.

Government of Arunachal Pradesh Schemes

The state government will provide the counterpart funds for the development of the tourism sector and its projects from the state budget and also seek support of the Planning Commission during the finalization of the plans

Banks

The banks, including national, regional and cooperative will form the backbone for the development of the tourism sector and its projects. All projects will require operational funds in form of Working Capital and this has to come from the banks.

It is suggested that we form Strategic Partnership with banks to finance projects in specific regions and/or finance specific region and projects therein. These projects could be of a replicable nature and reduce the effort of evaluating each and every project. The Entrepreneur will only be selected based upon the selection criteria. Credit Guarantee Corporation could also be a Strategic Partner in such cases to provide enhanced comfort to the lending banks.
Banks, by participating in the tourism development plan and funding the projects there under, would also be able to reduce their gap Credit /deposit ratio, priority sector lending targets and also their community responsibility of financing projects in areas from where they collect their deposits.

Financial Institutions

Infrastructure lending Institutions like IL&FS,IDFC and others could be brought in as Strategic partners. However we will need to consolidate the projects under a Program to make

them viable in size for these organizations to participate in the funding of the projects across the state.

Institutional Investors-PE funds etc

We are in an early stage to be able to access these investors but in the later period of development they will be a strong driver for growth.

Equity

Equity funds will come from the various promoters and investors in individual projects based upon their shareholding.

Investment Workshops

We propose that the state plans for an Investors Workshop, on an annual basis, after the detailed plans are made and land identified for the project. Invite the investors from other state and also from abroad to participate in large tourism projects. It would be essential to prepare pre- feasibility profiles for each project to be discussed at such events. Lead promoter from the state would also need to be identified to act as the start up partner with the investors from outside.


MINISTRY OF TOURISM- Extracts of Specific Schemes

Ministry of Tourism has been implementing the following two schemes during the 10th Five Year Plan:

1) Major destinations and circuits development

2) Rural Tourism infrastructure development



1) Major destinations and circuits development

a) Identification - The destination and circuits will be selected on the basis of its tourism potential in consultation with the State Governments. The destination/circuits to be taken up for development will be identified by the Ministry of Tourism at the beginning of each year.

A tourist circuit could be limited to a State or it could be a regional circuit covering more than a State/U.T. The identification of the project, the implementation agency and the mode of channelisation of funds would be done in consultation with the State Government / U.T. Administration.

b) Funding pattern of the project – Ministry of Tourism would bear 100% of the project cost based on the project plan and estimates submitted, excluding the items (given below) which are the exclusive responsibility of the State Governments and should be quantified in the DPR.
i) Making the land available for development
ii) Rehabilitation package
iii) Operation, maintenance and management of the assets created
iv) External infrastructure like water supply, electricity and roads

There may be no ceiling on project cost, Government of India contribution would be capped at Rs.25 crore for destination development and Rs.50 crore for circuit development for identified major destinations and circuits based on tourist traffic. The provisions for preparation of comprehensive DPR for Destinations/Circuits Project will be as follows:

Large Destinations/Circuit Project involving central financial assistance of Rs.25 crore and above will be assisted towards the cost of DPR preparation amounting to 50% of the total cost of DPR preparation or Rs.15 lakh, which is lower. DPR for smaller projects are concerned, the assistance will be limited to 50% of the total cost of DPR preparation or Rs.10 lakh, whichever is lower.

However, the existing ceiling of Rs.5 crore and Rs.8 crore for destination and circuit respectively would continue for other projects. In respect of each large project involving central financial assistance of Rs. 25 crore and above, the Ministry should formalize MOU with State Government and other stakeholders indicating the works to be undertaken by them in physical and financial terms.

Total project should include contribution from State Government and contribution from other stakeholders.

c) Codal formalities – There would not be any compulsion to execute projects through CPWD. The execution of projects would primarily be the responsibility of State Government and

local agencies. However, whenever a project is to be driven by the Central Government, central agencies could be engaged both for project preparation and for implementation with consent of State/U.T. Govt. concerned.

d) Management of assets created – The infrastructure and assets created will be maintained and managed by the State/UT Governments or their agencies with no financial commitment to Government of India. The sustainable maintenance plan for the assets to be created must be built into the project proposal for this purpose.

2) Rural Tourism Infrastructure Development

The scheme of Rural Tourism has been set up to promote village tourism as the primary tourism product to spread tourism and its socio-economic benefits to rural and new geographic regions. The implementation would be done through a Convergence Committee headed by the District Collector. Activities like improving the environment, hygiene, infrastructure etc. would be eligible for assistance. Apart from providing financial assistance the focus would be to tap the resources available under different schemes of Ministry of Rural Development, State Governments and other Ministries / Departments of the Government of India.
a) Identification of villages – Each State / UT Government will furnish proposals for promotion of Rural Tourism. Based on the merits, the proposals would be identified for implementation in the country.
b) Financial Assistance of the project – Rs. 3.00 lakh would be provided to the State Government for engaging an expert for preparing the project report. A maximum of Rs. 50 lakh would be sanctioned under the scheme for hardware activities.
c) Codal formalities – The implementing agency shall follow all codal formalities while awarding contracts and procurement and equipments and ensure complete transparency in its transactions. While executing the works the implementing agency shall follow the shedule of rates prescribed by the CPWD or the State PWD or Zila Parishad / Panchayat or DRDA or Rural Engineering Department. However, if there is any item of work to be undertaken does not have rates prescribed by any one of the above mentioned agencies then the District Collector could certify the reasonableness of the rates.
d) Management of assets created: The infrastructure and assets created will be maintained and managed by the State / UT Governments or their agencies with no financial commitment to Government of India. The sustainable plan for the assets to be created must be built into the project proposal for this purpose.

Resource Mobilization-Private Sector

The private sector projects will have access to the programs and lending schemes of the Financial Institutions and the Banks as they are also on the search for bankable projects to invest their funds.

The projects identified and listed below are need based and expected to meet the basic lending norms of DSCR and IRR for economic viability and risk management.

The Tourism Policy of the state should include tourism as an “Industry” to facilitate the lending as better conditions are applicable for lending – both for the lender and the borrower.

Tourism sector has land as a basic input in almost all projects and the location can make or break the project. The Tourism Policy should also facilitate availability of Land at affordable prices and at appropriate locations. Tourists will not go to remote areas if they are in city. A land bank should be identified for various projects to speed up the implementation of the projects required to be taken up by the private sector to augment the tourism infrastructure in the state.


Project
Total
Rs. Crores
Equity
Rs. Crores
Debt
Rs. Crores
Remarks
Hotels etc 135 68 67
Transport 18 4 14
Food &Beverages
16
8
8
Adventure Tourism 11 6 5

Total
180
86
94
Banks & FIs


Resource Mobilization - Human Resource Development Entrepreneurship Development
Development of a vibrant private sector would require the development of
“Entrepreneurship” and social acceptance of the Entrepreneur in an environment where “Job Seeking” is a way of life and a stable job – mostly government or its agencies –commands the highest respect in the community.

Entrepreneurship Development would need to be started on a war footing as the ability of the government and its agencies to provide jobs is diminishing in the new economic order. This has to begin at the educational institutions and special programs launched at higher education centers to promote entrepreneurship.
Enabling Environment to encourage pro-actively Enterprise Creation has to be part of the state development plans. This will also address the difficult issue of unemployment, migration to urban areas and migration out of the state in search of the employment and long term demographic destabilization as a result thereof.

Skills Development & Employability

The emerging needs of the jobs would require job specific skill set with the employees. To meet the specific need of the Hospitality sector based upon the Tourism Development plan

we are proposing a skills development plan for 10000 trainees to be covered in the next 5 years.
Our skills development plan would also facilitate associated


sectors of job creation like, retail, healthcare, etc and would provide an opportunity for the youth to pursue a rewarding career in the state rather than migrate as is happening on a large scale at present. The education system would also need to realize the changing economic scenario and incorporate at some stage the skills development program to enhance employability of the educated youth.
Managerial Capability

The success of any Program or Projects there under depends upon the managerial capability of the organization. Global records show 50% failures of enterprise are because of basically poor:
• Managerial capabilities to manage resources at their disposal,
• Ability to see emerging trends and plan for the future
• Capacity to create an effective organizational structure and succession plan

The skills development plan as above would also include the managerial capability development for the implementation and success of the projects under the Tourism Development plan. The availability of good managers locally would also reduce the cost of operations and meet the shortage of good managers across all sectors.
Good managers also are creators of new enterprises and this would lead to the development of private sector, mostly SMEs.

Institutional Capacity-Tourism Department

The most important and urgent need for the success of the Tourism Development Plan is the dedicated and committed staff of the Tourism department and its agencies engaged in the development and implementation of the Plan.
The Skills development plan would include not only the staff of tourism departments etc but also those who interact and support the tourism development infrastructure and enabling environment. This would improve the capability of the Tourism staff to deliver results and manage resources better and effectively.



The Tourism staff should also be exposed to other organizations within India with success records and globally to centers of tourism in similar economic environment to understand the needs and facilities required for higher paying tourist and to set world class benchmarks and build capacity to meet them in a competitive world.
Implementation Plan

Implementation-3 Year Work Plan Why 3 years ?
The Strategic Plan, based upon need analysis and demand gaps, to be relevant efficient and effective needs to be implemented in a time bound manner over a period of 3 years after the preparatory / start up period of 1-2 years depending upon the individual nature of the project. The key features are:
Year 0 Preparatory Period

• Enabling Environment & Tourism Policy
• Approvals & Authorizations for the Strategic Plan
• Organization and Staff in place
• Strategic Partners in place

Year 01 Start & Build Up

• Launch High Priority Projects- State Initiatives
• Facilitate launch of Private Sector Initiatives
Year 02 Mid-Term Review

• Rationalize Plan and Policy
• Growth Mode & Constraints
Year 03 The Road Ahead

• Develop New Strategic Plan for the next period
• Identify New Strategic Partners for the growth





Implementation Mechanism: Management Plan

Individual projects as prioritized, under the Tourism Development Plan, are to be implemented by the State Government and later on disinvested / leased as applicable on case to case basis.
An agency needs to be identified / created immediately, with adequate powers, for implementation of the projects agreed upon under the “Start Up” plan on an emergency & time bound basis and thereafter follow up plans on an annual basis.

In the Interim period, It is suggested that a Project Director be appointed with 3 Project Managers, each assigned and directly responsible to the Project Director for the implementation of the 3 components listed hereunder:

A. Multi Agency Coordination

a. Government Departments,
b. Strategic Partners
c. Resource Mobilization

B. Development Initiatives- non revenue generators

a. Brand Development
b. Information & Facilitation centers

C. Tourism Infrastructure- revenue generators

a. Wayside Amenities
b. City Centers
c. Inns
d. Rural Tourism & Home Stay
e. Adventure Tourism etc

Implementation Plan: Organisation Recommendations

New Structure

It is recommended that a new “Tourism Development Corporation” be incorporated as an independent enterprise to enable the State Government implement its tourism development plan and facilitate development of:

• Public- Private-Community Partnerships
• Participate in “Special Purpose Vehicles” (SPV) to be created for individual / homogenous group of projects
• Lease of existing tourism assets for the development of tourism
• Resource mobilization from Financial institutions etc
• Design, Development , implementation and maintenance of tourism assets

Engineering wing

The Tourism Infrastructure will require a dedicated Engineering Wing for design, development, implementation and maintenance of the tourism projects in line with the needs for tourism infrastructure which is different from the normal construction activities.

This should be established at the earliest for the implementation of the proposed projects and taking over the ongoing projects for synergy and effectiveness.

Human Resource

A cadre of dedicated and young executives who are tourist friendly needs to be created for the development of tourism in the state. This cadre is to be trained and benchmarked with the best in the country. The existing staff also needs to be trained outside the state to appreciate the needs of the tourists and methods of delivery. It is also recommended that the average age of the employees be below 40 years as the nature of tourism development involves extensive travel etc and a “Will Do” attitude.

Implementation Time frame

Each project identified has to have the time frame for implementation as indicated hereunder:

A. Preparatory time – 3 months

a. Location & Land Allocation/Purchase
b. Project Report
c. Project partners
d. Project in principle clearances from specified agencies
e. Project Funding / Sanctions



B. Execution- 6-9 months

a. Project Manager
b. Tender
c. Contract Finalization
d. Construction
e. Fittings & Furnishing

C. Operations- 3 months

a. Operational Staff in place
b. O & M Systems in place
c. Trial Runs
d. Commercial Launch

It is expected that an effective and efficient implementation agency would be able be bring all projects in operational mode within 12-15 months from the date of individual project launch. To be able to do this the peripheral support has to be in place and no holdups due to midway reviews / change of plans and priorities. The operational team should be in place at least 2-3 months before the trail run schedule and be involved and familiar with the final completion of the construction and fitment of the project.

Sustainability

World Tourism Organization defines as:

“…Development [that] meets the needs of the present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing the opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled, while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems."

Sustainable tourism is only viable in the long-term if it balances the ecological, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism. It is a continuous process that requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, strong political leadership, and the ongoing monitoring of ecological, socio-cultural, and economic impacts (WTO, 2004).

Arunachal Pradesh Tourism Development Plan

Initiatives proposed will be designed and implemented with appropriate technology, skills development and management for:
Economic Sustainability
• Meet the norms for funding by the financial sector and
• Comply with good governance practices
Social Sustainability
• Participation of the local community and direct benefits to the community and the youth employment and income generating opportunities
• Social workers are integral part of the project design for rural tourism and home stays to ensure no negative side effects of tourism are created

Environment Sustainability
• Projects to be designed with local materials and green technology usage
• Pollution Control and Waste Management practices in place on operation.

Cost Recovery

The Strategic Initiatives in form of Growth Driver Projects are based upon:

• Lending norms for IRR and DSCR to allow access to funds from banks and financial institutions
• Create opportunity for Public-Private-Partnership models to be created.
• Grant component is only for skills development training for enhanced employability and meeting the needs of skilled human resource for the tourism sector

Risk Management

The Tourism Development Plan success will depend upon managing the following:

Structural Risks

• Tourism Development Policy to be pro-active and play the vital role of a facilitator beyond the normal role of a regulator.

• Government of India special encouragement for the North East States for LTC needs to be continued for at least another 5 years if not 10 years to build the nascent tourism in the region. The growth in the domestic tourism in this region is a direct impact of the LTC scheme and it needs to be supported.

• Encourage investors and do away with procedural hassles which are the biggest hurdle today in getting investors and investments.

• Structural changes are required for managing TOURIST arrival and the risk factors of infrastructure, connectivity, medical aid &evacuation etc need both lead time and funds.

Operational Risks

• Attitude of the state towards the TOURIST has to be positive , the tourism industry should be recognized as the key driver for inclusive growth in the state and reflected in allocation of funds for the tourism sector in the development plans for the state.

• Security perceptions of the tourist need to be addressed by “Brand Build Up” across the country.

• Good planning will reduce and/or eliminate the risk factors to enhance the quality of experience of the tourist.

• Mandatory training and certification of all the service providers in the tourism sector- transport, accommodation, Food & beverage, guides etc.

• Specify and enforce safety guidelines for all tourist activities

Chapter –IX

Key Achievements


Key Achievements - Employment Generation

The projects required to meet the needs of 100,000 tourists over the strategic plan period will provide an opportunity to create nearly 13,000 jobs, at various skill levels in the local area of the projects as listed below:



Project Type Direct Total
City Centers 820 1640
Wayside Amenities 550 1100
Inns/Guest houses 126 252
Rural Tourism 440 880
Adventure Trekking 600 1200
Adventure-White Water 250 500
Pilot Projects 450 900
Centre of Excellence 100 200
Hotels 2000 4000
Transport-Tourists 340 680
Food & Beverage 700 1400
Total 6376 12752

Key Achievements- Direct – Tangible

Targeted Tourism:

Tourist with higher disposable income-

Better facilities for the tourists will encourage higher income strata of the society to plan and visit the state as it will be in line with the minimum / expected standards of this class of tourist.

MICE Destination Development-

Better and adequate facilities will encourage the corporate sector to hold their meetings, conventions and exhibitions in the state. This segment is in the higher paying and regular long term planning is involved. This can also balance peak load capacity of the tourism infrastructure

Week End and Same Day Tourism-

A well planned strategy to reach out to this segment of tourist would be in the interest of tourism promotion and income transfer to the state. A good facility within 2-4 hours of driving time is needed to encourage same day tourism. The infrastructure investments are lower and higher revenues per unit investment are realized from this class of tourist.

Package Tours -“Door to Door”

In order to promote tourism and have an effective utilization plan for the tourism infrastructure we recommend special effort to promote package tours. This would take away the uncertainty in the planning process of the tourist and ensure reliability and credibility. The state government should register/ accredit the tour operators based upon their market standing. The bigger tour operators should be sought as strategic partners to help build brand equity for the state. Package tours to also start from gateways to the state besides other start points in India.

Special attention to be paid to the airline and the railways to develop tour packages jointly and also benefit from the Government of India’s schemes for LTC for the North Eastern states.

Growth Rate in Tourists – 15 % CAGR

Good Infrastructure will help achieve the planned growth rate of 15% in the tourist arrivals. This will assist in increasing the tourism income, better utilization for the investment and reduced seasonality impact.

Opportunity for Spend Increase-10% CAGR

Destination and wayside facilities including access to local arts and crafts etc will provide the tourist an opportunity to spend more time and money. The tourist would also be engaged with evening activities of cultural performances, crafts bazaar etc for better experience and in turn spend more. We have taken a very modest target of 10% increase in spend of the tourist whereas the disposable income of the middle class has gone up by approximately 14%. This is a proxy of the buying power with the tourist.

Skills Development & Employability- 10000 people

The skills development program along with the expansion of the tourism sector, both demand driven, will create opportunity to absorb and sustain our skills development program targeted for 10000 people every 5 years. It is also expected that an increase of 100000 tourists will absorb all of them.

Creation of “Tourist City Centers”

Our plan proposes to set up Tourist City Centers which will become the lifeline for the tourists across the state over time. They would also be the center of activity for the residents and thus facilitate better and deeper interaction with the tourists, thus enriching their lives and also creating the realization of the importance of tourism for their economy and well being and creating ownership and participation in the tourism development initiatives

Key Achievements- Direct - Intangible

Private Sector Participation

The tourism development plan will create new opportunities for the participation of the private sector and assisted by the enabling policy of the government it will open opportunities for development of local entrepreneurship and small and medium

enterprises which are expected to form the backbone of the tourism infrastructure for both goods and services.

Public-Private-Community Partnership

The local area development strategies for regional development, community participation and ownership for the success of the project along with the design of the project on economically sustainable basis will create an opportunity for the extended partnership of the Public, Private and the Community and open new avenues for investments.

Brand Development

The state will need to launch a campaign for the creation of a positive image of the State and project it as a secure, credible and reliable tourism destination. The campaign should also create high recall for the promotion of tourism.

The development of tourism will facilitate creating a brand for the state and encourage investments in the state for its all-round economic development. The state has below normal investment in the manufacturing sector and thus limited capacity for job creation at all skill levels

Key Achievements – Indirect

Retail Sector

The increased volume of tourist traffic will also facilitate the growth in the retail sector by meeting the demands of the tourist. The skills developed in the retail sector will also support the tourists and give them a pleasant experience during their stay

Better quality goods and services required by the tourists also encourages corporate to provide access to new products and at competitive prices to the local retailers and this in turn benefits the local community

Crafts and Heritage products

The tourists buy small gifts for friends and relatives and at the very least some souvenirs’ for themselves. This promotes the sale of local art and craft products and not only creates jobs and income but also facilitates revival and sustainability of local heritage.

Better transport facilities

In order to meet the needs of the tourist’s better transport services, not only in terms of quality of vehicles but also improved quality of service will also be available to the community.

Better restaurants for the community

Tourism creates demand for all type of cuisine and trained cooks provide better quality of food. Local cuisine also gets promoted and ingredients are easily available. Eating out opportunities improve the quality of family life and is also part of family entertainment and bonding.

City Center a meeting point for the locals

The new initiative of “Tourist City Center” will provide a focal point for meeting all the needs of the tourist. It will also facilitate the lives of the local residents with the facilities of TR Shops and Craft shops.

In smaller towns it will become the center of all activities for the town and create a lively environment for the tourists to enjoy and benefit from the local community in understanding their culture and custom.

The facility for performing arts will give the tourists an opportunity to engage themselves in the evening and understand the richness of the local culture.

Improved quality of life in the local area

The improved infrastructure and services in the area will improve the quality of life for the residents. Employment and income generation opportunities will also benefit the youth, the most vulnerable section of the society

Community Ownership- Facilitate the Tourist

The sustained involvement of the local community in the development and operation of the projects and its beneficial impact on their lives will create a sense of ownership and belonging for the residents. This will not only facilitate the tourists but also ensure both economic and social sustainability of the projects in the area.

Annexure ‘A’

WORK AGREEMENT

Agreement made on ……………………………..BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA acting through Secretary (Tourism) hereinafter called ‘THE GOVERNMENT’ of the one part and Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) 71, Lodhi Estate, New Delhi (Registered under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 (No. S/14219)) hereinafter called ‘INTACH’ (which expression shall, unless excluded by or repugnant to the context or meaning thereof, be deemed to include its successors and permitted assigns) of the other part.

WHEREAS the Government has taken a decision to “Prepare the Tourism Development Plan for the States of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh”.

AND WHEREAS, INTACH has represented to the Government that they are competent to handle such a project efficiently, as they have the necessary expertise.

AND WHEREAS, on such representation, the Government has agreed to appoint INTACH and INTACH has agreed to act as an agent of the Government for the project on the terms and conditions set out hereunder.

NOW THIS DEED WITNEESES that in consideration of the amounts to be paid by the Government in the manner as mentioned in clause (1), it is agreed by and between the parties as follows:

(1) For satisfactory services to be rendered by INTACH to the Government, the Government shall pay to INTACH a total sum of Rs.40,00,000/- (Rupees forty lacs only). The payment of the said amount will be made in 3 installments as follows:

(i) Rs.12,00,000/- (30% of the cost) as advance on assignment of work and signing of Work Agreement and submission of Account Payee Demand Draft of equivalent amount by the Consultant.
(ii) Rs.20,00,000/- (50% of the cost) on submission of the draft report and its acceptance.
(iii) Rs.8,00,000/- (20% of the cost) on submission of final report and its acceptance by the respective State Governments.

(2) INTACH shall act as Consultant of the Government with effect from
……………………………..with full power and authority to complete the project. INTACH is hereby fully authorized to do and perform all such lawful acts, deeds and things as deemed necessary and expedient for the purpose aforesaid.
(3) The scope of work of the project undertaken by INTACH shall be as under:
i) Separate Tourism Development Plan will be prepared for the State of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh.
ii) The Tourism Development Plan will focus on opportunities (natural and manmade) participation (community and tourists) and sustainability (economic and environment) and take into account:-

a) Tribal culture – traditional festivals and performing arts
b) Palaces and temples and other important old buildings
c) Natural precincts, like, wild life sanctuaries
d) Buddhist culture
e) Traditional Crafts
f) Museums – Government and privately owned reserved areas which promote tribal villages
g) Local knowledge which needs to be spread out for the benefits of local community and others
iii) Experts would be deputed to visit two States to determine heritage sites and precinct, formation of tourism circuit, listing of intangible heritage and taking up some villages for their development so that they become tourism friendly and visitors are able to have a useful experience.
iv) Input of Tourism Departments of two States would be taken for the Plan.
(4) INTACH will not enter into sub-contract with any other agency/party to conduct investigations for the purpose of this project.

(5) The Government will exercise control by supervising the conduct of the project and will examine the final report as to same being as per the task entrusted and being done in a professional manner before releasing the final installment. The project shall be completed within 8 months from the date of receipt of the first installment of the project or after signing of work agreement.

(6) INTACH shall ensure effective supervision of the fieldwork during the entire period of the project in consultation with the officers of Ministry of Tourism. However, the responsibility for conducting the project as also for the findings and conclusions shall rest on INTACH.

(7) The Ministry of Tourism shall extend necessary assistance for getting cooperation of Indian tourism offices and other stakeholders including State Tourism Departments and shall also provide letters requesting them to provide information.

(8) INTACH shall be fully responsible for the project. On completion of field work, the INTACH will submit 5 copies of the draft report to the Ministry of Tourism, 10 copies of the Final Report will be submitted within 15 days of receipt of comments on draft report. The Final Report will also be submitted in soft copy in CD in word and pdf format.

(9) INTACH shall apply for extension of time giving full justification if due to any unforeseen circumstances the project cannot be completed within stipulated period. The Government would have the sole discretion to allow such an extension.

(10) INTACH will not be entitled to publish the report or any part thereof without the clearance from the Government.

(11) The settlement of the final installment of the bill shall be done after the report has been found satisfactory by the respective State Governments.

(12) If Ministry of Tourism is of the opinion that the project is not being conducted properly, it will issue directives from time to time for ensuring that the project yields meaningful results. If the work of the consultant is not found satisfactory or if there is a delay in submission of

the deliverables, an amount, to be decided by the competent authority in Ministry of Tourism, will be deducted from the consultancy fee.

(13) Termination of contract

Ministry of Tourism may at its sole discretion, stop the project at any time if, in its opinion, the project is not being conducted on prescribed lines or it is unlikely to yield fruitful results. If the Government of India for any reasons were to come to the conclusion that the project should be discontinued, Ministry of Tourism may issue directive to that effect. In case of premature termination of the contract by the Government, Secretary (Tourism) may, at his sole discretion, decide whether INTACH have to refund the amount already paid to them or they are entitled to any remuneration upto the effective date of termination of contract, irrespective of Schedule of payment and of the cost/liabilities incurred on all the works completed in progress till such date.

(14) Force Majeure

(14) War, invasion, revolution, riots, sabotage, lock-outs, strikes, work shut-downs imposed by Government, Acts of legislature or other authorities, stoppage in supply of material fuel or electricity, break-down of machinery, acts of God, epidemics, fires, earthquakes, floods, explosions, accidents, sea navigation blockage, or any other acts or events, whatsoever which are beyond reasonable control of INTACH and which shall directly or indirectly prevent completion of the project within the time specified in the Agreement, will be considered Force Majeure. INTACH shall be granted necessary extension to cover the delay caused by Force Majeure without any financial repercussions.

(15) Arbitration

(a) In the event of any question or dispute or differences arising between parties with regard to interpretation of work, rights, liabilities or duties arising out of this Contract, except those where the decision of the Secretary (Tourism) is final, Secretary (Tourism) will nominate a sole Arbitrator in consultation with INTACH for adjudicating the dispute (s). There will be no objection that such Arbitrator is a Government servant, that he has to deal with the matters to which the Contract relates, he has expressed views on all or any of the matter in dispute or difference. The award of the Arbitrator shall be final and binding on the parties to this contract.

(b) The Arbitrator shall have his seat principally in New Delhi or at such other place as may be decided upon by the Arbitrator. The decision of the Arbitrator shall be final and binding on the parties.

(c) Each party shall bear its own cost of preparing and presenting its case before the arbitrator. The cost of arbitration (including the fees and expenses of the Arbitrator) shall be shared equally by the parites unless the award provided otherwise, the parties shall continue to perform their obligations under this contract during the arbitration proceedings provided that no payment due or payable by the parties shall be withheld or delayed unless such payment form the direct part of the subject matter of the Arbitration proceedings.

(d) The Arbitrator may from time to time with the consent of the parties enlarge the time for making the award. In the event the Arbitrator resigns or becomes incapable to act, the Government shall be entitled to appoint another in place of the outgoing Arbitrator and

arbitration proceedings shall continue without recommencement as if such Arbitrator had been originally nominated.

(e) The arbitration proceedings shall be in accordance with the Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 and the Rules thereunder and any statutory modifications thereof for the time being in force shall be deemed to apply to the arbitration proceedings under the clause.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have set and subscribed their respective hands the day, month and year first above mentioned.

Signed by:


(A.K. Gupta)
Jt. Director (Gen.)
Ministry of Tourism, Government of India


(Yogendra Narain)
Member Secretary, INTACH, New Delhi In the presence of :

1.


2.

Annexure ‘B’


Outline for Development of Tourism Plan for Arunachal Pradesh


The Tourism Plan aims to enhance the tourism potential in the State while also improving the socio-economic standards of the people. It would be based on the tangible and intangible heritage of the State and it would aim to minimise the adverse impact of tourism on the fragile environmental and cultural heritage of the State. The remit of the Tourism Plan for Arunachal Pradesh will include a study of the current status of tourism in the State, the tourism potential, understanding from the past initiatives & lessons learnt and the their impact as well as emerging tourism trends and needs. Our plan would also scan the architectural, archaeological, natural environments and the tribal culture of the State, their customs, art and beliefs.

Arunachal Pradesh covers an area of 84,000 sq km and comprises of 20 tribes divided into 70 sub tribes. Arunachal Pradesh offers a wide range of opportunities for tourists ranging from cultural discovery to mountaineering, trekking and experiencing the nature which remains largely unexplored. Currently, the Northeast region receives only 1% of the total tourist arrival in India. Arunachal Pradesh received 80137 Indian tourists and 607 foreign tourists, in 2007, which was the double of what was in 2004. Only 0.02% of the Indian tourists and 0.01% of the foreign tourists organise a trip in this remote part (sources: Department of Tourism Government of India Tourism Statistics).

The Tourism Development Plan will focus on opportunities (natural and manmade) participation (community and tourists) and sustainability (economic and environment) and take into account:
• Tribal culture-traditional festivals and performing arts
• Palaces and temples and other important old buildings
• Natural precincts, like wild like sanctuaries
• Buddhist culture
• Traditional crafts
• Museums- government and privately owned reserved areas which promote tribal villages
• Local knowledge which needs to be spread out for the benefits of the local community and others

We propose to develop a tourism plan based on:

• Nature: nature walks, nature fauna and flora trails
• Wildlife tourism: wild life sanctuaries, forest walk.
• Adventure travel: rafting, trekking, alpinism, bungee jumping, climbing, camping.
• Culture tourism: making visitors aware of the tribal culture and understand their way of living through discovering their craft, history and believes. Cultural tourism should not be intrusive in the lifestyle of the tribes.
• Leisure tourism: river cruise, luxury resorts

Existing features and component of the State would be looked into:

o State profile (economical, social) and background (history).
o Geographic components and available period for visits considering the weather constraint of the different areas (monsoon period, snow, etc.).
o Demographic details of the population of Arunachal Pradesh.

A few tourist circuits have already been identified and are popular amongst tourists. We would as a “Tourism plan approach” build upon the existing circuits and identify & develop new circuits to cater to the needs of the target audience. To gain in efficiency and effectiveness it is essential for both conceptualising of the plan and later to implement it, to work with the local population and involve them in the decision process. We would also look at hiring staff for process facilitation and local NGO for social mobilization and skill development. The plan would also look at convergence of tourism plan with state priorities.

The target tourist profile and number would be determined at the onset of the plan. The plan would identify the different project partners and stakeholders involved in the tourism activities. The impact of alternate tourist destinations in the region and the neighbouring countries would be taken into account; the two key factors would be time and expense to get to these destinations.

• Identification of areas and resources for Tourism Product Development
o Identification of tangible heritage like natural parks, archaeological sites and important monuments like monasteries and temples.
o Identification of intangible heritage like music, dance, festivals, food, crafts, weavings, etc
o Identify existing and potential trails linking the built heritage sites, natural heritage sites and tribal villages.

Along these sites and circuits chosen, the following would be studied to identify the potential and the constraints for developing tourism:

• Access and connectivity :
o Study of the access to the state and different sites within the state: railway station, airport, road conditions, frequency and quality of public transport and making recommendations for any improvements required to get into the State and reach the destination.
o Review the condition of connectivity between tourist’s attractions and along the identified routes
o Review the logistic strategies offered by different travel agencies.
o Identify condition of traffic, pedestrian areas, park and ride facilities, traffic routing.
o Suggestions would be made if improvements are required for further development of the areas.

• Infrastructure study : Accommodation, Restaurants and Facilities:
o Assessing the number and standard of accommodation and restaurants that are currently available. Detailed concerning the number of visits, their provenance and prices strategy used by the owner of the guest house/hotels.
o Study of home-stays possibility through contact with the local community.
o Study of amenities (drinking water, sanitation, benches) and signages along the roads.

• Tourist Information:
o Study of the information available for the tourists e.g. tourist reception, information centre and interpretation centre to get information on accommodation, day trips, treks, bus timings, and also about the heritage and significance of town and the availability of guides.
o Survey is needed to get information about the available marketing and communication strategies like booklet, available information on websites. Marketing strategy should be developed to ensure regular flow of tourists.
o Suggestion of ways of establishing linkages with national and international trekking agencies and tour operators.
o Evaluate the soft skills of the people involved in the information process (front desk, agencies, hotel).Suggestions could be made for further improvement.

• Tourist Activities:
o existing activities for the tourists like boating, rafting, trekking, forest walks, sight seeing
o tourist profile (length of stay, provenance, budget, purpose of visit, interests, etc). Identification of the target group.
o Identification of the gaps and the needs of the tourists that haven’t been satisfied during their stays for improvement proposal.
o Attitude and acceptance of tourism by host population and other stakeholders.
o Analyse the involvement of the locals in the different activities and their benefits.
o Listing of the local handicrafts and promote it through development of design and new products, keeping the traditional style of the tribes.
o Increasing buying opportunities with well organised shopping centralised places grouping local craft from different villages in one place.

The Tourism Plan will outline:

• Projects- scope of activities
• Project size- tentative outputs
• Implementation schedule
• Project partners and their roles
• Project management
• Resources required
• Sustainability and cost recovery
• Resource mobilization


The Tourism Plan will also facilitate the preparation of:

• Guidelines to Assess economic viability for each activity we are proposing
• Funding of the various projects suggested in the plan.
• Carrying capacity of various sites in line with the recommendations of various agencies
• Capacity building of the local community so that projects like home-stays, training of guides, craft workshops can be suggested
• Entrepreneurship Development for the beneficial participation of the local community in economic opportunities and employment generation
• Sustainability and preservation of natural and cultural heritage.
• Risk factors for success of the plan and risk mitigation approaches.

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